Howard Scott

Howard Scott (April 1, 1890 – January 1, 1970) was an American engineer and founder of the Technocracy movement. He formed the Technical Alliance and Technocracy Incorporated.[1]

Howard Scott at a Technocracy Section house
Howard Scott in front of Technocracy Inc. Section house RD-11833-2 SHQ in 1942.

Early life

Little is known about Scott's background or his early life and he has been described as a "mysterious young man".[2] He was born in Virginia in 1890 and was of Scottish-Irish descent. He claimed to have been educated in Europe, but his training did not include any formal higher education.[2]

In 1918, shortly before the end of WWI, Scott appeared in New York City. Scott worked in various construction camps, where he picked up on-the-job engineering experience, and in 1918 was working in a cement pouring gang at Muscle Shoals.[2][3] Following this, Scott established himself in Greenwich Village as "a kind of Bohemian engineer".[2] Scott also ran a small business called Duron Chemical Company which made paint and floor polish at Pompton Lakes, New Jersey. Scott's job was to deliver his goods and show his customers how to use the floor polishing material.[2][3]


At the end of World War I, Howard Scott helped to form the Technical Alliance which explored economic and social trends in North America; the Technical Alliance disbanded in 1921.[4] In 1920, the Industrial Workers of the World hired Scott as a research director.[2]

Scott, together with Walter Rautenstrauch formed the Committee on Technocracy in 1932, which advocated a more rational and productive society headed by technical experts. The Committee disbanded in January 1933, after only a few months, largely because of different views held by Scott and Rautenstrauch as well as widespread criticism of Scott.[4][5] Scott had "overstated his academic credentials",[6] and he was discovered not to be a "distinguished engineer".[2][7]

On January 13, 1933, Scott gave a speech about technocracy at New York's Hotel Pierre, before a live audience of 400, which was also broadcast on radio nationwide.[2][8][9] The speech was subsequently called a "grave mistake",[8] "disastrous",[9][10] and "a complete failure".[2] Scott had no experience or training as a public speaker.[11]

Genesis of the technocratic movement

M. King Hubbert joined the staff of Columbia University in 1931 and met Howard Scott. Hubbert and Scott co-founded Technocracy Incorporated in 1933, with Scott as leader and Hubbert as secretary.[12] Scott remained as the chief engineer of Technocracy Incorporated until his death in 1970.[2] Scott "argued indefatigably that scientific analysis of industrial production would show the path to lasting efficiency and unprecedented abundance".[13] Scott gained many supporters within the movement. M. King Hubbert, for example, considered Scott extremely knowledgeable in physics. There was some discontent with Scott's leadership during WWII and a number of technocrats broke away from Technocracy Inc. and established their own breakaway organisation which only lasted for about a year.[14]

Radical reform

Technocracy Inc. formed in 1931 to promote the ideas of Howard Scott. Scott saw government and industry as wasteful and unfair and believed that an economy run by engineers would be efficient and equitable. He called for the "price system" and fiat currencies to be replaced with a system based on how much energy it takes to produce specific goods. Scott called for engineers to run a continental government, which he termed a technate, to "optimize the use of energy to assure abundance." Virtually unknown today, the organization boasted over half a million members in California alone at its peak in the 1930s and 1940s.[15]


