Hours of Service (HOS) regulations are issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) and govern the working hours of anyone operating a commercial motor vehicle (CMV) in the United States. These regulations apply to truck drivers, commercial and city bus drivers, and school bus drivers who operate CMVs. These rules limit the number of daily and weekly hours spent driving and working, and regulate the minimum amount of time drivers must spend resting between driving shifts. For intrastate commerce, the respective state's regulations apply.
The FMCSA is a division of the United States Department of Transportation (DOT), which is generally responsible for enforcement of FMCSA regulations. The driver of a CMV is required to keep a record of working hours using a log book, outlining the total number of hours spent driving and resting, as well as the time at which the change of duty status occurred. In lieu of a log book, a motor carrier may keep track of a driver's hours using Electronic Logging Devices (ELDs), which automatically record the amount of time spent driving the vehicle.
The HOS's main purpose is to prevent accidents caused by driver fatigue. This is accomplished by limiting the number of driving hours per day, and the number of driving and working hours per week. Fatigue is also prevented by keeping drivers on a 21- to 24-hour schedule, maintaining a natural sleep/wake cycle (or circadian rhythm). Drivers are required to take a daily minimum period of rest, and are allowed longer "weekend" rest periods to combat cumulative fatigue effects that accrue on a weekly basis.
Enforcement of the HOS is generally handled by DOT officers of each state, and are sometimes checked when CMVs pass through weigh stations. Drivers found to be in violation of the HOS can be forced to stop driving for a certain period of time, which may negatively affect the motor carrier's safety rating. Requests to change the HOS are a source of contentious debate, and many surveys indicate some drivers get away with routinely violating the HOS. These facts have started another debate on whether motor carriers should be required to use ELDs in their vehicles, instead of relying on paper-based log books.
Drivers subject to the HOS include any driver of a vehicle which has a gross vehicle weight of 10,001 pounds (4,536 kg) or more; which is designed or used to transport more than 8 passengers (including the driver) for compensation; which is designed or used to transport more than 15 passengers (including the driver) and is not used to transport passengers for compensation; or which is used to transport hazardous materials in quantities requiring the vehicle to be marked or placarded under the hazardous materials regulations.
The purpose of the HOS is to reduce accidents caused by driver fatigue. As the graph to the right illustrates, the number of hours spent driving has a strong correlation to the number of fatigue-related accidents. According to numerous studies, the risk of fatigue is also greatest between the hours of midnight and six in the morning, and increases with the total length of the driver's trip.
Circadian rhythm effects describe the tendency for humans to experience a normal cycle in attentiveness and sleepiness through the 24-hour day. Those with a conventional sleep pattern (sleeping for seven or eight hours at night) experience periods of maximum fatigue in the early hours of the morning and a lesser period in the early afternoon. During the low points of this cycle, one experiences reduced attentiveness. During the high points, it is difficult to sleep soundly. The cycle is anchored in part by ambient lighting (darkness causes a person's body to release the hormone melatonin, which induces sleep), and by a person's imposed pattern of regular sleeping and waking times. The influence of the day-night cycle is never fully displaced (standard artificial lighting is not strong enough to inhibit the release of melatonin), and the performance of night shift workers usually suffers. Circadian rhythms are persistent, and can only be shifted by one to two hours forward or backward per day. Changing the starting time of a work shift by more than these amounts will reduce attentiveness, which is common after the first night shift following a "weekend" break during which conventional sleep times were followed.
Sleep deprivation and cumulative fatigue effects describe how individuals who fail to have an adequate period of sleep (7–8 hours in 24 hours) or who have been awake longer than the conventional 16–17 hours will suffer sleep deprivation. A sleep deficit accumulates with successive sleep-deprived days, and additional fatigue may be caused by breaking daily sleep into two shorter periods in place of a single unbroken period of sleep. A sleep deficit is not instantly reduced by one night's sleep; it may take two or three conventional sleep cycles for an individual to return to unimpaired performance.
Industrial or "time-on-task" fatigue describes fatigue that is accumulated during the working period, and affects performance at different times during the shift. Performance declines the longer a person is engaged in a task, gradually during the first few hours and more steeply toward the end of a long period at work. Reduced performance has also been observed in the first hour of work as an individual adjusts to the working environment.
