House of Hanover

The House of Hanover (German: Haus Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians (/ˌhænəˈvɪəriənz, -noʊ-, -ˈvɛər-/), is a German royal house that ruled Hanover, Great Britain, and Ireland at various times during the 17th through 20th centuries. The house originated in 1635 as a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, growing in prestige until Hanover became an Electorate in 1692. George I became the first Hanoverian monarch of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714. At Victoria's death in 1901, the throne of the United Kingdom passed to her eldest son Edward VII, a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The last reigning members of the House lost the Duchy of Brunswick in 1918 when Germany became a republic.

The formal name of the house was the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hanover line.[1] The senior line of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which ruled Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, became extinct in 1884. The House of Hanover is now the only surviving branch of the House of Welf, which is the senior branch of the House of Este. The current head of the House of Hanover is Ernst August, Prince of Hanover.

House of Hanover
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Hanover
Parent house
Country
Founded1635 – George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Current headErnst August, Prince of Hanover
Titles etc.
Deposition

History

Dukes and Electors of Brunswick-Lüneburg

George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, is considered the first member of the House of Hanover.[2] When the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was divided in 1635, George inherited the Principality of Calenberg and moved his residence to Hanover. His son, Christian Louis inherited the Principality of Lüneburg from George's brother. Calenberg and Lüneburg were then shared between George's sons until united in 1705 under his grandson, also called George, who subsequently became George I of Great Britain. All held the title Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. George died in 1641 and was succeeded by:

  • Christian Louis, 1st son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1641–1648) and Prince of Lüneburg (1648–1665). He relinquished Calenburg when he became Prince of Lüneburg.
  • George William, 2nd son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1648–1665) and Prince of Lüneburg (1665–1705). He relinquished Calenburg when he became Prince of Lüneburg on the death of his brother, Christian Louis.
  • John Frederick, 3rd son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1665–1679).
  • Ernest Augustus, 4th son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1679–1698). He became Prince of Calenberg on the death of his brother John Frederick. He was elevated to prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692. Ernest Augustus's wife, Sophia of the Palatinate, was declared heiress of the throne of England by the Act of Settlement of 1701, which decreed Roman Catholics could not accede to the throne. Sophia was at that time the senior eligible Protestant descendant of James I of England.
  • George Louis, son of Duke Ernest Augustus and Sophia, became Elector and Prince of Calenberg in 1698 and Prince of Lüneburg when his uncle George William died in 1705. He inherited his mother's claim to the throne of Great Britain when she died in 1714.

Monarchs of Great Britain, Ireland, and Hanover

George Louis became the first British monarch of the House of Hanover as George I in 1714.[3]:13 The dynasty provided six British monarchs:

Of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland:

Of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland:

George I, George II, and George III also served as electors and dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, informally, Electors of Hanover (cf. personal union). From 1814, when Hanover became a kingdom, the British monarch was also King of Hanover.

Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837)

Arms of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom (1816–1837)

King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (3)

George I (1714–1727)

George II by Thomas Hudson

George II (1727–1760)

Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project

George III (1760–1820)

George IV 1821 color

George IV (1820–1830)

William IV

William IV (1830–1837)

Queen Victoria 1843

Victoria (1837–1901)

In 1837, the personal union of the thrones of the United Kingdom and Hanover ended with the death of William IV. Succession to the Hanoverian throne was regulated by semi-Salic law (agnatic-cognatic), which gave priority to all male lines before female lines, so that it passed not to Queen Victoria but to her uncle, the Duke of Cumberland.[3]:13,14 In 1901, when Queen Victoria, the last British monarch provided by the House of Hanover, died, her son and heir Edward VII became the first British Monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward taking his family name from that of his father, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.[3]:14

Kings of Hanover after the breakup of the personal union

After the death of William IV in 1837, the following kings of Hanover continued the dynasty:

GeorgeVHannover

King George V of Hanover (1851–1866)

The Kingdom of Hanover came to an end in 1866 when it was annexed by Kingdom of Prussia and the king of Hanover (and duke of Cumberland) forced to go into exile in Austria. The 1866 rift between the House of Hanover and the House of Hohenzollern was settled only by the 1913 marriage of Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia to Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, the last king's grandson.

