House of Luxembourg

The House of Luxembourg (French: Maison de Luxembourg; German: Haus Luxemburg) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Čeští králové, König von Böhmen) and Hungary. Their rule over the Holy Roman Empire was twice interrupted by the rival House of Wittelsbach.

House of Luxembourg
Maison de Luxembourg
Royal family
Arms of the Counts of Luxembourg
Parent familyHouse of Ardennes
Country
Founded12 February 1247
FounderHenry V, Count of Luxembourg
Current headNone; extinct
Final rulerElizabeth of Luxembourg
Titles
DistinctionsOrder of the Dragon
Dissolution2 August 1451
Deposition1443
Cadet branchesLuxembourg-Brienne
(extinct in 1648)

History

The Luxembourg line was initially a cadet branch of the German (or Frankish) ducal House of LimburgArlon, when in 1247 Henry, younger son of Duke Waleran III of Limburg inherited the County of Luxembourg upon the death of his mother Countess Ermesinde, a scion of the House of Namur. Her father, Count Henry IV of Luxembourg, was related on his mother's side to the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty (also called the elder House of Luxembourg), which had ruled the county since the late 10th century.

HRR 14Jh
Holy Roman Empire under Charles IV
  Habsburg
  Luxembourg
  Wittelsbach

Count Henry V's grandson Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg upon the death of his father Henry VI at the 1288 Battle of Worringen, was elected Rex Romanorum in 1308. The election was necessary after the Habsburg king Albert I of Germany had been murdered, and Henry, backed by his brother Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, prevailed against Charles, Count of Valois. Henry arranged the marriage of his son John with the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia in 1310, through whom the House of Luxembourg acquired the Kingdom of Bohemia, enabling that family to compete more effectively for power with the Habsburg and Wittelsbach dynasties. One year after being crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome, Henry VII, still on campaign in Italy, died in 1313.

The prince-electors, perturbed by the rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, and the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria. John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and gradually vassalized the Piast dukes of adjacent Silesia from 1327 until 1335. His son Charles IV, in 1346 mounted the Imperial throne. His Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant and Limburg in the west, but also the former March of Lusatia and even the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373 under the Kingdom of Bohemia.

The family's decline began under Charles' son King Wenceslaus, deposed by the prince-electors in 1400 who chose the Wittelsbach Elector Palatine Rupert. In 1410 rule was assumed by Wenceslaus' brother Sigismund, who once again stabilized the rule of the Luxembourgs and even contributed to end the Western Schism in 1417; however, with his death in 1437, the senior branch of the dynasty became extinct. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, the Habsburg archduke Albert V of Austria. The Habsburgs finally prevailed as Luxembourg heirs, ruling the Empire until the extinction of their senior branch upon the death of Maria Theresa in 1780.

Notable members

Kaja4Gelnhausenkodex
Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia

According to the Salic law, the succession could have been disputed, in which case it would have passed collaterally to the cadet branch of Ligny. That branch descended from a younger son of Henry V, and was headed by Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, before he was executed for treason by Louis XI of France.[2]

Genealogy

Staufen dynasty

Staufen dynasty

House of Limburg–Arlon

 

Waleran I
(† 1082)
Count of Limburg

Henry I
(1059 † 1119)
Count of Limburg

Waleran II
(1085 † 1139)
Duke of Limburg

Henry II
(1111 † 1167)
Duke of Limburg

Henry III
(1140 † 1221)
Limburg Old Arms.svg
Duke of Limburg

Waleran III
(1180 † 1226)
Armoiries Chypre.svgArms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Duke of Limburg



Henry IV
(† 1247)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Duke of Limburg and Count of Berg


Waleran
(† 1242)
Armes Limbourg-Fauquemont.svg
Lord of Fauquemont

Henry V
(1217 † 1281)
Arms of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.svg
Count of Luxembourg


Gerard
(† 1276)
Armoiries Gérard de Durbuy.svg
Count of Durbuy



Adolf IV
(1220 † 1259)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Berg

Waleran IV
(† 1279)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Duke of Limburg

Henry VI
(1250 † 1288)
Arms of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.svg
Count of Luxembourg

Waleran I
(1252 † 1288)
Armoiries Waléran I de Ligny.svg
Lord of Ligny


Adolf V
(† 1296)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Berg

William I
(† 1308)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Berg

Henry of Windeck
(† 1292)





