Household income is an economic measure that can be applied to one household, or aggregated across a large group such as a county, city, or the whole country. It is commonly used by the United States government and private institutions to describe a household's economic status or to track economic trends in the US.
One key measure is the real median level, meaning half of households have income above that level and half below, adjusted for inflation. According to the Census, this measure was $61,372 in 2017, an increase of $1,063 or 1.8% versus 2016, the second consecutive record level year. This measure was $60,309 in 2016 (up $1,833 or 3.1% vs. 2015) and $58,476 in 2015 (up $2,863 or 5.1% vs. 2014).
The distribution of U.S. household income has become more unequal since around 1980, with the income share received by the top 1% trending upward from around 10% or less over the 1953–1981 period to over 20% by 2007. After falling somewhat due to the Great Recession in 2008 and 2009, inequality rose again during the economic recovery, a typical pattern historically.
A household's income can be calculated in various ways but the US Census as of 2009 measured it in the following manner: the income of every resident of that house that is over the age of 15, including wages and salaries, as well as any kind of governmental entitlement such as unemployment insurance, disability payments or child support payments received, along with any personal business, investment, or other recurring sources of income.
The residents of the household do not have to be related to the head of the household for their earnings to be considered part of the household's income. As households tend to share a similar economic context, the use of household income remains among the most widely accepted measures of income. That the size of a household is not commonly taken into account in such measures may distort any analysis of fluctuations within or among the household income categories, and may render direct comparisons between quintiles difficult or even impossible. The US Census does not include noncash benefits such as health benefits. 
The U.S. Census Bureau reported in September 2017 that real median household income was $59,039 in 2016, exceeding any previous year. This was the fourth consecutive year with a statistically significant increase by their measure.
Changes in median income reflect several trends: the aging of the population, changing patterns in work and schooling, and the evolving makeup of the American family, as well as long- and short-term trends in the economy itself. For instance, the retirement of the Baby Boom generation should push down overall median income, as more persons enter lower-income retirement. However, analysis of different working age groups indicate a similar pattern of stagnating median income as well.
Journalist Annie Lowrey wrote in September 2014: "The root causes [of wage stagnation] include technological change, the decline of labor unions, and globalization, economists think, though they disagree sharply on how much to weight each factor. But foreign-produced goods became sharply cheaper, meaning imports climbed and production moved overseas. And computers took over for humans in many manufacturing, clerical, and administrative tasks, eroding middle-class jobs growth and suppressing wages."
Another line of analysis, known as "total compensation," presents a more complete picture of real wages. The Kaiser Family Foundation conducted a study in 2013 which shows that employer contributions to employee healthcare costs went up 78% from 2003 to 2013. The marketplace has made a trade-off: expanding benefits packages vs. increasing wages.
Measured relative to GDP, total compensation and its component wages and salaries have been declining since 1970. This indicates a shift in income from labor (persons who derive income from hourly wages and salaries) to capital (persons who derive income via ownership of businesses, land and assets). This trend is common across the developed world, due in part to globalization. Wages and salaries have fallen from approximately 51% GDP in 1970 to 43% GDP in 2013. Total compensation has fallen from approximately 58% GDP in 1970 to 53% GDP in 2013.
However, as indicated by the charts below, household income has still increased significantly since the late 1970s and early 80s in real terms, partly due to higher individual median wages, and partly due to increased opportunities for women.
According to the CBO, between 1979 and 2011, gross median household income, adjusted for inflation, rose from $59,400 to $75,200, or 26.5%. However, once adjusted for household size and looking at taxes from an after-tax perspective, real median household income grew 46%, representing significant growth.
The following table summarizes real median household income at key recent milestones:
|Variable||1999 Previous Record||2007 Pre-Crisis Peak||2012 Post-Crisis Trough||2016 Previous Record||2017 Record||2018|
|Real median household income||$60,062||$59,534||$54,569||$60,309||$61,372||Avail. Sept '19|
Use of individual household income: The government and organizations may look at one particular household's income to decide if a person is eligible for certain programs, such as nutrition assistance  or need-based financial aid, among many others.
Use at the aggregate level: Summaries of household incomes across groups of people - often the entire country - are also studied as part of economic trends like standard of living and distribution of income and wealth. Household income as an economic measure can be represented as a median, a mean, a distribution, and other ways. Household income can be studied across time, region, education level, race/ethnicity, and many other dimensions. As an indicator of economic trends, it may be studied along with related economic measures such as disposable income, debt, household net worth (which includes debt and investments, durable goods like cars and houses), wealth, and employment statistics.
Median inflation-adjusted ("real") household income generally increases and decreases with the business cycle, declining in each year during the periods 1979 through 1983, 1990 through 1993, 2000 through 2004 and 2008 through 2012, while rising in each of the intervening years. Extreme poverty in the United States, meaning households living on less than $2 per person per day before government benefits, more than doubled from 636,000 to 1.46 million households (including 2.8 million children) between 1996 and 2011, with most of this increase occurring between late 2008 and early 2011.
The nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office conducted a study analyzing household income throughout the income distribution, by combining the Census and IRS income data sources. Unlike the Census measure of household income, the CBO showed income before and after taxes, and by also taking into account household size. Also, the CBO definition of income is much broader, and includes in kind transfers as well as all monetary transfers from the government. The Census' official definition of money income excludes food stamps and the EITC, for example, while CBO includes it.
Between 1979 and 2011, gross median household income, adjusted for inflation, rose from $59,400 to $75,200, or 26.5%. This compares with the Census' growth of 10%. However, once adjusted for household size and looking at taxes from an after-tax perspective, real median household income grew 46%, representing significant growth.
While median gross household income showed much stronger growth than depicted by the Census, inequality was shown to still have increased. The top 10% saw gross household income grow by 78%, versus 26.5% for the median. The bottom 10%, using the same measure, saw higher growth than the median (40%).
Another common measurement of personal income is the mean household income. Unlike the median household income, which divides all households in two halves, the mean income is the average income earned by American households. In the case of mean income, the income of all households is divided by the number of all households. The mean income is usually more affected by the relatively unequal distribution of income which tilts towards the top. As a result, the mean tends to be higher than the median income, with the top earning households boosting it. Overall, the mean household income in the United States, according to the US Census Bureau 2014 Annual Social and Economic Supplement, was $72,641.
The US Census Bureau also provides a breakdown by self-identified ethnic groups as follows (as of March 2018):
|Ethnic category||Mean household income|
|Hispanic or Latino||$68,319|
Median income is the amount which divides the income distribution into two equal groups, half having income above that amount, and half having income below that amount. Mean income (average) is the amount obtained by dividing the total aggregate income of a group by the number of units in that group. The means and medians for households and families are based on all households and families. Means and medians for people are based on people 15 years old and over with income.— US Census Bureau, Frequently Asked Question, published by First Gov.
The aggregate income measures the combined income earned by all persons in a particular income group. In 2007, all households in the United States earned roughly $7.723 trillion. One half, 49.98%, of all income in the US was earned by households with an income over $100,000, the top twenty percent. Over one quarter, 28.5%, of all income was earned by the top 8%, those households earning more than $150,000 a year. The top 3.65%, with incomes over $200,000, earned 17.5%. Households with annual incomes from $50,000 to $75,000, 18.2% of households, earned 16.5% of all income. Households with annual incomes from $50,000 to $95,000, 28.1% of households, earned 28.8% of all income. The bottom 10.3% earned 1.06% of all income.
White Americans made up roughly 75.1% of all people in 2000, 87.93% of all households in the top 5% were headed by a person who identified as being White alone. Only 4.75% of all household in the top 5% were headed by someone who identified as Hispanic or Latino of any race, versus 12.5% of persons identifying themselves as Hispanic or Latino in the general population.
Overall, 86.01% of all households in the top two quintiles with upper-middle range incomes of over $55,331 were headed by someone identifying as White alone, while 7.21% were being headed by someone who identified as Hispanic and 7.37% by someone who identified as African American or Black. Overall, households headed by Hispanics and African Americans were underrepresented in the top two quintiles and overrepresented in the bottom two quintiles. Households headed by people who identified as being Asian alone were also overrepresented among the top two quintiles. In the top five percent the percentage of Asians was nearly twice as high as the percentage of Asians among the general population. Whites were relatively even distributed throughout the quintiles only being underrepresented in the lowest quintile and slightly overrepresented in the top quintile and the top five percent.
In terms of race in 2010 data, Asian American households had the highest median household income of $57,518, European-American households ranked second with $48,977, Hispanic or Latino households ranked third with $34,241. African-American or Black households had the lowest median household income of all races with $30,134.
|Ethnic group||All households||Lowest fifth||Second fifth||Middle fifth||Fourth fifth||Highest fifth||Top 5%|
|White alone||Number in 1000s||92,702||16,940||18,424||18,978||19,215||19,721||5,029|
|Asian alone||Number in 1000s||4,140||624||593||786||871||1,265||366|
|Black||Number in 1000s||13,792||4,474||3,339||2,637||2,053||1,287||236|
|Hispanic or Latino
(of any race)
|Number in 1000s||12,838||3,023||3,130||2,863||1,931||1,204||269|
Source: US Census Bureau, 2004
Household income as well as per capita income in the United States rise significantly as the educational attainment increases. In 2005 graduates with a Master's in Business Administration (MBA) who accepted job offers were expected to earn a base salary of $88,626. They were also expected to receive an "average signing bonus of $17,428."
According to the US Census Bureau persons with doctorates in the United States had an average income of roughly $81,400. The average for an advanced degree was $72,824, with men averaging $90,761 and women averaging $50,756 annually. Year-round full-time workers with a professional degree had an average income of $109,600 while those with a master's degree had an average income of $62,300. Overall, "…[a]verage earnings ranged from $18,900 for high school dropouts to $25,900 for high school graduates, $45,400 for college graduates and $99,300 for workers with professional degrees (M.D., O.D., D.P.T., D.P.M., D.O., J.D., Pharm.D., D.D.S., or D.V.M.)."