Parts of a driver's work day are defined in four terms: On-duty time, off-duty time, driving time, and sleeper berth time.
On-duty time is all time from when a driver begins to work or is required to be in readiness to work until the driver is relieved from work and all responsibility for performing work.
Driving time is all time spent at the driving controls of a CMV.
Sleeper berth time is any amount of time spent inside the sleeper berth (e.g., resting or sleeping). FMCSA regulation §393.76 gives the minimum requirements for a space to be defined as a sleeper berth. The simple definition is an area separate from (usually immediately behind) the driving controls that includes a bed. The rules do not explicitly require that a driver must sleep, only that a driver must take a period of "rest" within the sleeper berth or off-duty (i.e., home). A statement made by the ICC in 1937 gives the reason: "We have no control over the manner in which a driver may spend his time off-duty, although some of his spare time activities may tire him as much as any work would do. We can only emphasize, by this comment, the responsibility which is the driver's own to assure himself of adequate rest and sleep, in the time available for this purpose, to ensure safety of his driving, and likewise the employer's responsibility to see that his drivers report for work in fit condition."
Off-duty time is any time not spent on-duty, driving, or in the sleeper berth.
|Summary of changes to the hours of service|
|Year Enforced||Driving Hours||On-Duty Hours||Off-Duty Hours||Minimum Duty Cycle||Maximum Hours On-Duty Before 30 Minute Rest Break|
|20131||11||14||10||34||8||1 Applies to property-carrying vehicles only.|
In 1938, the now-abolished Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) enforced the first HOS rules. Drivers were limited to 12 hours of work within a 15-hour period. Work was defined as loading, unloading, driving, handling freight, preparing reports, preparing vehicles for service, or performing any other duty pertaining to the transportation of passengers or property. The ICC intended the 3-hour difference between 15 hours on-duty and 12 hours of work to be used for meals and rest breaks. The weekly maximum was limited to 60 hours over 7 days (non-daily drivers), or 70 hours over 8 days (daily drivers). These rules allowed for 12 hours of work within a 15-hour period, 9 hours of rest, with 3 hours for breaks within a 24-hour day.
Within a short time, however, representatives of organized labor (including the American Federation of Labor, the Teamsters, and the International Association of Machinists) petitioned for a stay of the original regulations. A few motor carriers made a similar request. The ICC agreed, and oral arguments were heard again. Labor wanted HOS limits of 8 hours per day and 48 hours per week. The ICC commented "there was no statistical or other information which would enable [them] to say definitely how long a driver can safely work."
The evidence before us clearly does not suffice to enable us to conclude that a duty period as low as 8 hours in 24 is required in the interest of safety. We may call attention, as did the division, to the contrast between factory operations, generally sustained in character, and the operation of buses and trucks, generally characterized by frequent stops ... because of conditions encountered in highway and street traffic. The monotony or nervous and physical strain of driving such vehicles is alleviated by these breaks in the periods devoted to driving, and the period of actual work is considerably below the period on-duty.— Interstate Commerce Commission
Within six months of the original ruling, the ICC ultimately decided to change the 12-hour work limit in 24 hours to a 10-hour driving limit in 24 hours, and the 15-hour on-duty limit was rescinded. Motor carriers were required to give drivers 8, rather than 9, consecutive hours off-duty each day. These rules allowed for 10 hours of driving and 8 hours of rest within a 24-hour day.
In 1962, for reasons it never clearly explained, the ICC eliminated the 24-hour cycle rule, and reinstated the 15-hour on-duty limit. With 10 hours of driving and 8 hours of sleep, drivers were allowed to maintain an 18-hour cycle, disrupting the driver's natural 24-hour circadian rhythm. This change allowed up to 16 hours of driving per day, allowing the driver to exhaust their weekly limits in as little as five days. Later, an added exception for trucks equipped with sleeper berths meant drivers were allowed to "split" their 8-hour off-duty time into two parts. With the new splitting provision, a driver could take two 4-hour periods of rest. Using one of these short rest periods would effectively "stop the on-duty clock", allowing the driver to split the 15-hour on-duty time limit into two parts as well. These rules allowed for 10 hours of work within a 15-hour time limit, and 8 hours of rest within an 18-hour day.