Ermengarde
(† 1283)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
x Reginald I of Guelders

Henry VII
(1275 † 1313)
Armoiries Henri VII de Luxembourg.svg
Holy Roman Emperor

Waleran II
(1275 † 1354)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Ligny.pngArms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Lord of Ligny
Adolf VI
(† 1348)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Berg
John the Blind
(1296 † 1346)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg.svg
King of Bohemia
John I
(1300 † 1364)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Lord of Ligny


Charles IV
(1316 † 1378)
Armoiries empereur Charles IV.svg
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Bohemia

John Henry
(1322 † 1372)
Armoiries Jean-Henri de Luxembourg.svg
Margrave
of Moravia

Wenceslaus I
(1337 † 1383)
Armoiries Wenceslas de Luxembourg.png
Duke of
Luxembourg

Guy
(1340 † 1371)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Ligny
Count of Saint-Pol



Wenceslaus IV
(1361 † 1419)
Armoiries empereur Charles IV.svg
King of the Romans
King of Bohemia

Sigismund
(1368 † 1437)
Armoiries empereur Sigismond Ier.svg
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Bohemia and Hungary

John
(1370 † 1396)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Goerlitz.svg
Duke of Görlitz




Jobst
(1351 † 1411)
Armoiries Josse de Luxembourg.svg
holy roman emperor
margrave
of Moravia and
Brandenburg

Waleran III
(1356 † 1415)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Ligny
and of Saint-Pol

John
(1370 † 1397)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg-Ligny.svg
Lord of Beauvoir
Count of Brienne




Elizabeth of Luxembourg
(1409 † 1442)
X Albert II of Habsburg

Elisabeth
(1390 † 1453)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Goerlitz.svg
Duchess of Luxembourg, sold duchy to the Dukes of Burgundy


Peter
(1390 † 1433)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Saint-Pol




John II
(1392 † 1441)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg-Ligny.svg
Count of Ligny


Louis
(1418 † 1475)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Saint-Pol



Peter II
(† 1482)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Saint-Pol


Thibaud
(† 1477)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Lord of Fiennes, Count of Brienne, Bishop of Le Mans


Jacques
(† 1487)
Blason Charles II de Ligny-Luxembourg (1576–1608).svg
Lord of Fiennes and Gavre

Early Luxembourg counts

The first instance of the house of Luxembourg seems to be:

 
Cunigunda of Montjoie

Waleran III
Duke of Limburg
│ │
Ermesinde
Countess of Luxembourg



Henry IV
Duke of Limburg and Count of Berg
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Waleran
Lord of Fauquemont
Armes Limbourg-Fauquemont.svg

Henry V
Count of Luxembourg
Arms of the Count of Luxembourg.svg

Gerard
Count of Durbuy
Armoiries Gérard de Durbuy.svg



Adolphe IV
Count of Berg
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Waleran IV
Duke of Limburg
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Henry VI
Count of Luxembourg
Arms of the Count of Luxembourg.svg

Waleran I
Lord of Ligny
Armoiries Waléran I de Ligny.svg

Ancestors

Two houses descended from the women of the counts of Luxembourg, the Counts of Loon and the Counts of Grandpré, wear a shield barry. Both families had a place in relation to the succession of the House of Ardennes. Indeed, the Count of Grandpré was the next heir of Conrad II of Luxembourg, the last representative of the Ardennes dynasty, but Emperor Frederick Barbarossa preferred that Luxembourg was held by a lord Germanic rather than French and attributed the county to Henry, son of Conrad's aunt Ermesinde and Count Godfrey I of Namur. The Counts of Loon are also in position to claim the inheritance Luxembourg, albeit weaker position:

 
Conrad I
(1040 † 1086)
Count of Luxembourg


Henry III
(† 1086)
Count of Luxembourg

William
(1081 † 1131)
Count of Luxembourg
X 1105 Matilda of Northeim

Ermesinde
(1075 † 1143)
X 1) Albert II, Count of Dagsburg
X 2) Godfrey I, Count of Namur



Conrad II
(† 1136)
Count of Luxembourg
s.p.