Individuals with graduate degrees have an average per capita income exceeding the median household income of married couple families among the general population ($63,813 annually). Higher educational attainment did not, however, help close the income gap between the genders as the life-time earnings for a male with a professional degree were roughly forty percent (39.59%) higher than those of a female with a professional degree. The lifetime earnings gap between males and females was the smallest for those individuals holding an associate degrees with male life-time earnings being 27.77% higher than those of females. While educational attainment did not help reduce the income inequality between men and women, it did increase the earnings potential of individuals of both sexes, enabling many households with one or more graduate degree householders to enter the top household income quintile. These data were not adjusted for preferential differences among men and women whom attend college. For example, men often study fields of engineering while women often pursue social sciences.
Household income also increased significantly with the educational attainment of the householder. The US Census Bureau publishes educational attainment and income data for all households with a householder who was aged twenty-five or older. The biggest income difference was between those with some college education and those who had a Bachelor's degree, with the latter making $23,874 more annually. Income also increased substantially with increased post-secondary education. While the median annual household income for a household with a householder having an associate degree was $51,970, the median annual household income for householders with a bachelor's degree or higher was $73,446. Those with doctorates had the second highest median household with a median of $96,830; $18,289 more than that for those at the master's degree level, but $3,170 lower than the median for households with a professional degree holding householder.
|Criteria||Overall||Less than 9th grade||Some high school||High school graduate or equivalent||Some college||Associate degree||Bachelor's degree||Bachelor's degree or more||Master's degree||Professional degree||Doctoral degree|
|Median annual individual income||Male, age 25+||$33,517||$15,461||$18,990||$28,763||$35,073||$39,015||$50,916||$55,751||$61,698||$88,530||$73,853|
|Female, age 25+||$19,679||$9,296||$10,786||$15,962||$21,007||$24,808||$31,309||$35,125||$41,334||$48,536||$53,003|
|Median annual household income||$62,625||$26,587||$30,100||$44,970||$55,563||$64,263||$91,772||$100,021||$108,231||$139,069||$140,110|
The change in median personal and household since 1991 also varied greatly with educational attainment. The following table shows the median household income according to the educational attainment of the householder. All data is in 2003 dollars and only applies to householders whose householder is aged twenty-five or older. The highest and lowest points of the median household income are presented in bold face. Since 2003, median income has continued to rise for the nation as a whole, with the biggest gains going to those with associate degrees, bachelor's degree or more, and master's degrees. High-school dropouts fared worse with negative growth.
|Year||Overall Median||Less than 9th grade||Some high school||High school graduate||Some college||Associate degree||Bachelor's degree||Bachelor's degree or more||Master's degree||Professional degree||Doctoral degree|
Source: US Census Bureau, 2003
Household income in the United States varies substantially with the age of the person who heads the household. Overall, the median household income increased with the age of householder until retirement age when household income started to decline. The highest median household income was found among households headed by working baby-boomers.
Households headed by persons between the ages of 45 and 54 had a median household income of $61,111 and a mean household income of $77,634. The median income per member of household for this particular group was $27,924. The highest median income per member of household was among those between the ages of 54 and 64 with $30,544 [The reason this figure is lower than the next group is because pensions and Social Security add to income while a portion of older individuals also have work-related income.].
The group with the second highest median household income, were households headed by persons between the ages 35 and 44 with a median income of $56,785, followed by those in the age group between 55 and 64 with $50,400. Not surprisingly the lowest income group was composed of those households headed by individuals younger than 24, followed by those headed by persons over the age of 75. Overall, households headed by persons above the age of seventy-five had a median household income of $20,467 with the median household income per member of household being $18,645. These figures support the general assumption that median household income as well as the median income per member of household peaked among those households headed by middle aged persons, increasing with the age of the householder and the size of the household until the householder reaches the age of 64. With retirement income replacing salaries and the size of the household declining, the median household income decreases as well.
While median household income has a tendency to increase up to four persons per household, it declines for households beyond four persons. For example, in the state of Alabama in 2004, two-person households had a median income of $39,755, with $48,957 for three-person households, $54,338 for four-person households, $50,905 for five-person households, $45,435 for six-person households, with seven-or-more-person households having the second lowest median income of only $42,471.
Considering other racial and geographical differences in regards to household income, it should come as no surprise that the median household income varies with race, size of household and geography. The state with the highest median household income in the United States as of the US Census Bureau 2009 is Maryland with $69,272, followed by New Jersey, Connecticut and Alaska, making the Northeastern United States the wealthiest area by income in the entire country.
In 2007, the median household income by state ranged from $37,279 in Mississippi to $67,576 in New Hampshire. Despite having the highest median home price in the nation and home prices that far outpaced incomes, California ranked only twelfth in income that year, with a median household income of $55,734. While California's median income was not near enough to afford the average California home or even a starter home, West Virginia, which had one of the nation's lowest median household incomes, also had the nation's lowest median home price.
When grouped by Census Bureau Region, of the 15 states that, in 2017, had the highest median household income, only Minnesota is located in the Mid-West. Six are in New England (Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey and Rhode Island), three are South Atlantic states (Washington D.C., Maryland and Virginia) while the remaining six are in the West (Alaska, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Washington and Utah).