Between 1962 and 2003, there were numerous proposals to change the HOS again, but none were ever finalized. By this time, the ICC had been abolished, and regulations were now issued by the FMCSA. The 2003 changes applied only to property-carrying drivers (i.e., truck drivers). These rules allowed 11 hours of driving within a 14-hour period, and required 10 hours of rest. These changes would allow drivers (using the entire 14-hour on-duty period) to maintain a natural 24-hour cycle, with a bare minimum 21-hour cycle (11 hours driving, 10 hours rest). However, the retention of the split sleeper berth provision would allow drivers to maintain irregular, short-burst sleeping schedules.
The most notable change of 2003 was the introduction of the "34-hour restart." Before the change, drivers could only gain more weekly driving hours with the passing of each day (which reduced their 70-hour total by the number of hours driven on the earliest day of the weekly cycle). After the change, drivers were allowed to "reset" their weekly 70-hour limit to zero, by taking 34 consecutive hours off-duty. This provision was introduced to combat the cumulative fatigue effects that accrue on a weekly basis, and to allow for two full nights of rest (e.g., during a weekend break).
In 2005, the FMCSA changed the rules again, practically eliminating the split sleeper berth provision. Drivers are now required to take a full 8 hours of rest, with 2 hours allowed for off-duty periods, for a total of 10 hours off-duty. This provision forced drivers to take one longer uninterrupted period of rest, but eliminated the flexibility of allowing drivers to take naps during the day without jeopardizing their driving time. Today's rule still allows them to "split" the sleeper berth period, but one of the splits must be 8 hours long and the remaining 2 hours do not stop the 14-hour on-duty period. This rule is confusing and impractical for most drivers, resulting in the majority of drivers taking the full 10-hour break.
In the years since 2005, groups such as Public Citizen Litigation Group, Parents Against Tired Truckers (PATT), Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association (OOIDA), Citizens for Reliable and Safe Highways (CRASH, which has merged with PATT), and the American Trucking Associations (ATA), have been working to change the HOS again. Each group has their own ideas about what should be changed, and different agendas on why the rules should be changed.
FMCSA rules prohibit driving a property-carrying CMV (e.g., trucks) more than 11 hours or to drive after having been on-duty for 14 hours. The 3-hour difference between the 11-hour driving limit and the 14-hour on-duty limit gives drivers the opportunity to take care of non-driving working duties such as loading and unloading cargo, fueling the vehicle, and required vehicle inspections, as well as non-working duties such as meal and rest breaks. After completing an 11- to 14-hour on-duty period, the driver must be allowed 10 hours off-duty.
FMCSA rules prohibit drivers from operating a CMV after having been on-duty 60 hours in 7 consecutive days (if the motor carrier does not operate CMVs every day of the week), or after having been on-duty 70 hours in 8 consecutive days (if the motor carrier operates CMVs every day of the week).
After accumulating, for example, 70 hours of driving and on-duty time within a period of 8 days, a driver's daily driving limit may be reduced (70 / 8 = 8.75 driving hours per day). A driver may be allowed (but not required) to take 34 hours off-duty to reset the weekly total back to zero (also known as a "34-hour restart").
FMCSA rules prohibit driving a passenger-carrying CMV (e.g., commercial and city buses, passenger vans, and school buses) for more than 10 hours, or to drive after having been on-duty for 15 hours. The 5-hour difference between the 10-hour driving limit and the 15-hour on-duty limit gives drivers the opportunity to take care of non-driving work-related duties such as loading and unloading of passengers and luggage, and fueling the vehicle, as well as non-working duties such as meal and rest breaks. After completing a 10 to 15-hour on-duty period, the driver must be allowed 8 hours off-duty.
The FMCSA weekly hours limitations for passenger-carrying vehicles are identical to those for property-carrying vehicles.
After accumulating, for example, 60 hours of driving and on-duty time within a period of 7 days, a driver's daily driving limit may be reduced (60 / 7 = 8.57 driving hours per day). The driver of a passenger-carrying vehicle may not use the 34-hour restart provision.