Liutgarde
(1120 † 1170)
X Henri II
(1125 † 1211)
Counts of Grandpré
Loon Arms.svg

Hugh VII1
(† 1137)
Count of Dagsburg

three children
died without issue

Mathilde1
X Folmar V
(† 1145)
Count of Metz

Henri IV²
(1112 † 1196)
Count of Namur and of Luxembourg

Ermesinde
(1186 † 1247)
X 1) Theobald I, Count of Bar
X 2) Waleran III, Duke of Limburg

Henry V
(1216 † 1284)
Count of Luxembourg
Arms of the Count of Luxembourg.svg


two sons
died without issue

Agnès
X Louis I, Count of Loon|Louis I
(1110 † 1171)
Counts of Loon
Loon Arms.svg
 
 
 
 

See also

References

  1. ^ "Sigismund (Holy Roman emperor)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-03-29.
  2. ^ Cave, Roy; Coulson, Herbert (1965). A Source Book for Medieval Economic History. New York: Biblo and Tannen. p. 336.
Anne of Bohemia

Anne of Bohemia (11 May 1366 – 7 June 1394) was Queen of England as the first wife of King Richard II. A member of the House of Luxembourg, she was the eldest daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth of Pomerania. She died at age of 28 after 12 years of marriage; she was childless, and greatly mourned by her husband.

The marriage was initially unpopular in England inasmuch as, even though Anne's father was perhaps the most powerful monarch in Europe, his relatively distant area of influence could give little trade or political advantage to England, and Anne brought no dowry; instead Richard had to pay her brother a sum. But Anne appears to have won many English people over with her personality, and her efforts to help obtain royal pardons.

Her father's court, based in Prague, was a centre of the International Gothic style, then at its height, and her arrival seems to coincide with, and probably caused, new influences on English art. The Crown of Princess Blanche, now in Munich, may have been made for Anne, either in Prague or Paris.She had four brothers, including Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, and one younger sister, Margaret of Bohemia, Burgravine of Nuremberg. She also had five half-siblings from her father's previous marriages. Anne is buried in Westminster Abbey beside her husband.

Beatrice of Luxembourg

Beatrice of Luxembourg (1305 – 11 November 1319), was by birth member of the House of Luxembourg and by marriage Queen of Hungary.

She was the youngest child of Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife, Margaret of Brabant. Her two siblings were John of Luxembourg and Marie of Luxembourg, Queen of France.

Bonne of Luxembourg

Bonne of Luxemburg or Jutta of Luxemburg (20 May 1315 – 11 September 1349), was born Jutta (Judith), the second daughter of John the Blind, king of Bohemia, and his first wife, Elisabeth of Bohemia. She was the first wife of King John II of France; however, as she died a year prior to his accession, she was never a French queen. Jutta was referred to in French historiography as Bonne de Luxembourg. She was a member of the House of Luxembourg. Among her children were Charles V of France, Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, and Joan, Queen of Navarre.

Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles IV (Czech: Karel IV., German: Karl IV., Latin: Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378), born Wenceslaus, was the first King of Bohemia to become Holy Roman Emperor. He was a member of the House of Luxembourg from his father's side and the Czech House of Přemyslid from his mother's side; he emphasized the latter due to his lifelong affinity for the Czech side of his inheritance, and also because his direct ancestors in the Přemyslid line included two saints.He was the eldest son and heir of King John of Bohemia, who died at the Battle of Crécy on 26 August 1346. His mother, Elizabeth of Bohemia, was the sister of King Wenceslas III, the last of the male Přemyslid rulers of Bohemia. Charles inherited the County of Luxembourg from his father and was elected king of the Kingdom of Bohemia. On 2 September 1347, Charles was crowned King of Bohemia.

On 11 July 1346, the prince-electors chose him as King of the Romans (rex Romanorum) in opposition to Emperor Louis IV. Charles was crowned on 26 November 1346 in Bonn. After his opponent died, he was re-elected in 1349 and crowned King of the Romans. In 1355, he was crowned King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor. With his coronation as King of Burgundy in 1365, he became the personal ruler of all the kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire.

Conrad I, Count of Luxembourg

Conrad I (c. 1040 – 8 August 1086), Count of Luxembourg, was the first count of Luxembourg (1059–1086), succeeding his father Giselbert of Luxembourg.He was embroiled in an argument with the archbishop of Trier as to the abbaye Saint-Maximin in Trier which he had avowed. The archbishop excommunicated him and Conrad had to make honourable amends and set out on pilgrimage for Jerusalem to have his excommunication lifted. He died in Italy on the return journey.He founded many abbeys:

the abbaye d'Orval in 1070, with Arnold I, Count of Chiny

the abbaye d'Altmünster in 1083.