The southern states had, on average, the lowest median household income, with nine of the country's fifteen poorest states located in the South. However, most of the poverty in the South is located in rural areas. Metropolitan areas such as Atlanta, Nashville, Charlotte, Raleigh, Birmingham, Dallas, Houston, and Miami are areas within the southern states that have above average income levels. Overall, median household income tended to be the highest in the nation's most urbanized northeastern, upper midwestern and west coast states, while rural areas, mostly in the southern and mountain states (like New Mexico, Montana and Idaho), had the lowest median household income.
As of 2017, the median household income ranged from $43,441 in Mississippi to $83,382 in the District of Columbia.
|1||+18||District of Columbia||$83,382||$70,982||$70,071||$68,277||$60,057||$65,246||$55,251||$56,928||$53,141||$55,590||$50,783|
*change since 2007
The median personal income per person, after adjusting for costs of living with local regional price parities and the national PCE price index, averaged $47,807 in 2016 (in 2012 chained dollars). Median adjusted personal income per capita varied from $39,901 in Mississippi to $61,601 in Connecticut (and $64,363 in the District of Columbia). The states closest to the national average were California and Vermont, at $48,384 and $47,971 respectively.
Household income is one of the most commonly used measures of income and, therefore, also one of the most prominent indicators of social class. Household income and education do not, however, always reflect perceived class status correctly. Sociologist Dennis Gilbert acknowledges that "... the class structure... does not exactly match the distribution of household income" with "the mismatch [being] greatest in the middle..." (Gilbert, 1998: 92) As social classes commonly overlap, it is not possible to define exact class boundaries.
According to Leonard Beeghley a household income of roughly $95,000 would be typical of a dual-earner middle class household while $60,000 would be typical of a dual-earner working class household and $18,000 typical for an impoverished household. William Thompson and Joseph Hickey see common incomes for the upper class as those exceeding $500,000 with upper middle class incomes ranging from the high 5-figures to most commonly in excess of $100,000. They claim the lower middle class ranges from $35,000 to $75,000; $16,000 to $30,000 for the working class and less than $2,000 for the lower class.
|Dennis Gilbert, 2002||William Thompson & Joseph Hickey, 2005||Leonard Beeghley, 2004|
|Class||Typical characteristics||Class||Typical characteristics||Class||Typical characteristics|
|Capitalist class (1%)||Top-level executives, high-rung politicians, heirs. Ivy League education common.||Upper class (1%)||Top-level executives, celebrities, heirs; income of $500,000+ common. Ivy league education common.||The super-rich (0.9%)||Multi-millionaires whose incomes commonly exceed $350,000; includes celebrities and powerful executives/politicians. Ivy League education common.|
|Upper middle class (15%)||Highly-educated (often with graduate degrees), most commonly salaried, professionals and middle management with large work autonomy.||Upper middle class (15%)||Highly-educated (often with graduate degrees) professionals & managers with household incomes varying from the high 5-figure range to commonly above $100,000.||The rich (5%)||Households with net worth of $1 million or more; largely in the form of home equity. Generally have college degrees.|
|Middle class (plurality/
majority?; ca. 46%)
|College-educated workers with considerably higher-than-average incomes and compensation; a man making $57,000 and a woman making $40,000 may be typical.|
|Lower middle class (30%)||Semi-professionals and craftsmen with a roughly average standard of living. Most have some college education and are white-collar.||Lower middle class (32%)||Semi-professionals and craftsmen with some work autonomy; household incomes commonly range from $35,000 to $75,000. Typically, some college education.|
|Working class (30%)||Clerical and most blue-collar workers whose work is highly routinized. Standard of living varies depending on number of income earners, but is commonly just adequate. High school education.|
|Working class (32%)||Clerical, pink- and blue-collar workers with often low job security; common household incomes range from $16,000 to $30,000. High school education.||Working class
|Blue-collar workers and those whose jobs are highly routinized with low economic security; a man making $40,000 and a woman making $26,000 may be typical. High school education.|
|Working poor (13%)||Service, low-rung clerical and some blue-collar workers. High economic insecurity and risk of poverty. Some high school education.|
|Lower class (ca. 14–20%)||Those who occupy poorly-paid positions or rely on government transfers. Some high school education.|
|Underclass (12%)||Those with limited or no participation in the labor force. Reliant on government transfers. Some high school education.||The poor (ca. 12%)||Those living below the poverty line with limited to no participation in the labor force; a household income of $18,000 may be typical. Some high school education.|
|Income of Household||Number (thousands) ||Percentage||Percentile||Mean Income ||Mean number of earners ||Mean size of household |
|$5,000 to $9,999||4320||3.47%||3.67th||$7,936||0.34||1.78|
|$10,000 to $14,999||6766||5.43%||7.14th||$12,317||0.39||1.71|
|$15,000 to $19,999||6779||5.44%||12.57th||$17,338||0.54||1.90|
|$20,000 to $24,999||6865||5.51%||18.01th||$22,162||0.73||2.07|
|$25,000 to $29,999||6363||5.11%||23.52th||$27,101||0.82||2.19|
|$30,000 to $34,999||6232||5.00%||28.63th||$32,058||0.94||2.27|
|$35,000 to $39,999||5857||4.70%||33.63th||$37,061||1.04||2.31|
|$40,000 to $44,999||5430||4.36%||38.33th||$41,979||1.15||2.40|
|$45,000 to $49,999||5060||4.06%||42.69th||$47,207||1.24||2.52|
|$50,000 to $54,999||5084||4.08%||46.75th||$51,986||1.32||2.54|
|$55,000 to $59,999||4220||3.39%||50.83th||$57,065||1.41||2.56|
|$60,000 to $64,999||4477||3.59%||54.22th||$62,016||1.46||2.64|
|$65,000 to $69,999||3709||2.98%||57.81th||$67,081||1.51||2.67|
|$70,000 to $74,999||3737||3.00%||60.79th||$72,050||1.57||2.73|
