Howard E. Zimmerman aka Z (July 5, 1926 – February 12, 2012) was a professor of chemistry at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1980 and the recipient of the 1986 American Institute of Chemists Chemical Pioneer Award.
|Born||July 5, 1926|
|Died||February 12, 2012 (aged 85)|
|Alma mater||Yale University|
|Occupation||Professor of chemistry,|
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Howard E. Zimmerman was a native of Connecticut. During World War II he served in the U.S. Armored Corps in Europe where he was a tank gunner. His final rank was technical sergeant. He obtained a B. S. in Chemistry in 1950 and a Ph.D. in 1953 both from Yale University. He was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow with a National Research Council fellowship from 1953 to 1954 working with R. B. Woodward (Harvard). From 1954 to 1960 he was Assistant Professor at Northwestern University. Beginning in 1960 he was Associate Professor and then Professor at the University of Wisconsin, and from 1990 he was Hilldale and A. C. Cope Professor of Chemistry. His publications number over 285 (including 11 chapters). He also contributed to Wikipedia under the name 'Hezimmerman'.
Zimmerman gave ACS Short Courses on organic quantum chemistry and molecular orbital theory. He authored a 1975 textbook entitled Quantum Mechanics for Organic Chemists. Zimmerman was the organizer of the 1972 IUPAC Photochemistry Symposium (Baden-Baden) and of five Pacifichem Symposia – the last being Pacifichem 2010.
Al Jazeera Investigates is a one-hour current affairs and investigative journalism program that is aired on Al Jazeera English and while in operation Al Jazeera America that focuses on a specific topic per episode through in-depth documentaries.Aldol reaction
The aldol reaction is a means of forming carbon–carbon bonds in organic chemistry.
Discovered independently by the Russian chemist Alexander Borodin in 1869 and by the French chemist Charles-Adolphe Wurtz in 1872, the reaction combines two carbonyl compounds (the original experiments used aldehydes) to form a new β-hydroxy carbonyl compound. These products are known as aldols, from the aldehyde + alcohol, a structural motif seen in many of the products. Aldol structural units are found in many important molecules, whether naturally occurring or synthetic.
For example, the aldol reaction has been used in the large-scale production of the commodity chemical pentaerythritol
and the synthesis of the heart disease drug Lipitor (atorvastatin, calcium salt).The aldol reaction unites two relatively simple molecules into a more complex one. Increased complexity arises because up to two new stereogenic centers (on the α- and β-carbon of the aldol adduct, marked with asterisks in the scheme below) are formed. Modern methodology is capable of not only allowing aldol reactions to proceed in high yield but also controlling both the relative and absolute configuration of these stereocenters. This ability to selectively synthesize a particular stereoisomer is significant because different stereoisomers can have very different chemical and biological properties.
For example, stereogenic aldol units are especially common in polyketides, a class of molecules found in biological organisms. In nature, polyketides are synthesized by enzymes that effect iterative Claisen condensations. The 1,3-dicarbonyl products of these reactions can then be variously derivatized to produce a wide variety of interesting structures. Often, such derivitization involves the reduction of one of the carbonyl groups, producing the aldol subunit. Some of these structures have potent biological properties: the immunosuppressant FK506, the anti-tumor agent discodermolide, or the antifungal agent amphotericin B, for example. Although the synthesis of many such compounds was once considered nearly impossible, aldol methodology has allowed their efficient synthesis in many cases.