Every driver of a CMV is required to keep track of his/her time with a log book or an ELD. A log book is simply a notebook with a grid pattern on every page, dividing the 24-hour day into 15-minute (1/4-hour) segments. Drivers are required to make carbon copies of each page, so one page may be kept with the driver (to be produced upon inspection by DOT officers), and so the other copy may be sent to the driver's employer.
Electronic Logging Devices can be thought of as an automated electronic log book. An ELD records the same information as a manual paper log book, and requires less input from the driver. The ELD automatically records driving time and location, leaving the driver responsible only for reporting on-duty and off-duty time. In these respects, the ELD is less susceptible to forgery than a paper log book.
FMCSA rules require that a log book (or ELD) must record for each change of duty status (e.g., the place of reporting for work, or starting to drive), the name of the city, town or village, with state abbreviation. If a change of duty status occurs at a location other than a city, the highway number and nearest milepost or the nearest two intersecting roadways followed by the name of the nearest city must be recorded. In addition to the time grid, a log book must record the date, total miles driven for the day, truck and trailer number, name of carrier, bill of lading number, and the driver's signature. The driver is required to retain a copy of each log page for the previous seven consecutive days which must be in his/her possession and available for inspection while on-duty.
There are numerous exceptions to these rules, some of these include but are not limited to:
The HOS are issued, among other industry-related regulations, by the FMCSA. In this instance, federal regulations apply only to interstate commerce. Commerce which does not involve the crossing of state lines is considered intrastate, and is under the jurisdiction of the respective state's laws. However, most states have adopted intrastate regulations which are identical or very similar to the federal HOS regulations.
Enforcement of the HOS rules is generally handled by DOT officers of their respective states, although any ordinary police officer may inspect a driver's log book. States are responsible for maintaining weigh stations commonly located at the borders between states, where drivers are pulled in for random vehicle inspections (although some of the inspections are based on the motor carrier's safety rating). Otherwise, a driver may be pulled over for random checks by police officers or DOT officials at any time. Drivers are required to maintain their log books to current status, and if inspections reveal any sort of discrepancy, drivers may be put "out of service" until the driver has accumulated enough off-duty time to be back in compliance. Being put out of service means a driver may not drive his truck during the prescribed limit under risk of further penalty. Repeated violations can result in fines from $1,000 to $11,000 and a downgrade in the motor carrier's safety rating.
Long-haul drivers are normally paid by the mile, not by the hour. Legally, truck drivers are not required to receive overtime pay for hours worked in excess of the standard 40-hour work week. Some drivers may choose to violate the HOS to earn more money. Being paid by the mile, any work performed that is not actual driving is of no value to the driver, providing incentive to falsify the amount of time spent performing non-driving duties. Drivers who falsify their log books often under-report their non-driving duties (such as waiting to be loaded and unloaded) which they are not paid for, and under-report their driving time or total miles. Many drivers who receive mileage pay are not paid by logged miles or actual miles, instead, motor carriers use computer mapping software (such as PC Miler) or published mileage guides (such as the Rand McNally Household Goods Carriers' Bureau Mileage Guide). PATT suggests that paying all drivers by the hour would reduce HOS violations by removing the incentive to "cheat the system" by driving more miles than are being logged. Surveys by OOIDA report 80% of drivers are not paid for waiting times while loading and unloading, and the majority of those drivers log these times as off-duty (while regulations require they be logged as on-duty). These same drivers reported they would log these times as on-duty if they were paid reasonably for such delays.
Drivers can get away with this rule-breaking due to their paper-based log books. As drivers record their time spent behind the wheel, there is very little to stop them from forging their log books. There is very superficial oversight and some drivers take advantage of this fact. Surveys indicate that between 25% and 75% of drivers violate the HOS. Other drivers maintain more than one log book, showing falsified versions to enforcement officers.