|$75,000 to $79,999||3484||2.80%||63.79th||$77,023||1.60||2.79|
|$80,000 to $84,999||3142||2.52%||66.58th||$81,966||1.63||2.79|
|$85,000 to $89,999||2750||2.21%||69.11th||$87,101||1.77||2.90|
|$90,000 to $94,999||2665||2.14%||71.31th||$92,033||1.82||2.96|
|$95,000 to $99,999||2339||1.88%||73.45th||$97,161||1.81||2.97|
|$100,000 to $104,999||2679||2.15%||75.33th||$101,921||1.79||3.01|
|$105,000 to $109,999||2070||1.66%||77.48th||$107,187||1.88||3.01|
|$110,000 to $114,999||1922||1.54%||79.14th||$112,069||1.93||3.12|
|$115,000 to $119,999||1623||1.30%||80.68th||$117,133||1.98||3.14|
|$120,000 to $124,999||1863||1.50%||81.99th||$122,127||1.93||3.09|
|$125,000 to $129,999||1452||1.17%||83.48th||$127,166||1.99||3.12|
|$130,000 to $134,999||1512||1.21%||84.65th||$131,863||2.00||3.18|
|$135,000 to $139,999||1219||0.98%||85.86th||$137,284||1.98||3.11|
|$140,000 to $144,999||1290||1.04%||86.84th||$142,199||1.97||3.03|
|$145,000 to $149,999||1024||0.82%||87.87th||$147,130||2.01||3.11|
|$150,000 to $154,999||1146||0.92%||88.70th||$151,940||1.85||3.12|
|$155,000 to $159,999||848||0.68%||89.62th||$157,177||2.08||3.15|
|$160,000 to $164,999||875||0.70%||90.30th||$162,019||2.02||3.13|
|$165,000 to $169,999||786||0.63%||91.00th||$167,101||2.10||3.16|
|$170,000 to $174,999||717||0.58%||91.63th||$172,169||2.17||3.21|
|$175,000 to $179,999||607||0.49%||92.21th||$177,187||2.19||3.28|
|$180,000 to $184,999||619||0.50%||92.69th||$182,055||2.03||3.19|
|$185,000 to $189,999||556||0.45%||93.19th||$187,299||2.03||3.20|
|$190,000 to $194,999||485||0.39%||93.64th||$192,241||2.19||3.29|
|$195,000 to $199,999||436||0.35%||94.03th||$197,211||2.23||3.27|
|$200,000 to $249,999||3249||2.61%||94.38th||$220,267||2.08||3.24|
|$250,000 and over||3757||3.02%||96.98th||$402,476|
The Baltimore–Columbia–Towson Metropolitan Statistical Area, also known as Central Maryland, is a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in Maryland as defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB). As of the 2010 Census, the combined population of the seven counties is 2,710,489. The MSA has the fourth-highest median household income in the United States, at $66,970 in 2012.Census family
In the Canadian Census such families consisting of a married couple and children are referred to as Census Families. The US Census Bureau refers to such household structures as "Married couple families." This demographic features the highest median household income in the United States.In the definition in Statistics Canada's Census Dictionary, the term "census family"
Refers to a married couple (with or without children of either and/or both spouses), a common-law couple (with or without children of either and/or both partners) or a lone parent of any marital status, with at least one child. A couple may be of opposite sex or same sex. A couple family with children may be further classified as either an intact family in which all children are the biological and/or adopted children of both married spouses or of both common-law partners or a stepfamily with at least one biological or adopted child of only one married spouse or common-law partner and whose birth or adoption preceded the current relationship. Stepfamilies, in turn may be classified as simple or complex. A simple stepfamily is a couple family in which all children are biological or adopted children of one, and only one, married spouse or common-law partner whose birth or adoption preceded the current relationship. A complex stepfamily is a couple family which contains at least one biological or adopted child whose birth or adoption preceded the current relationship. These families contain children from:
each married spouse or common-law partner and no other children
one married spouse or common-law partner and at least one other biological or adopted child of the couple
each married spouse or common-law partner and at least one other biological or adopted child of the couple.-Statistics CanadaCheltenham Township School District
The Cheltenham Township School District is a public school district serving Cheltenham Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The District is one of the 500 public school districts of Pennsylvania. The District encompasses approximately 9 square miles (23 km2). According to 2000 federal census data, it served a resident population of 36,875. By 2010, the District's population declined to 36,000 people. In 2009, the district residents’ per capita income was $31,424, while the median family income was $76,792. In the Commonwealth, the median family income was $49,501 and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010. By 2013, the median household income in the United States rose to $52,100.According to District officials, in school year 2007-08 the Cheltenham Township School District provided basic educational services to 4,365 pupils. Cheltenham Township School District employed: 399 teachers, 259 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 38 administrators. Cheltenham Township School District received more than $12.2 million in state funding in school year 2007-08. In school year 2005-06, Cheltenham Township School District reported an enrollment of 4,642 pupils. Cheltenham Township School District employed: 413 teachers, 253 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 39 administrators. Cheltenham Township School District received more than $11.7 million in state funding in school year 2005-06.Connecticut
Connecticut ( (listen)) is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index (0.962), and median household income in the United States. It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, and Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport. It is part of New England, although portions of it are often grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which approximately bisects the state. The word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river".Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was initially part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English. Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook Colony and the New Haven Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. This was one of the Thirteen Colonies which rejected British rule in the American Revolution.
Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, and the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states. It is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", and the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States.
The Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state also has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County.Distribution (economics)
In economics, distribution is the way total output, income, or wealth is distributed among individuals or among the factors of production (such as labour, land, and capital). In general theory and the national income and product accounts, each unit of output corresponds to a unit of income. One use of national accounts is for classifying factor incomes and measuring their respective shares, as in national Income. But, where focus is on income of persons or households, adjustments to the national accounts or other data sources are frequently used. Here, interest is often on the fraction of income going to the top (or bottom) x percent of households, the next x percent, and so forth (defined by equally spaced cut points, say quintiles), and on the factors that might affect them (globalization, tax policy, technology, etc.).Duquesne City School District
Duquesne City School District is a tiny, suburban public school district in the state of Pennsylvania. It is located in the east hills of Allegheny County, and serves the City of Duquesne (upwards of 7,000 residents), a former mill town on the banks of the Monongahela River. Duquesne City School District encompasses approximately 2 square miles. Per 2000 federal census data, it served a resident population of 7,352. According to 2010 federal census data, the resident population declined sharply to 5,566 people. The educational attainment levels for the Duquesne City School District population (25 years old and over) were 89.5% high school graduates and 9.2% college graduates.In 2009, per capita income was $12,067, while the median family income was $25,898. In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the median family income was $49,501 and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010. By 2013, the median household income in the United States rose to $52,100.The district operates one school. In 2014, the district reports 366 pupils in grades kindergarten through 6th, with 100% of pupils receiving a federal free or reduced-price meals due to family poverty. Additionally, 24.5% of the pupils receive special education services, while less than 0.5% are identified as gifted. According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated highly qualified under No Child Left Behind. The school provides full-day kindergarten. The school is a federally designated Title I school.
District officials report that in school year 2005-2006, the Duquense City School District provided basic educational services to 913 pupils through the employment of 80 teachers, 60 full-time and part-time support personnel and 9 administrators. The student–teacher ratio was reported as 11:1. The district provided basic educational services to 446 pupils. The district employed: 51 teachers, 42 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 5 administrators during the 2009-10 school year. Duquesne City School District received $11 million in state funding in the 2009-2010 school year.
Beginning with the 2012-13 school year, students in grades 7 and 8 are given a tuition voucher to attend one of 2 neighboring school districts. The school is the student's choice. Duquesne City provides transportation. The tuition is paid by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. As of 2007, students who lived in Duquesne attend Duquesne City schools from grades K to 8. Students in grades 9 to 12 are given the choice to attend either the West Mifflin Area School District or the East Allegheny School District. This state-controlled initiative was a response to low standardized test scores, and a dearth of extra-curricular activities and sports programs at Duquesne City. The district's operations were run by the Allegheny Intermediate Unit. Duquesne City is one of four Pennsylvania school districts that does not operate a high school. Bryn Athyn School District, Midland Borough School District, and Saint Clair Area School District also do not operate a high school.Home-ownership in the United States
The home-ownership rate in the United States is percentage of homes that are owned by their occupants. In 2009, it remained similar to that in some other post-industrial nations with 67.4% of all occupied housing units being occupied by the unit's owner. Home ownership rates vary depending on demographic characteristics of households such as ethnicity, race, type of household as well as location and type of settlement. In 2018, homeownership dropped to a lower rate than it was in 1994, with a rate of 64.2%.Since 1960, the homeownership rate in the United States has remained relatively stable having decreased 1.0% since 1960 when 65.2% of American households owned their own home. Additionally, homeowner equity has fallen steadily since World War II and is now less than 50% of the value of homes on average. Homeownership was most common in rural areas and suburbs with three quarters of suburban households being homeowners. Among the country's regions the Midwestern states had the highest homeownership rate with the Western states having the lowest. Recent research has examined the decline in homeownership rates among households with "heads" aged 25 to 44 years, which fell substantially between 1980 and 2000 and recovered only partially during the 2001-05 housing boom. This research indicates that a trend toward marrying later and the increase in household earnings risk that occurred after 1980 account for a large share of the decline in young homeownership.Homeowners in the United States also tend to have higher incomes and households residing in their own home were more likely to be families (as opposed to individuals) than were their tenant counterparts. Among racial demographics, European Americans had the country's highest homeownership rate, while those identifying as being African American had the lowest homeownership rate. One study shows that homeownership rates appear correlated with higher school attainment.The name "homeownership rate" can be misleading. As defined by the US Census Bureau, it is the percentage of homes that are occupied by the owner. It is not the percentage of adults that own their own home. This latter percentage will be significantly lower than the homeownership rate because many households that are owner-occupied contain adult relatives (often young adults, descendents of the owner) who do not own their own home, and because single building multi-bedroom rental units can contain more than one adult, all of whom do not own a home.