A typical modern aldol addition reaction, shown above, might involve the nucleophilic addition of a ketone enolate to an aldehyde. Once formed, the aldol product can sometimes lose a molecule of water to form an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound. This is called aldol condensation. A variety of nucleophiles may be employed in the aldol reaction, including the enols, enolates, and enol ethers of ketones, aldehydes, and many other carbonyl compounds. The electrophilic partner is usually an aldehyde or ketone (many variations, such as the Mannich reaction, exist). When the nucleophile and electrophile are different, the reaction is called a crossed aldol reaction; on the converse, when the nucleophile and electrophile are the same, the reaction is called an aldol dimerization.Barrelene
Barrelene is a bicyclic organic compound with chemical formula C8H8 and systematic name bicyclo[2.2.2]octa-2,5,7-triene. First synthesized and described by Howard Zimmerman in 1960, the name derives from the resemblance to a barrel, with the staves being three ethylene units attached to two methine groups. It is the formal Diels–Alder adduct of benzene and acetylene. Due to its unusual molecular geometry, the compound is of considerable interest to theoretical chemists.
Iptycenes, with the alkene groups part of an arenes, are related compounds. It is also a starting material for many other organic compounds, such as semibullvalene.
The original Zimmerman, synthesis modified in 1969, starts from coumalic acid:
Many alternative routes have been devised since then, one of them starting from oxepin:
An alternate route that allows synthesis of the parent barrelene system and a variety of substituted barrelenes has also been reportedChemical Pioneer Award
The Chemical Pioneer Award, established in 1966, is awarded by the American Institute of Chemists to recognize chemists or chemical engineers who have made outstanding contributions to advances in chemistry or the chemical profession.Deaths in February 2012
The following is a list of notable deaths in February 2012.
Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:
Name, age, country of citizenship and reason for notability, established cause of death, reference (and language of reference, if not English).Fargo (season 3)
The third season of Fargo, an American anthology black comedy–crime drama television series created by Noah Hawley, premiered on April 19, 2017, on the basic cable network FX. The season had ten episodes, and its initial airing concluded on June 21, 2017. As an anthology, each Fargo season possesses its own self-contained narrative, following a disparate set of characters in various settings, albeit in a connected shared universe.The third season is set primarily between December 2010 and March 2011, in three Minnesota towns: St. Cloud, Eden Valley, and Eden Prairie, and is the only season to not feature the titular Fargo, North Dakota. It follows the lives of a couple, Ray Stussy (Ewan McGregor) and Nikki Swango (Mary Elizabeth Winstead), who, after unsuccessfully trying to rob Ray's brother Emmit (also played by McGregor), become involved in a double murder case. One of the victims is an old man with a mysterious past whose stepdaughter, Gloria Burgle (Carrie Coon), is a policewoman. Meanwhile, Emmit tries to cut his ties with a shady organization he borrowed money from a year before, but the company, represented by V. M. Varga (David Thewlis) has other plans.Michael Stuhlbarg, Hamish Linklater, Olivia Sandoval, Shea Whigham, Mark Forward, Mary McDonnell, and Scoot McNairy make recurring appearances. Sylvester Groth, Ray Wise, Fred Melamed, Frances Fisher, DJ Qualls and Rob McElhenney guest star.
Season 3 began filming in early 2017 in Calgary, Alberta.Fred Melamed
Fred Melamed (born May 13, 1956) is an American actor, comedian, and writer. He is best known for portraying Sy Ableman in A Serious Man, Bruce Ben-Bacharach in Lady Dynamite, Sam Soto in In a World..., and for appearing in seven films directed by Woody Allen.Gael Baudino
Gael Baudino (born 1955) is a contemporary American fantasy author who also writes under the pseudonyms of Gael Kathryns, Gael A. Kathryns, K.M. Tonso, and G.A. Kathryns. She attended college at the University of Southern California. Sometime before 1994 she converted from Dianic Wicca and became a Quaker.
As Gael Kathryns she contributed several instructional articles about harping to the Folk Harp Journal during the 1990s.Harvey Kurtzman
Harvey Kurtzman (; October 3, 1924 – February 21, 1993) was an American cartoonist and editor. His best-known work includes writing and editing the parodic comic book Mad from 1952 until 1956, and writing the Little Annie Fanny strips in Playboy from 1962 until 1988. His work is noted for its satire and parody of popular culture, social critique, and attention to detail. Kurtzman's working method has been likened to that of an auteur, and he expected those who illustrated his stories to follow his layouts strictly.
