The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house of Scotland with Breton origin. They had held the office of High Steward of Scotland since Walter FitzAlan in around 1150. The royal Stewart line was founded by Robert II whose descendants were kings and queens of Scotland from 1371 until the union with England in 1707. Mary, Queen of Scots was brought up in France where she adopted the French spelling of the name Stuart.
In 1503, James IV married Margaret Tudor, thus linking the royal houses of Scotland and England. Elizabeth I of England died without issue in 1603, and James IV's great grandson James VI of Scotland succeed the thrones of England and Ireland as James I in the Union of the Crowns. The Stuarts were monarchs of the British Isles and its growing empire until the death of Queen Anne in 1714, except for the period of the Commonwealth between 1649 and 1660.[note 3]
In total, nine Stewart/Stuart monarchs ruled Scotland alone from 1371 until 1603. The last ruler of Scotland alone was James VI, who became the first dual monarch of England and Scotland in 1603. Two Stuart queens ruled the isles following the Glorious Revolution in 1688: Mary II and Anne. Both were the Protestant daughters of James VII and II by his first wife Anne Hyde and the great-grandchildren of James VI and I. Their father had converted to Catholicism and his new wife gave birth to a son in 1688, who was brought up a Roman Catholic and preceded his half-sisters; so James was deposed by Parliament in 1689, in favour of his daughters. But neither had any children who survived to adulthood, so the crown passed to the House of Hanover on the death of Queen Anne in 1714 under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Act of Security 1704.
Coat of arms of the last Stuart monarch Anne, Queen of Great Britain, 1707–1714
|Parent family||Clan Stewart|
|Country||Scotland, England, Ireland, Great Britain|
|Founder||Walter Fitzalan (c.1110-1177)|
|Final ruler||Anne, Queen of Great Britain (1665–1714)|
The name "Stewart" derives from the political position of office similar to a governor, known as a steward. It was originally adopted as the family surname by Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland, who was the third member of the family to hold the position. Prior to this, family names were not used, but instead they had patronyms defined through the father; for example the first two High Stewards were known as FitzAlan and FitzWalter respectively. The gallicised spelling was first borne by John Stewart of Darnley after his time in the French wars. During the 16th century, the French spelling Stuart was adopted by Mary, Queen of Scots, when she was living in France. She sanctioned the change to ensure the correct pronunciation of the Scots version of the name Stewart, because retaining the letter "w" would have made it difficult for French speakers, who followed the Germans in usually rendering "w" as /v/. The spelling Stuart was also used by her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley; he was the father of James VI and I, so the official spelling Stuart for the British royal family derives from him.
The ancestral origins of the Stuart family are obscure—their probable ancestry is traced back to Alan FitzFlaad, a Breton who came over to Great Britain not long after the Norman conquest. Alan had been the hereditary steward of the Bishop of Dol in the Duchy of Brittany; Alan had a good relationship with Henry I of England who awarded him with lands in Shropshire. The FitzAlan family quickly established themselves as a prominent Anglo-Norman noble house, with some of its members serving as High Sheriff of Shropshire. It was the great-grandson of Alan named Walter FitzAlan who became the first hereditary High Steward of Scotland, while his brother William's family went on to become Earls of Arundel.
When the civil war in the Kingdom of England, known as The Anarchy, broke out between legitimist claimant Matilda, Lady of the English and her cousin who had usurped her, King Stephen, Walter had sided with Matilda. Another supporter of Matilda was her uncle David I of Scotland from the House of Dunkeld. After Matilda was pushed out of England into the County of Anjou, essentially failing in her legitimist attempt for the throne, many of her supporters in England fled also. It was then that Walter followed David up to the Kingdom of Scotland, where he was granted lands in Renfrewshire and the title for life of Lord High Steward. The next monarch of Scotland, Malcolm IV, made the High Steward title a hereditary arrangement. While High Stewards, the family were based at Dundonald, South Ayrshire between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Stewart of Stewart
Stewart of Albany
Stewart of Barclye
Stewart of Garlies
Stewart of Minto
Stewart of Atholl
Stewart of Bute
Stuart of Bute
Stewart of Ardvorlich
Stewart of Physgill
Stewart of Rothesay
The sixth High Steward of Scotland, Walter Stewart (1293–1326), married Marjorie, daughter of Robert the Bruce, and also played an important part in the Battle of Bannockburn gaining further favour. Their son Robert was heir to the House of Bruce, the Lordship of Cunningham and the Bruce lands of Bourtreehill; he eventually inherited the Scottish throne when his uncle David II died childless in 1371.