According to the Financial Post the cost of the average U.S. house in 2016 was US$187,000Income in the United States
Income in the United States is measured by the United States Department of Commerce either by household or individual. The differences between household and personal income is considerable since 42% of households, the majority of those in the top two quintiles with incomes exceeding $57,658, now have two income earners.This difference becomes very apparent when comparing the percentage of households with six figure incomes to that of individuals. In 2006, 17.3% of households had incomes exceeding $100,000, compared to slightly less than 6% of individuals. Overall the median household income was $46,326 in 2006 while the median personal income (including only those above the age of 25) was $32,140.Income inequality in the United States has increased considerably. Between 1979 and 2004, the mean after-tax income of the top percentile increased 167%, versus 69% for the top quintile overall, 29% for the fourth quintile, 21% for the middle quintile, 17% for the second quintile and 6% for the bottom quintile. While wages for women have increased greatly, median earnings of male wage earners have remained stagnant since the late 1970s. Household income, however, has risen due the increasing number of households with more than one income earner and women's increased presence in the labor force. Half of the U.S. population lives in poverty or is low-income, according to U.S. Census data. On the other hand, some members of the U. S. population have earned a considerable income: the top earner in 2011, hedge fund manager John Paulson, earned $4.9 billion, according to Business Insider.List of U.S. states and territories by income
This is a list of U.S. states, territories and the District of Columbia by income.List of ethnic groups in the United States by household income
This is a list of median household income in the United States by race and ethnicity and Native American tribal grouping (as of 2015) according to the United States Census.Median income
Median income is the amount that divides the income distribution into two equal groups, half having income above that amount, and half having income below that amount. Mean income (average) is the amount obtained by dividing the total aggregate income of a group by the number of units in that group. Mode income is the most frequently occurring income in a given income distribution.
Median income can be calculated by household income, by personal income, or for specific demographic groups.Median income per household member
The median income per member of household is a measure used by statisticians and the US Census Bureau to determine the median income that exists in a household for each of its members. In order to obtain this number the median household income is divided by the median number of persons in households of the same income group. For example, in the United States the median household income in the year 2004 was $44,389, while the median income per member of household was $23,535.Midland Borough School District
The Midland Borough School District is a very small public school district serving Midland, Pennsylvania in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. It features one school offering PreK-8th grade Midland Elementary-Middle School. The district encompasses approximately 5.2 square miles (13 km2). The 2000 Census Data reported the median household income was $23,117 in a population of 3,137 people. By 2010, the district's population declined to 2,635 people. The educational attainment levels for the School District population (25 years old and over) were 79.2% high school graduates and 13.2% college graduates.According to the Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center, 64.9% of the district's pupils lived at 185% or below the Federal Poverty level as shown by their eligibility for the federal free or reduced price school meal programs in 2012. In 2009, the district residents’ per capita income was $17,066. In the Commonwealth, the median family income was $49,501 and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010. In Beaver County, the median household income was $46,190. By 2013, the median household income in the United States rose to $52,100.According to District officials, in school year 2009-10 the Midland Borough School District provided basic educational services to 363 pupils, The district employed: 22 teachers, 20 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 4 administrators. Midland Borough School District received more than $3.4 million in state funding in school year 2009-10. In school year 2007-08 Midland Borough School District provided basic educational services to 382 pupils. It employed: 22 teachers, 21 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 4 administrators. Midland Borough School District received more than $3.5 million in state funding for the school year 2007-08.
The district operates a single school, Midland Elementary Middle School. The Beaver Valley Intermediate Unit IU27 provides the district with a wide variety of services like specialized education for disabled students and hearing, speech and visual disability services and professional development for staff and faculty.North Allegheny School District
The North Allegheny School District (NA or NASD) is a large, suburban public school district located in Wexford, Pennsylvania, about 12 miles (19 km) north of Pittsburgh. It serves an area of 48 square miles (120 km2), including Marshall Township, McCandless Township, and the boroughs of Bradford Woods and Franklin Park. According to the 2000 federal census data, it served a resident population of 47,531. By 2010, the district's population increased to 50,023. In 2009, the District residents' per capita income was $35,130, while the median family income was $81,636. In the Commonwealth, the median family income was $49,501 and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010. By 2013, the median household income in the United States rose to $52,100.According to district officials, in the 2009–10 school year, the North Allegheny School District provided basic educational services to 8,064 pupils. It employed 637 teachers, 431 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 37 administrators. The North Allegheny School District received more than $21.4 million in state funding in the 2009–10 school year. In the 2007–08 school year, the district provided basic educational services to 8,054 pupils through the employment of 622 teachers, 408 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 38 administrators. The North Allegheny School District received more than $19.8 million in state funding in the 2007–08 school year.