Kurtzman began to work on the New Trend line of comic books at EC Comics' in 1950. He wrote and edited the Two-Fisted Tales and Frontline Combat war comic books, where he also drew many of the carefully researched stories, before he created his most-remembered comic book, Mad, in 1952. Kurtzman scripted the stories and had them drawn by top EC cartoonists, most frequently Will Elder, Wally Wood, and Jack Davis; the early Mad was noted for its social critique and parodies of pop culture. The comic book switched to a magazine format in 1955, and Kurtzman left it in 1956 over a dispute with EC's owner William Gaines over financial control. Following his departure, he did a variety of cartooning work, including editing the short-lived Trump and the self-published Humbug. In 1959, he produced the first book-length work of original comics, the adult-oriented, satirical Jungle Book. He edited the low-budget Help! from 1960 to 1965, a humor magazine which featured work by future Monty Python member Terry Gilliam and the earliest work of underground cartoonists such as Robert Crumb and Gilbert Shelton. He brought Help! to an end after the success of the risqué Playboy feature Little Annie Fanny began to take up his time. While Annie Fanny provided much of his income for the rest of his career, he continued to produce an eclectic body of work, including screenwriting the animated Mad Monster Party? in 1967 and directing, writing and designing several shorts for Sesame Street in 1969.
From 1973, Kurtzman taught cartooning at the School of Visual Arts in New York. His work gained greater recognition toward the end of his life, and he oversaw deluxe reprintings of much of his work. The Harvey Award was named in Kurtzman's honor in 1988. He was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1989, and his work earned five positions on The Comics Journal's Top 100 Comics of the 20th Century.Kid Galahad
Kid Galahad is a 1962 American musical film starring Elvis Presley as a boxer. It was released by United Artists. The film opened at #9 at the box office when released in the United States in August 1962. Variety ranked it #37 on the list of the top-grossing films of 1962.
Kid Galahad was shot on location in Idyllwild, California. Its supporting cast included Gig Young, Lola Albright and Charles Bronson. Some critics rate it as one of Elvis Presley's best performances.The film is a remake of the 1937 original version starring Edward G. Robinson, Bette Davis, and Humphrey Bogart and directed by Michael Curtiz, who also directed the Presley 1958 film King Creole.List of Eisner Award winners
The following is a list of winners of the Eisner Award, sorted by category.
No awards were presented in 1990 because the Eisner administration was transferred to San Diego Comic-Con during that year.Michael J. S. Dewar
Michael James Steuart Dewar (24 September 1918 – 10 October 1997) was a theoretical chemist.Starlog
Starlog was a monthly science fiction magazine that was created in 1976 and focused primarily on Star Trek at its inception. Kerry O'Quinn and Norman Jacobs were its creators and it was published by Starlog Group, Inc. in August 1976. Starlog was one of the first publications to report on the development of the first Star Wars movie, and it followed the development of what was to eventually become Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979).
Starlog was born out of the Star Trek fandom craze, but also was inspired by the success of the magazine Cinefantastique which was the model of Star Trek and Star Wars coverage. Starlog, though it called itself a science fiction magazine, actually contained no fiction. The primary focus of the magazine, besides the fact that it was mostly based on Star Trek fandom, was the making of science fiction media - books, films, and television series - and the work that went into these creations. The magazine examined the form of science fiction and used interviews and features with artists and writers as its foundation.Science fiction fans, such as those who follow the television channel SYFY, have voiced that Starlog is the science fiction magazine most responsible for cultivating and exhibiting fanboy culture in America during the magazine’s heyday in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Not only did the magazine cover media, the way it was created, and by whom, but they also attended conventions such as the “Ultimate Fantasy” convention in Houston, Texas in 1982 (which was a legendary flop) and kept fans updated on the current events in their respective sci-fi fandoms. Starlog itself followed the marketing strategy of labeling it “the most popular science fiction magazine in publishing history” which allowed the creators to home in on their fanboy market and use that advertisement strategy to their advantage. In later years many of its long-time contributors had moved on. Nonetheless, it continued to boast genre journalists such as Jean-Marc Lofficier, Will Murray, and Tom Weaver.Starlog ended its run as a digital magazine published by The Brooklyn Company, run by longtime Fangoria President Thomas DeFeo. In April 2009, Starlog officially ended its time in print, moving 33 years of material (374 issues) into the Internet Archive where the issues are still available today in digital form. Though no new issues were created, all the past issues have been uploaded by users and are downloadable in multiple formats.Steven Zimmerman
Professor Steven C. Zimmerman is an organic chemist on the faculty of the Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (sometimes referred to as HG2G, HHGTTG, H2G2, or tHGttG) is a comedy science fiction series created by Douglas Adams. Originally a radio comedy broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in 1978, it was later adapted to other formats, including stage shows, novels, comic books, a 1981 TV series, a 1984 video game, and 2005 feature film.