Trucking companies (motor carriers) can also play a role in HOS violations. Certain carriers may choose to knowingly ignore HOS violations made by their drivers, or even encourage their drivers to do so. Allowing drivers to violate the HOS is an effective cost-cutting measure used mostly by non-union, long haul carriers. Permitting HOS violations allows a carrier to hire fewer drivers, and run on fewer trucks than a company which follows the rules. To comply with the HOS, these companies would have to hire more drivers (possibly driving up wages) and purchase additional trucks and trailers. Making a change to comply with the law is complicated by competition with carriers that already comply with HOS regulations. Due to this competition, carriers who choose to switch from non-compliance could not pass on all of their increased costs associated with HOS compliance to their customers.
In 1999, two trucking company officials were sentenced to federal prison for violating hours of service regulations. Charles Georgoulakos Jr. and his brother, James Georgoulakos were sentenced to four months in prison, eight months in home confinement, and one year of supervised release. Their company, C&J Trucking Company of Londonderry, New Hampshire, was placed on two years probation and fined $25,000 (the maximum amount). The sentences were the result of an investigation which began when one of the trucking company's drivers was involved in a collision on Interstate 93 in Londonderry on Aug. 2, 1995, in which four individuals were killed.
The defendants admitted that they knowingly and willfully permitted employee truck drivers to violate hours of service safety regulations. The corporation executed a scheme to hide illegal hours of driving from detection by Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) safety investigators who conduct periodic examinations of trucking companies' records. The scheme involved paying drivers "off the books" for illegal driving time through an account other than the normal payroll account.— U.S. Department of Transportation
Several private and public motor carriers such as Frito-Lay, United Parcel Service, and Werner Enterprises, have voluntarily implemented electronic on-board recorders to ensure drivers are in compliance with the federal regulations, to reduce the errors and hassles associated with paper log books, and to improve driver retention and recruitment. EOBRs automatically record the driving time and cannot be easily forged. Any violation of the HOS will automatically be recorded and reported to the company.
The FMCSA posted a notice of proposed rule making (NPRM) concerning Electronic logging devices (ELD's), as part of the move to require mandatory ELD's for all carriers, on January 18, 2007. On December 18, 2017, ELD rules were implemented as part of the Congressionally mandated MAP-21 Act, for all carriers subjected to the record of duty status (RODS) requirements.
Whereas the 11 and 14 hour rules are still in effect, drivers will also be required to take a 30-minute break within the first 8 hours of on duty time. The 34 hour restart provision will still be in effect. However, drivers will only be allowed 1 restart per week (168 hours). Up to 2 hours either side of a sleeper-berth period while in the passenger seat will count as off-duty. Drivers inside a parked CMV who are not in the sleeper berth must log it as on-duty.
This regulation has been codified into the Final Rule, and will come into force on the 27th February 2013 (for the additional Off Duty allowances) and 1 July 2013 (for the break rules, and restart limits).
HOS Final Rule On December 27, 2011 (76 FR 81133), FMCSA published a final rule amending its hours-of-service (HOS) regulations for drivers of property-carrying commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). The final rule adopted several changes to the HOS regulations, including a new provision requiring drivers to take a rest break during the work day under certain circumstances. Drivers may drive a CMV only if 8 hours or less have passed since the end of the driver's last off-duty or sleeper-berth period of at least 30 minutes. FMCSA did not specify when drivers must take the 30-minute break, but the rule requires that they wait no longer than 8 hours after the last off-duty or sleeper-berth period of that length or longer to take the break. Drivers who already take shorter breaks during the work day could comply with the rule by taking one of the shorter breaks and extending it to 30 minutes. The new requirement took effect on July 1, 2013.
On August 2, 2013, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit issued its ruling on the Hours of Service litigation brought by the American Trucking Associations and Public Citizen. The Court upheld the 2011 Hours of Service regulations in all aspects except for the 30-minute break provision as it applies to short haul drivers. While the decision does not officially take effect until the mandate is issued 52 days after the decision (unless a party files a petition for rehearing, either by the panel or en banc, or moves to stay the mandate pending the filing of a petition for certiorari in the Supreme Court), FMCSA announces the Agency will immediately cease enforcement of the 30-minute rest break provision of the HOS rule against short-haul operations. The Agency requests that its State enforcement partners also cease enforcement of this provision. States that do so will not be found in violation of the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP). ENFORCEMENT POLICY Effective August 2, 2013, FMCSA will no longer enforce 49 CFR 395.3(a)(3)(ii) against any driver that qualifies for either of the "short haul operations" exceptions outlined in 49 CFR 395.1(e)(1) or (2). The Agency requests that State and local enforcement agencies also refrain from enforcing the 30-minute rest break against these drivers. Specifically, the following drivers would not be subject to the 30-minute break requirement:
An Advanced Notice of Proposed Rule making (ANPRM) was published in August 2018, to revisit the 2013 HOS rules with possible changes that would include the 30 minute break. The ANPRM is in response to a Congressional mandate and industry concerns that may lead to hours of service rule reforms concerning the air-mile “short-haul” exemption, modification to the 14-hour on-duty limitation, revision of the current mandatory 30-minute break for truck drivers after 8 hours of continuous driving, and reinstating split-sleeper birth options.
