Howard Zimmerman

Howard E. Zimmerman aka Z (July 5, 1926 – February 12, 2012) was a professor of chemistry at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.[3] He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1980[4] and the recipient of the 1986 American Institute of Chemists Chemical Pioneer Award.[5][6]

Howard Zimmerman
HEZ Picture
BornJuly 5, 1926
DiedFebruary 12, 2012 (aged 85)
Alma materYale University
OccupationProfessor of chemistry,
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Websitechem.wisc.edu

Biography

Howard E. Zimmerman was a native of Connecticut.[7] During World War II he served in the U.S. Armored Corps in Europe where he was a tank gunner. His final rank was technical sergeant.[8] He obtained a B. S. in Chemistry in 1950 and a Ph.D. in 1953 both from Yale University.[8] He was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow with a National Research Council fellowship from 1953 to 1954 working with R. B. Woodward (Harvard).[8] From 1954 to 1960 he was Assistant Professor at Northwestern University.[8] Beginning in 1960 he was Associate Professor and then Professor at the University of Wisconsin,[8] and from 1990 he was Hilldale and A. C. Cope Professor of Chemistry. His publications number over 285 (including 11 chapters). He also contributed to Wikipedia under the name 'Hezimmerman'.

Zimmerman gave ACS Short Courses on organic quantum chemistry and molecular orbital theory. He authored a 1975 textbook entitled Quantum Mechanics for Organic Chemists.[9] Zimmerman was the organizer of the 1972 IUPAC Photochemistry Symposium (Baden-Baden) and of five Pacifichem Symposia – the last being Pacifichem 2010.

Honors

Selected bibliography

  • "The Stereochemistry of the Ketonization Reaction of Enols," Zimmerman, H. E. J. Org. Chem., 1955, 20, 549-557. ISSN 0022-3263
  • "The Stereochemistry of the Ivanov and Reformatsky Reactions. I," Zimmerman, H. E.; Traxler, M. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957, 79, 1920-1923. ISSN 0002-7863
  • "The Photochemical Rearrangement of 4,4-Diphenylcyclohexadienone. Paper I on a General Theory of Photochemical Reactions," Zimmerman, H. E.; Schuster, D. I. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1961, 83, 4486-4487. ISSN 0002-7863
  • "On Molecular Orbital Correlation Diagrams, the Occurrence of Möbius Systems in Cyclization Reactions, and Factors Controlling Ground and Excited State Reactions. I," Zimmerman, H. E. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1966, 88, 1564-1565. ISSN 0002-7863
  • "Photochemical Migratory Aptitudes in Cyclohexenones. Mechanistic and Exploratory Organic Photochemistry. XXIII," Zimmerman, H. E.; Rieke, R. D.; Scheffer, J. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1967, 89, 2033-2047. ISSN 0002-7863
  • "The Di-π-Methane Rearrangement. Interaction of Electronically Excited Vinyl Chromophores. Zimmerman, H. E.; Mariano, P. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1969, 91, 1718-1727. ISSN 0002-7863
  • "The Barrelene to Semibullvalene Transformation. Correlation of Excited State Potential Energy Surfaces With Reactivity. Mechanistic and Exploratory Organic Photochemistry. XLIV," Zimmerman, H. E.; Binkley, R. W.; Givens, R. S.; Sherwin, M. A.; Grunewald, G. L.; J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1969, 91, 3316-3323. ISSN 0002-7863 .
  • "The Möbius-Hückel Concept in Organic Chemistry. Application to Organic Molecules and Reactions," Zimmerman, H. E. Acc. Chem. Res., 1971, 4, 272-280. ISSN 0001-4842
  • "Quantum Mechanics for Organic Chemists," Zimmerman, H. E. Academic Press, New York, 1975. ISBN 0-12-781650-X
  • "Some Theoretical Aspects of Organic Photochemistry," Zimmerman, H. E. Accts. of Chem. Research, 1982, 10, 312-317. ISSN 0001-4842
  • "Kinetic Protonation of Enols, Enolates and Analogs; The Stereochemistry of Ketonization," Zimmerman, H. E.. Accounts of Chem. Res.', 1987, 20, 263-268. ISSN 0001-4842
  • "Regioselectivity of the Birch Reduction", Zimmerman, H. E.; Wang, P. A., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1993, 115, 2205-2216. ISSN 0002-7863
  • "The Meta Effect in Organic Photochemistry; Mechanistic and Exploratory Organic Photochemistry", Zimmerman, H. E., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 8988-8991. ISSN 0002-7863
  • "Synthetic Aspects of the Di-π-methane Rearrangement", Zimmerman, H. E.; Armesto, D. Chem. Revs, 1996, 96, 3065-3112. ISSN 0009-2665
  • "Energy Distribution and Redistribution and Chemical Reactivity. The Generalized Delta Overlap-Density Method for Ground State and Electron Transfer Reactions; A new Quantitative Counterpart of Electron Pushing”, Zimmerman, H. E.; Alabugin, I. V. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 121, 2265-2270 ISSN 0002-7863
  • “Inter and Intramolecular Stereoselective Protonation of Enols”, Zimmerman, H. E.; Wang, P., J. Org. Chem. 2002, 69, 9216-9226. ISSN 0022-3263
  • "Triplet Photochemistry of Vinyl Cyclopropenes; Mechanistic and Exploratory Organic Photochemistry", Zimmerman, H. E., J Org. Chem. 2009, 73, 1247-1251. ISSN 0022-3263.