In 1503, James IV attempted to secure peace with England by marrying King Henry VII's daughter, Margaret Tudor. The birth of their son, later James V, brought the House of Stewart into the line of descent of the House of Tudor, and the English throne. Margaret Tudor later married Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and their daughter, Margaret Douglas, was the mother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. In 1565, Darnley married his half-cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, the daughter of James V. Darnley's father was Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, a member of the Stewart of Darnley branch of the House. Lennox was a descendant of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, also descended from James II, being Mary's heir presumptive. Thus Darnley was also related to Mary on his father's side and because of this connection, Mary's heirs remained part of the House of Stuart. Following John Stewart of Darnley's ennoblement for his part at the Battle of Baugé in 1421 and the grant of lands to him at Aubigny and Concressault, the Darnley Stewarts' surname was gallicised to Stuart.
Both Mary, Queen of Scots, and Lord Darnley had strong claims on the English throne, through their mutual grandmother, Margaret Tudor. This eventually led to the accession of the couple's only child James as King of Scotland, England, and Ireland in 1603. However, this was a Personal Union, as the three Kingdoms shared a monarch, but had separate governments, churches, and institutions. Indeed, the personal union did not prevent an armed conflict, known as the Bishops' Wars, breaking out between England and Scotland in 1639. This was to become part of the cycle of political and military conflict that marked the reign of Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland, culminating in a series of conflicts known as the War of the Three Kingdoms. The trial and execution of Charles I by the English Parliament in 1649 began 11 years of republican government known as the English Interregnum. Scotland initially recognised the late King's son, also called Charles, as their monarch, before being subjugated and forced to enter Cromwell's Commonwealth by General Monck's occupying army. During this period, the principal members of the House of Stuart lived in exile in mainland Europe. The younger Charles returned to Britain to assume his three thrones in 1660 as "Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland", but dated his reign from his father's death eleven years before.
In feudal and dynastic terms, the Scottish reliance on French support was revived during the reign of Charles II, whose own mother was French. His sister Henrietta married into the French royal family. Charles II left no legitimate children, but his numerous illegitimate descendants included the Dukes of Buccleuch, the Dukes of Grafton, the Dukes of Saint Albans and the Dukes of Richmond.
These French and Roman Catholic connections proved unpopular and resulted in the downfall of the Stuarts, whose mutual enemies identified with Protestantism and because James VII and II offended the Anglican establishment by proposing tolerance not only for Catholics but for Protestant Dissenters. The Glorious Revolution caused the overthrow of King James in favour of his son-in-law and his daughter, William and Mary. James continued to claim the thrones of England and Scotland to which he had been crowned, and encouraged revolts in his name, and his grandson Charles (also known as Bonnie Prince Charlie) led an ultimately unsuccessful rising in 1745, ironically becoming symbols of conservative rebellion and Romanticism. Some blame the identification of the Roman Catholic Church with the Stuarts for the extremely lengthy delay in the passage of Catholic emancipation until Jacobitism (as represented by direct Stuart heirs) was extinguished; however it was as likely to be caused by entrenched anti-Catholic prejudice among the Anglican establishment of England. Despite the Whig intentions of tolerance to be extended to Irish subjects, this was not the preference of Georgian Tories and their failure at compromise played a subsequent role in the present division of Ireland.
The Royal House of Stuart became extinct with the death of Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart, brother of Charles Edward Stuart, in 1807. Duke Francis of Bavaria is the current senior heir. However, Charles II had a number of illegitimate sons whose surviving descendants in the male line include Charles Gordon-Lennox, 11th Duke of Richmond; Henry FitzRoy, 12th Duke of Grafton; Murray Beauclerk, 14th Duke of St Albans; and Richard Scott, 10th Duke of Buccleuch. In addition, James II's illegitimate son, James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, founded the House of FitzJames comprising two branches, one in France and one in Spain. The last of the French branch died in 1967; the senior heir of James II's male line descendants is Jacobo Hernando Fitz-James Stuart, 16th Duke of Peñaranda de Duero.