Administrative controls are training, procedure, policy, or shift designs that lessen the threat of a hazard to an individual. Administrative controls typically change the behavior of people (e.g., factory workers) rather than removing the actual hazard or providing personal protective equipment (PPE).
Administrative controls are fourth in larger hierarchy of hazard controls, which ranks the effectiveness and efficiency of hazard controls. Administrative controls are more effective than PPE because they involve some manner of prior planning and avoidance, whereas PPE only serves only as a final barrier between the hazard and worker. Administrative controls are second lowest because they require workers or employers to actively think or comply with regulations and do not offer permanent solutions to problems. Generally, administrative controls are cheaper to begin, but they may become more expensive over time as higher failure rates and the need for constant training or re-certification eclipse the initial investments of the three more desirable hazard controls in the hierarchy. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends administrative controls when hazards cannot be removed or changed, and engineering controls are not practical.Some common examples of administrative controls include work practice controls such as prohibiting mouth pipetting and recapping of needles, as well as rotating worker shifts in coal mines to prevent hearing loss. Other examples include hours of service regulations for commercial vehicle operators, Safety signage for hazards, and regular maintenance of equipment.American Heritage Girls
The American Heritage Girls (AHG) is a Christian-based Scouting-like organization. The organization has more than 43,000 members (2017) with troops in all 50 states in early 2017, plus Americans living in twelve other countries.All girls are eligible for membership while adult leaders must subscribe to a Christian statement of faith.Chicago Honey Bears
The Chicago Honey Bears were a cheerleading squad for the Chicago Bears of the National Football League during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The group performed at Bears games at Soldier Field, and also at one away game in Tampa Bay Florida with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and their Cheerleaders the Tampa Bay Buccaneers Swashbucklers until Super Bowl XX, which was their final appearance. The Chicago Honey Bears donated numerous hours of service to charities, as well as made guest appearances on T.V, including the Richard Simmons Show, the WGN Jerry Lewis Muscular Dystrophy Telethon and performed and signed autographs at various other events, including at the Great Lakes Naval Station for the Navy Servicemen. They did various ads and posters, including a Kodak film ad, a Chicago Buckingham Fountain Post Card, a Stroh's Beer poster, and a poster of The Chicago Honey Bears official head shots featuring hair and make up by Vidal Sassoon, who was the official hair stylist of the NFL Chicago Honey Bears. Vidal Sassoon selected Chicago Honey Bear line Captain/ and assistant choreographer Sharon Shackelford to be a hair model and he cut, colored and styled her hair live on the Phil Donahue Show. These examples are just a few of the numerous charities, T.V shows and events that the Honey Bear squad participated in. Aside from the Chicago Honey Bears being dancers and cheerleaders, at the Honey Bear auditions, Cathy Core and a panel of judges, including talent agents, narrowed their search by making the contestants display an additional talent, such as singing, playing instruments, acrobatic abilities or other dance forms and talents, before making their final selections of who would be on the squad each season. They also did modeling, including an incident when a member of the squad appeared topless in a Playboy magazine. After this incident, the Cheerleaders signed contracts that forbade posing nude and also forbade fraternizing with the Chicago Bears Football players except at approved events. After Super Bowl XX the squad was disbanded, and currently, the Bears are one of the six NFL teams that do not have cheerleaders, along with the Buffalo Bills, Cleveland Browns, Green Bay Packers, New York Giants, and the Pittsburgh Steelers.Creighton University School of Dentistry
The Creighton University School of Dentistry is the dental school of Creighton University. It is located in the city of Omaha, Nebraska. It was one of the first dental schools in the United States, having been established in 1905.