Conrad II, Count of Luxembourg

Conrad II of Luxembourg (died 1136) was count of Luxembourg (1131–1136), in succession to his father William I of Luxembourg. His mother was Mathilde or Luitgarde of Northeim.

He married Ermengarde, daughter of count Otto II, Count of Zutphen. Conrad II died without a male heir, and so the county of Luxembourg reverted to the Holy Roman Emperor. The emperor in turn did not wish the county to be rule by Conrad's closest relative Henri de Grandpré, who was a French lord and so might align the county with the kingdom of France, and so granted it to Henry of Namur, a cousin of Conrad's.

Frederick of Luxembourg

Frederick of Luxembourg (965 – 6 October 1019), Count of Moselgau, was a son of Siegfried of Luxembourg and Hedwig of Nordgau.

By a wife whose name is unknown (certain historians give her as Ermentrude, Countess of Gleiberg), he had:

Henry VII (d. 1047), Count of Luxembourg and Duke of Bavaria

Frederick, Duke of Lower Lorraine (1003–1065), Duke of Lower Lorraine

Giselbert of Luxembourg (1007–1059), Count of Longwy, of Salm, and of Luxembourg

Adalbéron III (d. 1072), Bishop of Metz

Thierry of Luxembourg, father of :

Thierry (d. 1075)

Henry, Count Palatine of Lorraine (d. 1095)

Poppon of Metz (d. 1103), Bishop of Metz

Ogive of Luxembourg (990–1036); married in 1012 to Baldwin IV (980–1035), Count of Flanders

Imiza of Luxembourg; married Welf II of Altdorf, Count in Lechrain (d. 1030)

Oda of Luxembourg; canoness at Remiremont, then Abbess of Saint-Rémy at Lunéville

Gisèle of Luxembourg (1019–after 1058); married Radulfe, Lord of Aalst (d. after 1038); parents of Gilbert de Gant

Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg

The Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg constitutes the House of Luxembourg-Nassau, headed by the sovereign Grand Duke, and in which the throne of the grand duchy is hereditary. It consists of heirs and descendants of the House of Nassau-Weilburg, whose sovereign territories passed cognatically from the Nassau dynasty to a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon-Parma, itself a branch of the Spanish Royal House which is agnatically a cadet branch of the House of Capet that originated in France. This is descended from the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians.

Henry V, Duke of Bavaria

Henry (died 1026), of the House of Luxembourg, was the count of Luxembourg (as Henry I) from 998 and the duke of Bavaria (as Henry V) from 1004. He was the son of Siegfried I of Luxembourg and Hedwige of Nordgau.

He was the advocate of the abbeys of Saint-Maximin of Trier and Saint-Willibrord of Echternach, hereditary titles within his family.

In 1004, at the Diet of Ratisbon, he received Bavaria from his brother-in-law, the Emperor Henry II, who was also the duke of Bavaria. During a quarrel with the emperor in 1009, the duchy was removed from, him but he was reinstated in 1017. He never married and his county passed to his nephew Henry and Bavaria returned to the emperor, then Conrad II, who bestowed it on his son, the later Emperor Henry III.

Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry VII (German: Heinrich; c. 1274 – 24 August 1313) was the King of Germany (or Rex Romanorum) from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312. He was the first emperor of the House of Luxembourg.

During his brief career he reinvigorated the imperial cause in Italy, which was racked with the partisan struggles between the divided Guelf and Ghibelline factions, and inspired the praise of Dino Compagni and Dante Alighieri. He was the first emperor since the death of Frederick II in 1250, ending the great interregnum of the Holy Roman Empire; however, his premature death threatened to undo his life's work. His son, John of Bohemia, failed to be elected as his successor, and there was briefly another anti-king, Frederick the Fair contesting the rule of Louis IV.

Holy Roman Emperor

The Holy Roman Emperor (also "German-Roman Emperor", German: Römisch-deutscher Kaiser "Roman-German emperor"; historically Imperator Romanorum, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (considered by itself to be the successor of the Roman Empire) during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was, almost without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany (rex teutonicorum) throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.From an autocracy in Carolingian times (AD 800–924) the title by the 13th century evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors.

Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became de facto hereditary holders of the title, notably the Ottonians (962–1024) and the Salians (1027–1125). Following the late medieval crisis of government, the Habsburgs kept possession of the title without interruption from 1440–1740. The final emperors were from the House of Lorraine (Habsburg-Lorraine), from 1765–1806. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Emperor Francis II, after a devastating defeat to Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.

The Holy Roman Emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right, though he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy.

In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other Catholic monarchs. In practice, a Holy Roman Emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances, including marriage alliances, made him. There was never a Holy Roman Empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa of Austria served as de facto Empresses regnant.

Throughout its history, the position was viewed as a defender of the Roman Catholic faith. Until the Reformation, the Emperor elect (imperator electus) was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was the last to be crowned by the Pope in 1530. Even after the Reformation, the elected Emperor always was a Roman Catholic. There were short periods in history when the electoral college was dominated by Protestants, and the electors usually voted in their own political interest.

Jacquetta of Luxembourg

Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Countess Rivers (1415/1416 – 30 May 1472) was the eldest daughter of Peter I of Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, Conversano and Brienne, and his wife Margaret of Baux (Margherita del Balzo of Andria). She was a prominent, though often overlooked, figure in the Wars of the Roses. Through her short-lived first marriage to the Duke of Bedford, brother of King Henry V, she was firmly allied to the House of Lancaster. However, following the emphatic Lancastrian defeat at the Battle of Towton, she and her second husband Richard Woodville sided closely with the House of York. Three years after the battle and the accession of Edward IV of England, Jacquetta's eldest daughter Elizabeth Woodville married him and became Queen consort of England. Jacquetta bore Woodville 14 children and stood trial on charges of witchcraft, for which she was exonerated.

Jobst of Moravia

Jobst of Moravia (Czech: Jošt Moravský or Jošt Lucemburský; German: Jo(b)st or Jodokus von Mähren; c. 1354 – 18 January 1411), a member of the House of Luxembourg, was Margrave of Moravia from 1375, Duke of Luxembourg and Elector of Brandenburg from 1388 as well as elected King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1410 until his death. Jobst was an ambitious and versatile ruler, who in the early 15th century dominated the ongoing struggles within the Luxembourg dynasty and around the German throne.

John Henry, Margrave of Moravia

John Henry of Luxembourg (Czech: Jan Jindřich, German: Johann Heinrich; 12 February 1322 – 12 November 1375), a member of the House of Luxembourg, was Count of Tyrol from 1335 to 1341 and Margrave of Moravia from 1349 until his death.

King of Italy

King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a "barbarian" military leader, in the late 5th century, followed by the Ostrogothic kings up to the mid-6th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages. The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.

A Kingdom of Italy was restored from 1805 to 1814 with Napoleon as its only king, centered in Northern Italy. It was not until the Italian unification in the 1860s that a Kingdom of Italy covering the entire peninsula was restored. From 1861 the House of Savoy held the title of King of Italy until the last king, Umberto II, was exiled in 1946 when Italy became a republic.

List of monarchs of Luxembourg

The territory of Luxembourg was ruled successively by counts, dukes and grand dukes. It was part of the medieval Kingdom of Germany, and later the Holy Roman Empire until it became a sovereign state in 1815.

Margaret of Brabant

Margaret of Brabant (4 October 1276 – 14 December 1311), was the daughter of John I, Duke of Brabant and Margaret of Flanders. She was the wife of Count Henry of Luxemburg and after his election as King of Germany in 1308, she became Queen of Germany.

Sigfried, Count of the Ardennes

Sigfried (or Siegfried) (c. 922 – 28 October 998) was count of the Ardennes and the first person to rule Luxembourg. He was an advocate of the abbeys of St. Maximin in Trier and Saint Willibrord in Echternach. He may have been the son of Count Palatine Wigeric of Lotharingia and Cunigunda. He was the founder of the House of Luxembourg, a branch of the House of Ardennes.

Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor

Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 until 1437, and the last male member of the House of Luxembourg. In 1396 he led the Crusade of Nicopolis, which attempted to liberate Bulgaria and save the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople from Ottoman rule. Afterwards, he founded the Order of the Dragon to fight the Turks. He was regarded as highly educated, spoke several languages (among them French, German, Hungarian, Italian, and Latin) and was an outgoing person who also took pleasure in the tournament. Sigismund was one of the driving forces behind the Council of Constance that ended the Papal Schism, but which also led to the Hussite Wars that dominated the later period of Sigismund's life.

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