Prince-bishops of Osnabrück

At the end of the Thirty Years' War, the Peace of Westphalia (1648) awarded the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück alternately to a Catholic bishop and to a cadet branch of Brunswick-Lüneburg.[5] Since the treaty gave cadets priority over heirs and reigning princes, Osnabrück became a form of appanage (in alternation) of the House of Hanover.

Osnabrück was mediatized to Hanover in 1803.

Dukes of Brunswick

In 1884, the senior branch of the House of Welf became extinct. By semi-Salic law, the House of Hanover would have acceded to the Duchy of Brunswick, but there had been strong Prussian pressure against having George V of Hanover or his son, the Duke of Cumberland, succeed to a member state of the German Empire, at least without strong conditions, including swearing to the German constitution. By a law of 1879, the Duchy of Brunswick established a temporary council of regency to take over at the Duke's death, and if necessary appoint a regent.

The Duke of Cumberland proclaimed himself Duke of Brunswick at the Duke's death, and lengthy negotiations ensued, but were never resolved. Prince Albert of Prussia was appointed regent; after his death in 1906, Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg succeeded him. The Duke of Cumberland's eldest son died in a car accident in 1912; the father renounced Brunswick in favor of his younger son Ernest Augustus, who married the Kaiser's daughter Victoria Louise the same year, swore allegiance to the German Empire, and was allowed to ascend the throne of the Duchy in November 1913. He was a major-general during the First World War; but he was overthrown as Duke of Brunswick in 1918. His father was also deprived of his British titles in 1919, for "bearing arms against Great Britain".

After having left Brunswick Palace, the duke and his family moved back to their exile seat Cumberland Castle at Gmunden, Austria, but in 1924 he received Blankenburg Castle and some other estates in a settlement with the Free State of Brunswick, and moved there in 1930. A few days before Blankenburg was handed over to the Red Army by British and US forces in late 1945, to become part of East Germany, the family was able to quickly move to Marienburg Castle (Hanover) with all their furniture, transported by British army trucks, on the order of King George VI.[6] Duke Ernest Augustus died at Marienburg Castle in 1953. His Herrenhausen Palace in Hanover had been completely destroyed during World War II. His eldest son, Prince Ernest Augustus, sold his remaining property at Herrenhausen Gardens in 1961, but kept the nearby Princely House, a small palace built in 1720 by George I for his daughter Anna Louise. It is now his grandson Ernest Augustus's private home, along with Marienburg Castle.

Wolfenbuettel Schloss (2006)

Wolfenbüttel Castle

Claimants

Flag of Hanover 1837-1866
Flag of the House of Hanover

The later heads of the House of Hanover have been:

(See Line of succession to the Hanoverian Throne.)

The family has been resident in Austria since 1866 and thus took on Austrian nationality besides their German and British. Since the later king Ernest Augustus had been created Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh by his father George III in 1799, these British peerages were inherited by his descendants. In 1914 the title of a Prince of Great Britain and Ireland was additionally granted to the members of the house by King George V. These peerages and titles however were suspended under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917.[7] However, the title Royal Prince of Great Britain and Ireland had been entered into the family's German passports, together with the German titles, in 1914. After the German Revolution of 1918–19, with the abolishment of nobility's privileges,[8] titles officially became parts of the last name. So, curiously, the British prince's title is still part of the family's last name in their German passports, while it is no longer mentioned in their British documents.[9]

On 29 August 1931, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, as head of the House of Hanover, declared the formal resumption, for himself and his dynastic descendants, of use of his former British princely title as a secondary title of pretense, which style, "Royal Prince of Great Britain and Ireland", his grandson, the current head of the house, also called Ernest Augustus, continues to claim.[10] He has the right to petition under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917 for the restoration of his ancestors' suspended British peerages Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh, but he has not done so. His father, another Ernest Augustus, did, however, successfully claim British nationality after World War II by virtue of a hitherto overlooked (and since repealed) provision of the Sophia Naturalization Act 1705.[11] According to the decision taken by a court of the House of Lords, all family members bear the last name Guelph in the UK and are styled Royal Highnesses in their documents.