  1. ^ Peter J. Taylor (1988). "Technocratic optimism, H. T. Odum, and the partial transformation of ecological metaphor after World War II". Journal of the History of Biology. 21 (2): 213–244. doi:10.1007/BF00146987.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j William E. Akin (1977). Technocracy and the American Dream: The Technocrat Movement 1900-1941, University of California Press, pp. 28-29.
  3. ^ a b "Science: Technocrat". 26 December 1932.
  4. ^ a b Beverly H. Burris (1993). Technocracy at work. State University of New York Press. pp. 28–30. ISBN 9780791414958.
  5. ^ "Book review: Technocracy and the American Dream". History of Political Economy. 10 (4): 682. 1978.
  6. ^ David E. Nye (1992). Electrifying America: social meanings of a new technology, 1880-1940. p. 344. ISBN 9780262640305.
  7. ^ Layton, Edwin T. (April 1968). "Book review: The Technocrats, Prophets of Automation". Technology and Culture. 9, No. 2 (2): 256–259. JSTOR 3102180.
  8. ^ a b Baker, Kevin (April 2000). "The Engineered Society". American Heritage Magazine.
  9. ^ a b Howard P. Segal (2005). Technological Utopianism in American Culture. Syracuse University Press. p. 123. ISBN 9780815630616.
  10. ^ Harold Loeb; Howard P. Segal (1996). Life in a technocracy: what it might be like. p. xv. ISBN 9780815603801.
  11. ^ Giles Slade (2009). Made to Break: Technology and Obsolescence in America. Harvard University Press. p. 71. ISBN 9780674043756.
  12. ^ "The Oil Drum: Australia/New Zealand - Hubbert: King Of The Technocrats".
  13. ^ Frank Fischer (1990). Technocracy and the Politics of Expertise, Sage Publications, p. 85.
  14. ^ Henry Elsner, jr. (1967). The Technocrats: Prophets of Automation, Syracuse University.
  15. ^ Retrieved June-13-2015

External links

Atari video game burial

The Atari video game burial was a mass burial of unsold video game cartridges, consoles, and computers in a New Mexico landfill site, undertaken by American video game and home computer company Atari, Inc. in 1983. Up until 2014, the goods buried were rumored to be unsold copies of E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, one of the biggest commercial failures in video gaming and often cited as one of, if not, the worst video game ever released, along with the Atari 2600 port of Pac-Man, which was commercially successful but critically maligned.

Since the burial was first reported in the press, there had been doubts as to its veracity and scope, leading to it being frequently dismissed as an urban legend. In either case the event had become a cultural icon and a reminder of the North American video game crash of 1983; it was the end result of a disastrous fiscal year which saw Atari, Inc. sold off by its parent company Warner Communications. Though it was believed that millions of copies of E.T. were disposed of in the landfill, Atari officials later verified the numbers to be around 700,000 cartridges of various titles, including E.T.

In 2014, Fuel Industries, Microsoft, and others worked with the New Mexico government to excavate the site to validate the contents of the landfill as part of a documentary called Atari: Game Over. On April 26, 2014, the excavation revealed discarded games and hardware. Only a small fraction, about 1,300 cartridges, were recovered during the excavation period, with a portion given for curation and the rest auctioned to raise money for a museum to commemorate the burial.

E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (video game)

E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (also referred to as E.T.) is a 1982 adventure video game developed and published by Atari, Inc. for the Atari 2600 video game console. It is based on the film of the same name, and was designed by Howard Scott Warshaw. The objective of the game is to guide the eponymous character through various screens in a cubic world to collect three pieces of an interplanetary telephone that will allow him to contact his home planet.

Warshaw intended the game to be an innovative adaptation of the film, and Atari thought it would achieve high sales figures based on its connection with the film, which was extremely popular throughout the world. Negotiations to secure the rights to make the game ended in late July 1982, giving Warshaw only 5 and a half weeks to develop the game in time for the 1982 Christmas season. The final release was critically panned, with nearly every aspect of the game facing heavy criticism. E.T. is often cited as one of the worst video games of all time and one of the biggest commercial failures in video game history. It is cited as a major contributing factor to the video game industry crash of 1983, and has been frequently referenced and mocked in popular culture as a cautionary tale about the dangers of rushed game development and studio interference.

In what was initially deemed an urban legend, reports from 1983 stated that as a result of overproduction and returns, millions of unsold cartridges were secretly buried in an Alamogordo, New Mexico landfill and covered with a layer of concrete. In April 2014, diggers hired to investigate the claim confirmed that the Alamogordo landfill contained many E.T. cartridges, among other games. James Heller, the former Atari manager who was in charge of the burial, was also at the excavation and admitted to the Associated Press that 728,000 cartridges of various games were buried.

Governor General's Award for French to English translation

This is a list of recipients of the Governor General's Award for French-to-English translation.

Harold Ray Brown

Harold Ray Brown (born March 17, 1946) is a founding member of War, an American funk band in the 1970s and 2000s. Harold had a number of roles over the years, acting as drummer, percussion, vocalist, and bandleader.