References

  1. ^ "Obituaries: Zimmerman, Howard E." Madison.com. February 19, 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  2. ^ Tenenbaum, David. "Howard Zimmerman, pioneer in organic chemistry, dies at 85". University of Wisconsin–Madison News. University of Wisconsin–Madison. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  3. ^ "Faculty Info". University of Wisconsin. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
  4. ^ "National Academy of Sciences". Retrieved 2010-04-05.
  5. ^ "Chemical Pioneer Award". American Institute of Chemists. Archived from the original on 2004-01-17. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
  6. ^ Schuster, D. I. (2012), Howard E. Zimmerman (1926–2012). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 51: 5286–5288. doi:10.1002/anie.201202970
  7. ^ "EPA Newsletter" (PDF). European Phocochemistry Association. December 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "IAPS Newsletter" (PDF). 28. Inter American Photochemical Society. 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  9. ^ Zimmerman, Howard E. (1975). Quantum mechanics for organic chemists. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-781650-0. OCLC 1104091.
  10. ^ "Prizes for High Scholarship or Character". Yale University. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  11. ^ "James Flack Norris Award in Physical Organic Chemistry". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  12. ^ a b Awards by Topic, American Chemical Society, retrieved 2010-04-08
  13. ^ Anthony Trozzolo (2006), Pat Green (ed.), "A transient lifetime in photochemistry" (PDF), The Spectrum, 19 (3), ISSN 1044-5536, archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-03-07, retrieved 2010-04-08
  14. ^ a b c d Awards, UW Madison - Department of Chemistry, archived from the original on 2010-03-10, retrieved 2010-04-08

External links

Al Jazeera Investigates

Al Jazeera Investigates is a one-hour current affairs and investigative journalism program that is aired on Al Jazeera English and while in operation Al Jazeera America that focuses on a specific topic per episode through in-depth documentaries.

Aldol reaction

The aldol reaction is a means of forming carbon–carbon bonds in organic chemistry.

Discovered independently by the Russian chemist Alexander Borodin in 1869 and by the French chemist Charles-Adolphe Wurtz in 1872, the reaction combines two carbonyl compounds (the original experiments used aldehydes) to form a new β-hydroxy carbonyl compound. These products are known as aldols, from the aldehyde + alcohol, a structural motif seen in many of the products. Aldol structural units are found in many important molecules, whether naturally occurring or synthetic.

For example, the aldol reaction has been used in the large-scale production of the commodity chemical pentaerythritol

and the synthesis of the heart disease drug Lipitor (atorvastatin, calcium salt).The aldol reaction unites two relatively simple molecules into a more complex one. Increased complexity arises because up to two new stereogenic centers (on the α- and β-carbon of the aldol adduct, marked with asterisks in the scheme below) are formed. Modern methodology is capable of not only allowing aldol reactions to proceed in high yield but also controlling both the relative and absolute configuration of these stereocenters. This ability to selectively synthesize a particular stereoisomer is significant because different stereoisomers can have very different chemical and biological properties.