Patrilineal descent

  1. Oberto I, 912–975
  2. Oberto Obizzo, 940–1017
  3. Albert Azzo I, Margrave of Milan, 970–1029
  4. Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan, d.
  5. Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, 1037–1101
  6. Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, 1074–1126
  7. Henry X, Duke of Bavaria, 1108–1139
  8. Henry the Lion, 1129–1195
  9. William of Winchester, Lord of Lunenburg, 1184–1213
  10. Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1204–1252
  11. Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1236–1279
  12. Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1268–1318
  13. Magnus the Pious, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1304–1369
  14. Magnus II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1328–1373
  15. Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1362–1434
  16. Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1408–1478
  17. Otto V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1439–1471
  18. Heinrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1468–1532
  19. Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1497–1546
  20. William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1535–1592
  21. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1582–1641
  22. Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, 1629–1698
  23. George I of Great Britain, 1660–1727
  24. George II of Great Britain, 1683–1760
  25. Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1707–1751
  26. George III of the United Kingdom, 1738–1820
  27. Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, 1771–1851
  28. George V of Hanover, 1819–1878
  29. Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 1845–1923
  30. Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, 1887–1953
  31. Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover, 1914–1987
  32. Ernst August, Prince of Hanover, b. 1954
  33. Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover, b. 1983
Landtag Niedersachsen

The Leine Palace in Hanover (Former Royal Residence of the Kingdom of Hanover)

Unbekannt, Maison de Plaisir d'Herrenhausen, c1708.

Herrenhausen Palace and Gardens in Hanover (c. 1708)

Pattensen Marienburg Castle

Marienburg Castle (Hanover), present seat of the Princes of Hanover

Legacy

Many towns and provinces across the British Empire were named after the ruling House of Hanover and its members, among them the U.S. state of Georgia, U.S. towns Hanover, Massachusetts, Hanover, New Hampshire, Hanover, Pennsylvania, Hanover Township, Jo Daviess County, Illinois, counties Hanover County, Virginia, Caroline County, Virginia, Brunswick County, Virginia, Brunswick County, North Carolina, King George County, Virginia, places named Georgia in New Jersey, Vermont, Arkansas and South Dakota, seven towns in the U.S. and Canada named after Queen Charlotte, furthermore the Canadian province of New Brunswick and towns Hanover, Ontario, Guelph, Ontario, and Victoria, British Columbia, in South Africa the town Hanover, Northern Cape, in Australia the state Victoria (Australia) and the town Adelaide, in the UK six and in the US thirteen towns named Brunswick, furthermore one each in Australia and New Zealand, and worldwide more than fifty towns named Victoria. There are also numerous streets and squares, such as Hanover Square, Westminster, Hanover Square (Manhattan), Hanover Square, Syracuse or Queen Street, Brisbane with its intersections.

Georgian architecture gives distinction to the architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830 in most English-speaking countries.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Royal Arms of Britain". Heraldica. Retrieved 10 May 2016. The House of Brunswick Luneburg being one of the most illustrious and most ancient in Europe, the Hanoverian branch having filled for more than a century one of the most distinguished thrones, its possessions being among the most considerable in Germany;
  2. ^ Orr, Clarissa Campbell, ed. (2002). Queenship in Britain 1660-1837: Royal Patronage, Court Culture and Dynastic Politics (1st ed.). Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719057694.:195
  3. ^ a b c Picknett, Lynn; Prince, Clive; Prior, Stephen; Brydon, Robert (2002), War of the Windsors: A Century of Unconstitutional Monarchy, Mainstream Publishing, ISBN 1-84018-631-3.
  4. ^ In 1801, the British and Irish kingdoms merged, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
  5. ^ Duggan, J. N. (2011). Sophia of Hanover: From Winter Princess to Heiress of Great Britain, 1630–1714. London: Peter Owen Publishers. ISBN 9780720614237. According to the Peace of Westphalia, the See of Osnabrück was to be held alternately by a Catholic and a Protestant incumbent; the Protestant bishop was to be a younger son of the Brunswick-Lüneburg family.
  6. ^ Viktoria Luise (Herzogin zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) (1977). The Kaiser's Daughter: Memoirs of H. R. H. Viktoria Luise, Duchess of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Princess of Prussia. Prenticse-Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-514653-8.
  7. ^ Privately however the British Royal Family (of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, alias House of Windsor) continued to call their German branch the Cumberlands, for instance when Edward VIII described his visit to the family in Gmunden in a letter to his mother in 1937.
  8. ^ In 1919 royalty and nobility lost their privileges as such in Germany, hereditary titles thereafter being legally retained only as part of the surname, according to Article 109 the Weimar Constitution.
  9. ^ "In der Prinzenrolle". HAZ – Hannoversche Allgemeine.
  10. ^ Ernst August (geb.1954) Prinz von Hannover at welfen.de (German)
  11. ^ Attorney-General v HRH Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover [1957] 1 All ER 49