Schools in the North Allegheny School District include:
7 Elementary schools (K-5)Bradford Woods Elementary School
Franklin Elementary School
Hosack Elementary School
Ingomar Elementary School
Marshall Elementary School
McKnight Elementary School
Peebles Elementary School5 Secondary schoolsCarson Middle School (6-8)
Ingomar Middle School (6-8)
Marshall Middle School (6-8)
North Allegheny Intermediate High School (9-10)
North Allegheny Senior High School (11-12)The North Allegheny School District also operates a cyber academy, which is an online alternative to traditional schooling open to students in grades three through eight.
Six of the North Allegheny School District's schools (both high schools, all three middle schools, and an elementary school) have received the National Blue Ribbon School of Excellence award. The senior high school offers 17 Advanced Placement courses, and both high schools offer a combined 32 honors courses. The class of 2008 had 19 National Merit Finalists. In 2014, North Allegheny was ranked by Niche as the ninth best school district in America and the third best in Pennsylvania. North Allegheny Senior High School was ranked by Niche as the thirty-third best public high school in America and second best in the state.
North Allegheny Senior High School students may choose to attend A.W. Beattie Career Center for training in the vocational trades. The Allegheny Intermediate Unit (AIU3) provides the district with a wide variety of services, such as specialized education, hearing, speech, and visual disability services, and professional development for staff and faculty.Professional and working class conflict in the United States
In the United States there has long been a conflict between the working class majority and the professional class. The conflict goes back to the workers revolution and age of unionized labor in the late nineteenth century. Since the 1870s and the rise of professionalism, the daily routine of American workers has been largely designed by professionals instead of foremen.
Today, most American workers –many of whom earn middle-range incomes and work in white-collar occupations – are usually not resentful of the professionals, though a feeling of disconnect persists. Even nowadays there is a large visible discrepancy between professionals whose main job duties include visualizing and directing the day of other workers and those who carry out the orders. While the work of professionals and managers is usually largely self-directed and appeals to the interest of the individual, that of middle-range income white-collar and blue-collar workers is closely supervised and tends to greatly stray from the worker's actual interests.
Yet another reason for resentment toward the professional middle class on the part of the working class stems from the embedded feelings of anti-intellectualism. When combined working class workers seem to often be under the impression that their better paid, professional managers are not actually "doing anything" as most of their duties are to conceptualize and outline their ideas.Rockland County, New York
Rockland County is the southernmost county on the west side of the Hudson River in the U.S. state of New York, part of the New York City Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county's population, as of the 2010 census, was 311,687, increasing by 5.5% to a 2017 Census estimate of 328,868, making it the third-most densely populated county outside New York City within New York State (after Nassau and neighboring Westchester counties, respectively). The county seat is New City. Rockland County is a suburb of New York City that borders the boroughs about 9 miles northwest of the city at their closest points, and is accessible via the New York State Thruway, after 10 exits. The name derives from "rocky land", as the area has been aptly described.
Rockland County is the smallest county by area in New York State outside New York City. It comprises five towns and nineteen incorporated villages, with numerous unincorporated villages (sixteen) and hamlets. Rockland County is designated as a Preserve America Community, and roughly one-third of the county is parkland. The county has the largest Jewish population per capita of any U.S. county, with 31.4%, or 90,000 residents, being Jewish. Rockland also ranks 9th on the list of highest-income counties by median household income in the United States with $75,306 according to the 2000 census. In 2015, Suffern was named as the best place to start a business in New York by NerdWallet. NerdWallet also included the villages of Haverstraw (73), West Haverstraw (76) and Spring Valley (83) in their report.Socioeconomics
Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy. Societies are divided into 3 groups: social, cultural and economic.Standard of living in the United States
The standard of living in the United States is high by the standards that most economists use, and for many decades throughout the 20th century, the United States was recognized as having the highest standard of living in the world. Per capita income is high but also less evenly distributed than in most other developed countries; as a result, the United States fares particularly well in measures of average material well being that do not place weight on equality aspects.Working class
The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations (see also "Designation of workers by collar color") include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most pink-collar jobs. Members of the working class rely for their income exclusively upon their earnings from wage labour; thus, according to the more inclusive definitions, the category can include almost all of the working population of industrialized economies, as well as those employed in the urban areas (cities, towns, villages) of non-industrialized economies or in the rural workforce.
In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is often used interchangeably with the term proletariat and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour (salaried knowledge workers and white-collar workers) to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production (the bourgeoisie in Marxist literature).
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