Since Creighton University School of Dentistry does not offer residency positions in specialty programs, students are given the opportunity to perform advanced dental procedures including oral surgery, dental implants, etc. Creighton students are prepared to enter residency programs or dental practice, or continue with advanced degrees and specialty training. Approximately 25% of Creighton graduates in the School of Dentistry continue on to earn a specialty degree.
Creighton's students and faculty also provide dental care to underprivileged adults and children and volunteer hundreds of hours of service. These activities include Omaha's One World Community Health Center, "Give Kids a Smile" (dental education and dental services outreach for needy children), service in the Dominican Republic and the Special Olympics/Special Smiles Program.Drivers' working hours
Drivers' working hours is the commonly used term for regulations that govern the activities of the drivers of commercial goods vehicles and passenger carrying vehicles. In the United States, they are known as hours of service.
Within the European Union, Directive 2002/15/EC is setting the rules regarding working time for drivers carrying out road transport activities in the European Union from the point of view of improving road safety, health and safety of drivers and ensure fair competition among transport operators. Working time of mobile workers is a strictly national obligation to implement and to check and it cannot be imposed to drivers from third countries. Regulation (EC) 561/2006  is the regulation complementing the aforementioned Directive in view of driving times, breaks and rest periods required to be taken by professional drivers of vehicles carrying goods or passengers in international or national transport operations. There are special circumstances when carriages and thus drivers may be exempt from the Directive 2002/15/EC. The Regulation (EC) 561/2006 applies to the carriage by road of goods by vehicles with a total mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes and to the transport by road of passengers by vehicles that are adapted to carry more than nine people (including the driver). It applies, irrespective of the country of registration of the vehicle, to carriage by road in the EU and between EU countries, Switzerland and European Economic Area countries. The Regulation exempts from its scope of application ten categories of carriages (Art. 3), but there are also specific national exemptions offered in Art. 13. Though EU countries have to inform the Commission of those specific national exemptions.
UNECE have adopted in 1970 the European Agreement Concerning the Work of Crews of Vehicles Engaged in International Road Transport (AETR). This Agreement is common for EU, EEA countries, and Switzerland as well as other non-EU countries of the European continent. All vehicles crossing an AETR signatory country during its transport operations (carriages) should obey the common rules set by the AETR agreement.
Since September 2010, AETR rules have been amended to align closely with EU Regulation 561/2006.
Under certain circumstances, drivers may instead fall within scope of the domestic rules of that country.
In addition to the above requirements, drivers in the EU must also abide with the European Working Time Directive 2003/88/EC.Electronic on-board recorder
An electronic on-board recorder (EOBR) is an electronic device attached to a commercial motor vehicle, which is used to record the amount of time a vehicle is being driven. This is similar to the tachograph, and is the American equivalent of the digital tachograph used in Europe. Trucks in the European Union are required to have digital tachographs installed, and are securely monitored by government agencies. However, in Europe, the new digital tachograph which is considered secure, can be tricked with a round magnet placed by drivers over the connection to the transmission box. Usually they tie a rope to that magnet, and with a simple pull, the magnet will disengage and will show that the driver started moving about half an hour ago (or whatever time the driver wants to set by stopping in a rest area after a sleeping period, and place the magnet on).
The majority of carriers and drivers in the United States currently use paper-based log books. On January 31, 2011, the U.S. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) proposed a rule requiring Electronic On-Board Recorders for interstate commercial truck and bus companies. The proposed rule covers interstate carriers that currently use log books to record driver's hours of service. The proposal would affect more than 500,000 carriers in the United States and carriers that currently use time cards would be exempt.
The only mandatory EOBR use is for companies with a poor compliance record that is slated to go into effect in June, 2012. On August 26, 2011, in a lawsuit brought by the Owner–Operator Independent Drivers Association (OOIDA), the 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals vacated and remanded the rule back to the agency for further proceedings. According to Robert Digges, the American Trucking Associations (ATA) chief counsel, "Although the court decision specifically addresses the 2010 final rule, FMCSA also will also likely have to bring into compliance its Jan. 31 proposed rule mandating that nearly all motor carriers equip their trucks with EOBRs". This does not mean the FMCSA will suspend attempts to pass regulations regarding mandatory EOBR's but will mean delays in implementation of any rules.