Further reading

  • Black, Jeremy. The Hanoverians: The History of a Dynasty (2004), 288 pp.
  • Black, Jeremy. "Georges I & II: Limited monarchs." History Today 53.2 (2003): 11+
  • Fraser, Flora. Princesses: The Six Daughters of George III. Knopf, 2005.
  • Plumb, J. H. The First Four Georges. Revised ed. Hamlyn, 1974.
  • Redman, Alvin. The House of Hanover. Coward-McCann, 1960.
  • Robertson, Charles. England under the Hanoverians (1911) online
  • Schweizer, Karl W., and Jeremy Black, eds. Politics and the Press in Hanoverian Britain (E. Mellon Press, 1989).
  • Simms, Brendan and Torsten Riotte, eds. The Hanoverian Dimension in British History, 1714–1837 (2009) online, focus on Hanover
  • Van der Kiste, John. George III’s Children. Sutton Publishing, 1992.

Historiography

  • Bultmann, William A. "Early Hanoverian England (1714–1760): Some Recent Writings," in Elizabeth Chapin Furber, ed. Changing views on British history: essays on historical writing since 1939 (Harvard University Press, 1966), pp 181–205
  • O’Gorman, Frank. “The Recent Historiography of the Hanoverian Regime.” Historical Journal 29#4 (1986): 1005-1020.
  • Snyder, Henry L. "Early Georgian England," in Richard Schlatter, ed., Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing since 1966 (Rutgers UP, 1984), pp 167 – 196, historiography

External links

House of Hanover
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Dynasty

A dynasty (UK: , US: ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "house", "family" and "clan", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC.

The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members.

Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt (3100–30 BC) and Imperial China (221 BC–AD 1912), using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, and also to describe events, trends and artifacts of that period (for example, "a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references (i.e., "a Ming vase").

Until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter usually established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house. This has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant. The earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance. Less frequently, a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic (or polydynastic) system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession.

Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties; modern examples are the Vatican City State, the Principality of Andorra, and the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta. Throughout history, there were monarchs that did not belong to any dynasty; non-dynastic rulers include King Arioald of the Lombards and Emperor Phocas of the Byzantine Empire. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; two modern examples are the monarchies of Malaysia and the royal families of the United Arab Emirates.

The word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is also extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team.

Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August; 20 November 1629 – 23 January 1698) was a Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg (with its capital Hanover) subdivision of the duchy. He was appointed Prince-elector, but died before the appointment became effective. He was also the Prince-Bishop of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück.

Family tree of the British royal family

This is the British monarchs' family tree, from James VI & I (whose accession united the thrones of England and Scotland) to the present monarch, Elizabeth II.

George V of Hanover

George V (George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus; German: Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August; 27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878) was the last king of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus. George V's reign was ended during the Unification of Germany.

King of Hanover

The King of Hanover (German: König von Hannover) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the Kingdom of Hanover, beginning with the proclamation of the King of the United Kingdom George III, as "King of Hanover" during the Congress of Vienna, on 12 October 1814 at Vienna, and ending with the kingdom's annexation by Prussia on 20 September 1866.

Line of succession to the former Hanoverian throne

The following is the Line of succession to the former Hanoverian throne:

The Kingdom of Hanover was abolished in 1866 and the Duchy of Brunswick in 1918. The Hanoverian royal family was also deprived of the Dukedom of Cumberland and Teviotdale in 1919. The current senior male-line descendant of George III of the United Kingdom and head of the House of Hanover is Ernst August, Prince of Hanover, titular King of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick, and Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale. The Succession Law in Hanover and Brunswick is semi-salic, allowing for female succession but only on the extinction of the male line of the house.