Brown is the oldest of six children, and the only one in his family to pursue music. Beginning with the congas, Brown progressed to violin while in elementary school, and took up drums in junior high. He turned down a full scholarship to Valparaiso University in 1964 in order to pursue music.

Brown was rooted in the very beginnings of War. In 1962, he met Howard E. Scott at the Cozy Lounge in Long Beach, California. They were fifteen years old at the time and were hired to play in a band for a casual gig.

Brown started a band called the Creators in 1963 in Long Beach while going to Long Beach Polytechnic High School, to play for high school sock hops and car shows. Then in 1967, toward the end of the Vietnam war, he and Howard Scott restarted the band with a new name, Night Shift. Brown had been working as a machinist on the Night Shift. In February 1969 while playing a show at the Rag Doll Night Club in North Hollywood, California Eric Burdon and Lee Oskar jammed with the Night Shift. The band changed its name to War.

Brown left the band to attend college in 1983, majoring in computer science, with a minor in music. He then moved to New Orleans in 1986. In 2001, Brown went back to school to pursue his lifelong hobby; he is now a historian and professional tour guide in New Orleans, and has recently formed a new band called the Lowrider Band with three of the other original members of War: Howard E. Scott, Morris “BB” Dickerson, and Lee Oskar. Brown also works with inner-city youth during the summer, to promote good citizenship through the art of fine drumming.

Howard E. Scott

Howard E. Scott (born March 15, 1946 in San Pedro, Los Angeles, California) is an American funk/rock guitarist and founding member of the successful 1970s funk band War.

Howard Scott (disambiguation)

Howard Scott is the founder of Technocracy Incorporated and the Technical Alliance.

Howard Scott may also refer to:

Howard E. Scott (born 1946), musician, founding member of the band War

Howard H. Scott (died 2012), sound engineer and producer

Howard Scott (translator), see 1997 and 2009 Governor General's Awards

Howie Scott, a character in the TV series City Lights

Howard Scott Gentry

Howard Scott Gentry (December 10, 1903 – April 1, 1993) was an American botanist recognized as the world's leading authority on the agaves.

Gentry was born in Temecula, California. In 1931 he received an A.B. (bachelor's) degree in vertebrate zoology from the University of California at Berkeley. In 1947, Gentry received a Ph.D. in botany from the University of Michigan, Dissertation: The Durango Grasslands.Gentry made his first field trip to the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico in 1933. He spent most of the next twenty years exploring and recording the plant life of northwestern Mexico. He worked for the United States Department of Agriculture from 1950 to 1971. He made botanical field trips to Europe, India and Africa looking for plants that are useful to man. He was a research botanist with the Desert Botanical Garden in Phoenix, Arizona after 1971. He also collected many of the specimens now at the Huntington Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California.

His 1942 study of the plants of the Río Mayo region of northwestern Mexico became a classic for the extent of its coverage of a previously little-known area.

In addition to purely botanical work, he was interested in ethnobotany, and his plant descriptions include information about their uses by indigenous peoples.

Howard Scott Warshaw

Howard Scott Warshaw (born July 30, 1957), also known as HSW, is an American psychotherapist and former game designer who is best known for his work at Atari in the early 1980s. There, he designed and programmed the games Yars' Revenge, Raiders of the Lost Ark, and E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, all for the Atari 2600 video game console. He has also written two books as well as produced and directed three documentaries.

James Scott Howard

James Scott Howard (September 2, 1798 – March 1, 1866) was a public servant in Canada West. He served as postmaster in the Town of York and later was the first postmaster in the newly formed City of Toronto. He lost his position during the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837.

John Scott (ice hockey)

John Howard Scott (born September 26, 1982) is a Canadian former professional ice hockey defenceman/winger. A professional player for nearly 10 seasons, Scott saw National Hockey League action with the Minnesota Wild, Chicago Blackhawks, New York Rangers, San Jose Sharks, Buffalo Sabres, Arizona Coyotes and Montreal Canadiens. Scott was born in Edmonton, Alberta, but grew up in St. Catharines, Ontario. He graduated from Michigan Technological University in 2006.