A prominent series in British popular culture, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy has become an international multi-media phenomenon; the novels are the most widely distributed, having been translated into more than 30 languages by 2005. In 2017, BBC Radio 4 announced a 40th-anniversary celebration with Dirk Maggs, one of the original producers, in charge. This sixth series of the sci-fi spoof has been based on Eoin Colfer's book And Another Thing, with additional unpublished material by Douglas Adams. The first of six new episodes was broadcast on 8 March 2018.The broad narrative of Hitchhiker follows the misadventures of the last surviving man, Arthur Dent, following the demolition of the planet Earth by a Vogon constructor fleet to make way for a hyperspace bypass. Dent is rescued from Earth's destruction by Ford Prefect, a human-like alien writer for the eccentric, electronic travel guide The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, by hitchhiking onto a passing Vogon spacecraft. Following his rescue, Dent explores the galaxy with Prefect and encounters Trillian, another human who had been taken from Earth prior to its destruction by the President of the Galaxy, the two-headed Zaphod Beeblebrox, and the depressed Marvin, the Paranoid Android. Certain narrative details were changed between the various adaptations.The Law of Non-Contradiction
"The Law of Non-Contradiction" is the third episode of the third season of the FX anthology series Fargo, and the twenty-third episode of the series overall. It was directed by series executive producer John Cameron, and written by Matt Wolpert and Ben Nedivi. The title refers to one of the three classic laws of thought in classical logic known as the principle or law of noncontradiction.The episode follows policewoman Gloria Burgle (Carrie Coon) as she comes to Los Angeles to further investigate the mysterious past of her stepfather by researching information about his previous life as science fiction writer Thaddeus Mobley (Thomas Randall Mann). Meanwhile, the viewers also witness Mobley's story back in the 1970s, while following via animation the story of The Planet Wyh, one of his novels. It is the very first Fargo episode to feature only one main character (although Coon's fellow main cast member Ewan McGregor also voices a character in The Planet Wyh), and the first to take place outside of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nevada or Missouri.
"The Law of Non-Contradiction" was first aired on May 3, 2017, and was seen by 1.17 million viewers. It was acclaimed by critics, with some calling it one of the best episodes in the series. Coon's performance, the writing, and the episode's originality and uniqueness within the series were all highly praised, while its various themes and self-aware lack of point were the subject of several analyses.Topps Comics
Topps Comics was a division of Topps Company, Inc. that published comic books from 1993 to 1998, beginning its existence during a short comics-industry boom that attracted many investors and new companies. It was based in New York City, at 254 36th Street, Brooklyn, and at One Whitehall Street, in Manhattan.
The company specialized in licensed titles, particularly movie and television series tie-ins, such The X-Files, based on the Fox TV show, and the films Bram Stoker's Dracula and Jurassic Park. It also licensed such literary properties as Zorro, and published a smattering of original series, including Cadillacs and Dinosaurs and several based on concepts by then-retired industry legend Jack Kirby.