Note: Prince Ernst August, head of the House of Hanover since 1987, refused to give consent to his eldest son Hereditary Prince Ernst August’s marriage to Ekaterina Malysheva. As a result the couples children do not hold dynastic rights.

Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge

Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, (Adolphus Frederick; 24 February 1774 – 8 July 1850) was the tenth child and seventh son of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He held the title of Duke of Cambridge from 1801 until his death. He also served as Viceroy of Hanover on behalf of his brothers George IV and William IV.

Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex

Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, (27 January 1773 – 21 April 1843) was the sixth son and ninth child of King George III and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He was the only surviving son of George III who did not pursue an army or navy career. He was known for his liberal views, which included reform of Parliament, abolition of the slave trade, Catholic emancipation, and the removal of existing civil restrictions on Jews and dissenters.

Prince Christian Oscar of Hanover

Prince Christian Oscar of Hanover (German: Christian Oskar Ernst August Wilhelm Viktor Georg Heinrich Prinz von Hannover; 1 September 1919 – 10 December 1981) was the fourth child of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick and his wife Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia, the only daughter of Wilhelm II, German Emperor and Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein.

Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987)

Ernst August, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick, Prince of Hanover (German: Ernst August Prinz von Hannover; 18 March 1914 – 9 December 1987) was head of the House of Hanover from 1953 until his death.

He was born at Braunschweig, Germany, the eldest son of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick and Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia, the only daughter of Emperor Wilhelm II, Ernest Augustus's third cousin in descent from George III of the United Kingdom. Ernst August's parents were, therefore, third cousins, once removed. From his birth, he was the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick. He was also, shortly after birth in 1914, made a British prince by King George V of the United Kingdom, and was heir to the titles Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh which were suspended under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917.

Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1954)

Ernst August, Prince of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg (German: Ernst August Albert Paul Otto Rupprecht Oskar Berthold Friedrich-Ferdinand Christian-Ludwig Prinz von Hannover Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg Königlicher Prinz von Großbritannien und Irland; born 26 February 1954) is head of the royal House of Hanover which held the thrones of the United Kingdom until 1901, of the former Kingdom of Hanover until 1866, and of the sovereign Duchy of Brunswick from 1913 to 1918. As the husband of Princess Caroline of Monaco, he is the brother-in-law of Albert II, Prince of Monaco.

Prince Frederick of Great Britain

For his father, see Frederick, Prince of Wales; for his nephew, see Prince Frederick, Duke of York and AlbanyPrince Frederick (Frederick William; 13 May 1750 – 29 December 1765), was a member of the British Royal Family, a grandchild of King George II and the youngest brother of King George III.

Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn

Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn (Henry Frederick; 7 November 1745 – 18 September 1790) was the sixth child and fourth son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, and a younger brother of George III. His 1771 marriage to a commoner against the King's wishes prompted the Royal Marriages Act of 1772 .

Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh

Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, (William Frederick; 15 January 1776 – 30 November 1834) was a great-grandson of King George II and nephew and son-in-law of King George III of the United Kingdom.

Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh

Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, (William Henry; 25 November 1743 – 25 August 1805), was a grandson of King George II and a younger brother of King George III of the United Kingdom.

Princess Caroline of Gloucester

Princess Caroline of Gloucester (Caroline Augusta Maria; 24 June 1774 – 14 March 1775) was an infant member of the British Royal Family, a great-grandchild of George II, niece of George III and daughter of the 1st Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh and his wife, Maria Walpole, daughter of Sir Edward Walpole and his mistress Dorothy Clement.

Princess Frederica of Hanover

Princess Frederica of Hanover, (9 January 1848 – 16 October 1926) was a member of the House of Hanover. After her marriage, she lived mostly in England, where she was a prominent member of society.

Princess Mary of Great Britain

Princess Mary of Great Britain (5 March 1723 – 14 January 1772) was the second-youngest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and his wife Caroline of Ansbach, and Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel as the wife of Landgrave Frederick II.

Princess Sophia of Gloucester

Princess Sophia Matilda of Gloucester (29 May 1773 – 29 November 1844) was a great-granddaughter of King George II of Great Britain and niece of King George III.

Royal houses of Europe

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