|Portrait||Name||From||Until||Relationship with predecessor|
|Robert II||22 February 1371||19 April 1390||nephew of David II who died without issue. Robert's mother Marjorie Bruce was daughter of Robert I.|
|Robert III||19 April 1390||4 April 1406||son of Robert II of Scotland.|
|James I||4 April 1406||21 February 1437||son of Robert III of Scotland.|
|James II||21 February 1437||3 August 1460||son of James I of Scotland.|
|James III||3 August 1460||11 June 1488||son of James II of Scotland.|
|James IV||11 June 1488||9 September 1513||son of James III of Scotland.|
|James V||9 September 1513||14 December 1542||son of James IV of Scotland.|
|Mary||14 December 1542||24 July 1567||daughter of James V of Scotland.|
|James VI||24 July 1567
||27 March 1625||son of Mary, Queen of Scots.|
These monarchs used the title "King/Queen of Great Britain", although that title had no basis in law until the Acts of Union 1707 came into effect on 1 May 1707. Legally, they each simultaneously occupied two thrones, as "King/Queen of England" and "King/Queen of Scotland".
|Portrait||Name||From||Until||Relationship with predecessor|
|James VI and I
||24 March 1603||27 March 1625||Great-Great grandson of Henry VII of England. King of Scotland alone until inheriting the titles King of England and Ireland, including claim to France from the extinct Tudors.|
|Charles I||27 March 1625||30 January 1649 (executed)||son of James VI and I|
|Charles II||30 January 1649 (de jure); 2 May 1660 (de facto)||6 February 1685||son of Charles I. Prohibited by Parliament from assuming the throne during a republican period of government known as the Commonwealth of England, but then accepted as king in 1661.|
|James VII and II||6 February 1685||11 December 1688||brother of Charles II, who died without legitimate issue. Son of Charles I. Overthrown at the Revolution of 1688. Died in 1701.|
|Mary II||13 February 1689||28 December 1694||daughter of James II & VII, who was still alive and pretending to the throne. Co-monarch was William III & II who outlived his wife.|
|Anne||8 March 1702||1 August 1714||sister of Mary II. daughter of James II & VII. Name of state changed to Great Britain with the political Acts of Union 1707, though family has used title since James I & VI. Died childless, rights pass to House of Hanover.|
Round provided a family tree to embody his essential findings, which is adapted below.
(Seneschal or Steward of Dol)
Took part in First Crusade, 1097.
Occurs at Monmouth, 1101/2
Monk of St Florent.
|Alan Fitz Flaad,|
Founder of Sporle Priory
|Jordan Fitz Alan,|
Dapifer in Britanny,
Benefactor of Sele Priory.
|William Fitz Alan,|
Lord of Oswestry
Founder/benefactor of Haughmond Abbey,
|Walter Fitz Alan|
Dapifer Regis Scotiae,
Founder of Paisley Abbey,
|Alan Fitz Jordan,|
|William Fitz Alan II,|
Lord of Oswestry and Clun
|Alan the Steward|
Senescallus Regis Scotiae
Descended from the Stewarts of Darnley (Stewarts of Lennox)
House of Stuart
House of Bruce
| Ruling house of the Kingdom of Scotland
House of Tudor
| Ruling house of the Kingdom of England
|Vacant|| Ruling house of the Kingdom of Scotland
|Vacant|| Ruling house of the Kingdom of England
|Vacant|| Ruling house of the Kingdom of Scotland
|Titles merged by the|
Acts of Union 1707
|Vacant|| Ruling house of the Kingdom of England|
England and Scotland united
| Ruling house of the Kingdom of Great Britain
House of Hanover
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain. She continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1714.
Anne was born in the reign of her uncle Charles II, who had no legitimate children. Her father, Charles's younger brother James, was thus heir presumptive to the throne. His suspected Roman Catholicism was unpopular in England, and on Charles's instructions Anne and her elder sister, Mary, were raised as Anglicans. On Charles's death in 1685, James succeeded to the throne, but just three years later he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Mary and her husband, the Dutch Protestant William III of Orange (a cousin to Anne and Mary), became joint monarchs. Although the sisters had been close, disagreements over Anne's finances, status and choice of acquaintances arose shortly after Mary's accession and they became estranged. William and Mary had no children. After Mary's death in 1694, William reigned alone until his own death in 1702, when Anne succeeded him.