For example, stereogenic aldol units are especially common in polyketides, a class of molecules found in biological organisms. In nature, polyketides are synthesized by enzymes that effect iterative Claisen condensations. The 1,3-dicarbonyl products of these reactions can then be variously derivatized to produce a wide variety of interesting structures. Often, such derivitization involves the reduction of one of the carbonyl groups, producing the aldol subunit. Some of these structures have potent biological properties: the immunosuppressant FK506, the anti-tumor agent discodermolide, or the antifungal agent amphotericin B, for example. Although the synthesis of many such compounds was once considered nearly impossible, aldol methodology has allowed their efficient synthesis in many cases.

A typical modern aldol addition reaction, shown above, might involve the nucleophilic addition of a ketone enolate to an aldehyde. Once formed, the aldol product can sometimes lose a molecule of water to form an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound. This is called aldol condensation. A variety of nucleophiles may be employed in the aldol reaction, including the enols, enolates, and enol ethers of ketones, aldehydes, and many other carbonyl compounds. The electrophilic partner is usually an aldehyde or ketone (many variations, such as the Mannich reaction, exist). When the nucleophile and electrophile are different, the reaction is called a crossed aldol reaction; on the converse, when the nucleophile and electrophile are the same, the reaction is called an aldol dimerization.

Barrelene

Barrelene is a bicyclic organic compound with chemical formula C8H8 and systematic name bicyclo[2.2.2]octa-2,5,7-triene. First synthesized and described by Howard Zimmerman in 1960, the name derives from the resemblance to a barrel, with the staves being three ethylene units attached to two methine groups. It is the formal Diels–Alder adduct of benzene and acetylene. Due to its unusual molecular geometry, the compound is of considerable interest to theoretical chemists.

Iptycenes, with the alkene groups part of an arenes, are related compounds. It is also a starting material for many other organic compounds, such as semibullvalene.

The original Zimmerman, synthesis modified in 1969, starts from coumalic acid:

Many alternative routes have been devised since then, one of them starting from oxepin:

An alternate route that allows synthesis of the parent barrelene system and a variety of substituted barrelenes has also been reported

Chemical Pioneer Award

The Chemical Pioneer Award, established in 1966, is awarded by the American Institute of Chemists to recognize chemists or chemical engineers who have made outstanding contributions to advances in chemistry or the chemical profession.

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Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:

Name, age, country of citizenship and reason for notability, established cause of death, reference (and language of reference, if not English).

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Season 3 began filming in early 2017 in Calgary, Alberta.

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A prominent series in British popular culture, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy has become an international multi-media phenomenon; the novels are the most widely distributed, having been translated into more than 30 languages by 2005. In 2017, BBC Radio 4 announced a 40th-anniversary celebration with Dirk Maggs, one of the original producers, in charge. This sixth series of the sci-fi spoof has been based on Eoin Colfer's book And Another Thing, with additional unpublished material by Douglas Adams. The first of six new episodes was broadcast on 8 March 2018.The broad narrative of Hitchhiker follows the misadventures of the last surviving man, Arthur Dent, following the demolition of the planet Earth by a Vogon constructor fleet to make way for a hyperspace bypass. Dent is rescued from Earth's destruction by Ford Prefect, a human-like alien writer for the eccentric, electronic travel guide The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, by hitchhiking onto a passing Vogon spacecraft. Following his rescue, Dent explores the galaxy with Prefect and encounters Trillian, another human who had been taken from Earth prior to its destruction by the President of the Galaxy, the two-headed Zaphod Beeblebrox, and the depressed Marvin, the Paranoid Android. Certain narrative details were changed between the various adaptations.

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The company specialized in licensed titles, particularly movie and television series tie-ins, such The X-Files, based on the Fox TV show, and the films Bram Stoker's Dracula and Jurassic Park. It also licensed such literary properties as Zorro, and published a smattering of original series, including Cadillacs and Dinosaurs and several based on concepts by then-retired industry legend Jack Kirby.

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