Scott gained prominence in January 2016 when, after an online campaign, he was named captain of the Pacific Division team for the 2016 NHL All-Star Game, despite only having scored five goals in his career, and only one assist in his time with the Coyotes. Despite a trade to the Montreal Canadiens, and subsequently being sent down to the St. John's IceCaps, the Canadiens AHL affiliate, the NHL confirmed on January 19, 2016, that Scott would participate in the 2016 NHL All-Star Game as the captain of the Pacific Division. Scott scored two goals in the tournament that helped his team advance to the finals where they were winners by a score of 1–0, and was voted the Most Valuable Player.A film based on Scott's final professional season and the events surrounding his All-Star appearance is currently in development.

Lee Oskar

Lee Oskar (born 24 March 1948, Copenhagen, Denmark) is a Danish harmonica player, notable for his contributions to the sound of the rock-funk fusion group War, which he formed with Eric Burdon, his solo work, and as a harmonica manufacturer. He currently plays with 3 other original WAR band members, Harold Brown, Howard Scott and B.B. Dickerson, under the name LowRider Band.

List of best-selling Atari 2600 video games

The best-selling video game of all-time on the Atari 2600 console is Pac-Man, a port of the arcade game of the same name programmed by Tod Frye. Originally created by Toru Iwatani and released in 1980, Pac-Man was later ported to many home video game consoles, beginning with the Atari 2600 in 1982. Within months it became the best-selling home video game of all-time, with more than 1.5 million units pre-ordered by customers before its release. Pac-Man went on to sell over 7.7 million units worldwide. The second best-selling Atari 2600 game is Pitfall!, designed by David Crane for Activision, which has sold over 4 million units.Of the top 22 best-selling Atari 2600 video games, ten were developed and/or published by the console's manufacturer, Atari, Inc. Other publishers with multiple entries in the top 20 are Activision (six titles), Imagic (three titles) and Parker Brothers (two titles). Three of the games in the top 20 were programmed by David Crane, three by Howard Scott Warshaw, three by Rob Fulop, and two by Bradley G. Stewart. The Atari 2600 port of Space Invaders, programmed by Rick Maurer for Taito, was the first video game to sell a million copies, while the console port of Asteroids was the best-selling video game prior to the release of Pac-Man.

Raiders of the Lost Ark (video game)

Raiders of the Lost Ark is an action-adventure game created for the Atari 2600 based on the movie of the same name (the first installment of the Indiana Jones series). The game was designed by Howard Scott Warshaw.

Scott Howard (curler)

Scott William Howard (born July 11, 1990) is a Canadian curler. As an alternate for his father, Glenn Howard, Scott Howard won the 2012 Tim Hortons Brier and the 2012 World Men's Curling Championship.

Technical Alliance

The Technical Alliance was a group of engineers, scientists, and technicians based in New York City, formed towards the end of 1919 by American engineer Howard Scott. The Alliance started an Energy Survey of North America, aimed at documenting the wastefulness of the capitalist system.The Technical Alliance advocated a more rational and productive society headed by technical experts, but their survey work failed to have a significant impact. Although some waste was documented, the "prosperity and conservatism of the 1920s undermined the political orientation of the Technical Alliance", and it disbanded in 1921, and the energy survey was not completed.The Technical Alliance was by no means a mass organization, but it did have some notable members and technical experts. Apart from Scott, other members of the Technical Alliance included:

Frederick L. Ackerman

Carl C. Alsberg

Alice Barrows

Allen Carpenter

Stuart Chase

L.K. Comstock

Bassett Jones

Robert H. Kohn

Benton Mackaye

Leland Olds

Charles P. Steinmetz

Richard C. Tolman

John C. Vaughan

Thorstein Veblen

Charles H. Whitaker


Technocracy is a proposed system of governance in which decision-makers are selected on the basis of their expertise in a given area of responsibility, particularly with regard to scientific or technical knowledge. This system explicitly contrasts with the notion that elected representatives should be the primary decision-makers in government, though it does not necessarily imply eliminating elected representatives. Leadership skills for decision-makers are selected on the basis of specialized knowledge and performance, rather than political affiliations or parliamentary skills.The term technocracy was originally used to advocate the application of the scientific method to solving social problems. Concern could be given to sustainability within the resource base, instead of monetary profitability, so as to ensure continued operation of all social-industrial functions. In its most extreme sense technocracy is an entire government running as a technical or engineering problem and is mostly hypothetical. In more practical use, technocracy is any portion of a bureaucracy that is run by technologists. A government in which elected officials appoint experts and professionals to administer individual government functions and recommend legislation can be considered technocratic. Some uses of the word refer to a form of meritocracy, where the ablest are in charge, ostensibly without the influence of special interest groups.

Technocracy movement

The technocracy movement is a social movement which arose in the early 20th century. Technocracy was popular in the United States and Canada for a brief period in the early 1930s, before it was overshadowed by other proposals for dealing with the crisis of the Great Depression. The technocracy movement proposed replacing politicians and businesspeople with scientists and engineers who had the technical expertise to manage the economy.The movement was committed to abstaining from all revolutionary and political activities. It gained strength in the 1930s but in 1940, due to an alleged initial opposition to the Second World War, was banned in Canada. The ban was lifted in 1943 when it was apparent that 'Technocracy Inc. was committed to the war effort, proposing a program of total conscription.' The movement continued to expand during the remainder of the war and new sections were formed in Ontario and the Maritime Provinces.In the post-war years, perhaps due to the growing distrust of socialism in the cold war, membership and interest in technocracy decreased. Though now relatively insignificant, the Technocracy movement survives into the present day, and as of 2013, was continuing to publish a newsletter, maintain a website, and hold member meetings. Smaller groups included the Technical Alliance, The New Machine and the Utopian Society of America, though Bellamy had the most success due to his nationalistic stances, and Veblen's rhetoric, removing the current pricing system and his blueprint for a national directorate to reorganize all produced goods and supply, and ultimately to radically increase all industrial output.


Tintypes is a musical revue conceived by Mary Kyte with Mel Marvin and Gary Pearle.

With its time frame set between the turn of the 20th century and the onset of World War I, this chamber piece with a cast of five provides a musical history lesson focusing on an exciting and tumultuous period in American history. During this time, the country's population doubled, expanded by increased immigration that changed the cultural and ethnic makeup of the nation. The transcontinental railroad and Carnegie Hall were built, electricity and the telephone were introduced to homes, cowboy Theodore Roosevelt became President of the United States, automobiles joined horse-drawn carriages on city streets, and children worked in factories for twenty-five cents a day.

Tintypes opens with a quintessential immigrant, a mime eventually introduced to a variety of characters, including hopeful strivers and dream-filled achievers among the common folk and politician William Jennings Bryan, radical Emma Goldman, inventors Thomas Edison and Henry Ford, and glamorous entertainer Anna Held among the famous.

The score, featuring works by George M. Cohan, John Philip Sousa, Joseph E. Howard, Scott Joplin, and Victor Herbert, among others, is a blend of the patriotic songs, romantic tunes, and ragtime popular during the era.

The revue originally was produced by the Arena Stage in Washington, D.C.. An off-Broadway production opened on April 17, 1980 at the York Theatre, where it ran for 137 performances.

After eleven previews, the Broadway production, directed by Pearle and choreographed by Kyte, opened on October 23, 1980 at the John Golden Theatre, where it ran for 93 performances. The cast was Lynne Thigpen, Jerry Zaks, Trey Wilson, Carolyn Mignini, and Mary Catherine Wright.

An original cast recording was released by DRG.

Vacation (Thomas Rhett song)

"Vacation" is a song recorded by American country music singer Thomas Rhett. It was released on June 13, 2016 via Valory Music Group as the fourth single from his second studio album, Tangled Up. The song was written by Rhett, Thomas Allen, Harold Brown, Morris Dickerson, Sean Douglas, Gerry Goldstein, Leroy Jordan, Charles Miller, Lee Osker, Andreas Schuller, Howard Scott, Joe Spargur, Ricky Reed, and John Ryan. It features a sample of War's "Low Rider", and due to this, the writers of said song are credited as co-writers.

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