During her reign, Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more likely to share her Anglican religious views than their opponents, the Whigs. The Whigs grew more powerful during the course of the War of the Spanish Succession, until 1710 when Anne dismissed many of them from office. Her close friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, turned sour as the result of political differences. The Duchess took revenge in an unflattering description of the Queen in her memoirs, which was widely accepted by historians until Anne was re-assessed in the late 20th century.
Anne was plagued by ill health throughout her life, and from her thirties, she grew increasingly ill and obese. Despite seventeen pregnancies by her husband, Prince George of Denmark, she died without surviving issue and was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. Under the Act of Settlement 1701, which excluded all Catholics, she was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover.Battle of Black Mount
The Battle of Black Mount, was a Scottish clan battle that took place in 1497 or 1498, in Black Mount which is between Glen Orchy and Glen Coe in the Scottish Highlands. The battle was fought between the Clan Stewart of Appin and their allies the Clan MacLaren against the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch.Charles Edward Stuart
Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788) was the elder son of James Francis Edward Stuart, grandson of James II and VII and after 1766 the Stuart claimant to the throne of Great Britain. During his lifetime, he was also known as "The Young Pretender" or "The Young Chevalier" and in popular memory as "Bonnie Prince Charlie". He is best remembered for his role in the 1745 rising; his defeat at Culloden in April 1746 effectively ended the Stuart cause, and subsequent attempts (such as a planned French invasion in 1759) failed to materialise. His escape from Scotland after the uprising led him to be portrayed as a romantic figure of heroic failure in later representations.Clan Stewart
Clan Stewart (Gaelic: Stiùbhart) is a Highland Scottish clan. The clan is recognised by Court of the Lord Lyon; however, it does not have a clan chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Because the clan has no chief it can be considered an armigerous clan; however, the Earls of Galloway are now considered to be the principal branch of this clan, and the crest and motto of The Earls of Galloway's arms are used in the Clan Stewart crest badge. The Court of the Lord Lyon recognises two other 'Stewart' clans, Clan Stuart of Bute and Clan Stewart of Appin. Clan Stuart of Bute is the only 'Stewart' clan at present which has a recognised chief.Clan Stewart of Appin
Clan Stewart of Appin is the West Highland branch of the Clan Stewart and have been a distinct clan since their establishment in the 15th century. Their Chiefs are descended from Sir James Stewart of Perston, who was himself the grandson of Alexander Stewart, the fourth High Steward of Scotland. His cousin Walter Stewart, the 6th High Steward, married Marjorie Bruce, the daughter of King Robert the Bruce, and their son Robert II was the first Stewart Monarch. The Stewarts of Appin are cousins to the Royal Stewart Monarchy.Clan Stuart of Bute
Clan Stuart of Bute is a Highland Scottish Clan and is a branch of the larger Clan Stewart.Eleanor of Scotland
Eleanor of Scotland (1433 – Innsbruck 20 November 1480) was an Archduchess of Austria by marriage to Sigismund, Archduke of Austria, a noted translator, and regent of Austria in 1455-58 and 1467. She was a daughter of James I of Scotland and Joan Beaufort.Family tree of the British royal family
This is the British monarchs' family tree, from James VI & I (whose accession united the thrones of England and Scotland) to the present monarch, Elizabeth II.Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales (19 February 1594 – 6 November 1612) was the elder son of James VI and I, King of England and Scotland, and his wife, Anne of Denmark. His name derives from his grandfathers: Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and Frederick II of Denmark. Prince Henry was widely seen as a bright and promising heir to his father's thrones. However, at the age of 18, he predeceased his father when he died of typhoid fever. His younger brother Charles succeeded him as heir apparent to the English, Irish and Scottish thrones.Jacobite risings
The Jacobite risings, also known as the Jacobite rebellions or the War of the British Succession, were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in Great Britain and Ireland occurring between 1688 and 1746. The uprisings had the aim of returning James II of England and VII of Scotland, the last Catholic British monarch, and later his descendants of the House of Stuart, to the throne of Great Britain after they had been deposed by Parliament during the Glorious Revolution. The series of conflicts takes its name Jacobitism, from Jacobus, the Latin form of James.
Jacobite rising may refer to any of the following:
Jacobite rising of 1689
Williamite War in Ireland, James's attempts to regain the throne in Ireland
Jacobite assassination plot 1696
Planned French invasion of Britain (1708), included Jacobite support.
Jacobite rising of 1715
Jacobite rising of 1719
Planned French invasion of Britain (1744), included Jacobite support.
Jacobite rising of 1745
Planned French invasion of Britain (1759), included Jacobite support.Jacobite succession
The Jacobite succession is the line through which the crown in pretence of England, Scotland and Ireland (France also claimed) has descended since the flight of James II & VII from London at the time of the "Glorious Revolution". James and his Jacobite successors were traditionally toasted as "The King over the Water". After the death of James's grandson, Henry Benedict Stuart, in 1807, none of the notional Jacobite "successors" have claimed the thrones of England and Scotland or incorporated the arms of England and Scotland in their coats-of-arms.James III of Scotland
James III (10 July 1451/May 1452 – 11 June 1488) was King of Scots from 1460 to 1488. James was an unpopular and ineffective monarch owing to an unwillingness to administer justice fairly, a policy of pursuing alliance with the Kingdom of England, and a disastrous relationship with nearly all his extended family. However, it was through his marriage to Margaret of Denmark that the Orkney and Shetland islands became Scottish.
His reputation as the first Renaissance monarch in Scotland has sometimes been exaggerated, based on attacks on him in later chronicles for being more interested in such unmanly pursuits as music than hunting, riding and leading his kingdom into war. In fact, the artistic legacy of his reign is slight, especially when compared to that of his successors, James IV and James V. Such evidence as there is consists of portrait coins produced during his reign that display the king in three-quarter profile wearing an imperial crown, the Trinity Altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes, which was probably not commissioned by the king, and an unusual hexagonal chapel at Restalrig near Edinburgh, perhaps inspired by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.James II of Scotland
James II (16 October 1430 – 3 August 1460) was a member of the House of Stewart who reigned as King of Scotland from 1437 until his death.James Stewart, Duke of Ross
James Stewart, Duke of Ross (March 1476 – January 1504) was the second son of King James III of Scotland and Margaret of Denmark.List of British monarchs
There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707. England and Scotland had been in personal union under the House of Stuart since 24 March 1603.
On 1 January 1801, Great Britain merged with the Kingdom of Ireland (also previously in personal union with Great Britain) to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After most of Ireland left the union on 6 December 1922, its name was amended on 12 April 1927 to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland
Margaret of Denmark (23 June 1456 – 14 July 1486), also referred to as Margaret of Norway, was Queen of Scotland from 1469 to 1486 by marriage to King James III. She was the daughter of Christian I, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and Dorothea of Brandenburg.Marjorie Bruce
Marjorie Bruce or Marjorie de Brus (probably 1296–1316) was the eldest daughter of Robert the Bruce, King of Scots, by his first wife, Isabella of Mar.
Marjorie's marriage to Walter, High Steward of Scotland gave rise to the House of Stewart. Her son was the first Stewart monarch, King Robert II of Scotland.Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange
Mary, Princess Royal (Mary Henrietta; 4 November 1631 – 24 December 1660) was Princess of Orange and Countess of Nassau by marriage to Prince William II, and co-regent for her son during his minority as Sovereign Prince of Orange from 1651 to 1660.
She was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France. Her only child, William succeeded her husband as Prince of Orange and later reigned as King of England, Ireland and Scotland. Mary was the first daughter of a British sovereign to hold the title Princess Royal.Mary II of England
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary. William and Mary, both Protestants, became king and queen regnant following the Glorious Revolution, which resulted in the adoption of the English Bill of Rights and the deposition of her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII. William became sole ruler upon her death in 1694. He reigned as such until his own death in 1702, when he was succeeded by Mary's sister Anne.
Mary wielded less power than William when he was in England, ceding most of her authority to him, though he heavily relied on her. She did, however, act alone when William was engaged in military campaigns abroad, proving herself to be a powerful, firm, and effective ruler.
Royal houses of Europe