The driving hours of commercial drivers (truck and bus drivers) are regulated by a set of rules known as the hours of service (HOS) The HOS are rules intended to prevent driver fatigue, by limiting the amount of time drivers spend operating commercial vehicles. The amount of time available under the HOS rules to operate a commercial motor vehicle depends, in part, upon how much time the driver both performs work or obtains rest when not driving. In order for an EOBR to accurately record and report a driver's compliance with the HOS rules, therefore, whenever the truck is not being operated the driver must manually input to the EOBR whether he or she is still on-duty (working - i.e. unloading the truck, inspecting or repairing the truck, filling out paperwork...etc.) or off-duty (not working). EOBRs do not automatically record changes in non-driving duty status and, therefore, is somewhat similar to paper logs being that it is only accurate while the truck is in motion. Companies are now offering extra on board components that can accurately record the amount of rest time a driver spends in the sleeper berth and electronically monitor hours a driver spends at rest or while sleeping.Electronic Logging Devices (ELDs) is the most recent term to define an electronic device that is capable of recording a driver's driving hours and duty status automatically. In order to be considered an ELD, the device must meet specific technology requirements and be included on the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s (FMCSA) registration site.Fairfield College Preparatory School
Fairfield College Preparatory School (Fairfield Prep) is a Jesuit preparatory school located on the campus of Fairfield University in Fairfield, Connecticut. It is an all-male school of about 900 students, founded by the Society of Jesus in 1942.Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is an agency in the United States Department of Transportation that regulates the trucking industry in the United States. The primary mission of the FMCSA is to reduce crashes, injuries and fatalities involving large trucks and buses.Motor carrier safety rating
The motor carrier safety rating is an evaluation given to an interstate commercial motor carrier (a company which employs truck or bus drivers) by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA).
A safety rating is determined by a compliance review, an on-site examination of motor carrier operations, such as drivers' hours of service, maintenance and inspection, driver qualification, commercial drivers' license requirements, financial responsibility, accidents, hazardous materials, and other safety and transportation records to determine whether a motor carrier meets the safety fitness standard. A compliance review may be conducted in response to a request to change a safety rating, to investigate potential violations of safety regulations by motor carriers, or to investigate complaints, or other evidence of safety violations. The compliance review may result in the initiation of an enforcement action.
One of three safety ratings will be issued following a compliance review:Satisfactory - A Satisfactory rating means that a motor carrier has in place and functioning adequate safety management controls to meet the safety fitness standard prescribed in §385.5 of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSR). Safety management controls are adequate if they are appropriate for the size and type of operation of the particular motor carrier.
Conditional - This rating means a motor carrier does not have adequate safety management controls in place to ensure compliance with the safety fitness standard found in §385.5 of the FMCSR.
Unsatisfactory - An Unsatisfactory rating means a motor carrier does not have adequate safety management controls in place to ensure compliance with the safety fitness standard which has resulted in occurrences listed in §385.5 (a) through (k)of the FMCSR.
Generally, a motor carrier rated unsatisfactory is prohibited from operating a CMV. If a proposed unsatisfactory safety rating becomes final, the FMCSA will issue an order placing its interstate operations out of service. Any motor carrier that operates CMVs in violation of this section will be subject to the penalty provisions listed in 49 U.S.C. 521(b).
'What you can do: - All companies have a window after an audit where they can appeal the decision by proving they made an effort to improve their situation. This can include doing an entire company overhaul, replacing management, or hiring a reputable consultant to be on retainer for future incidents.Overnewton Anglican Community College
Overnewton Anglican Community College (more commonly known as 'OACC') is an independent, co-educational, day school, founded in 1987.
The College has two campuses - one located in Taylors Lakes, Melbourne, Australia and the other in Keilor. Prep to Year 8 is available at both campuses; Year 9 is only available at Taylors Lakes Campus and Years 10, 11 and 12 are only available at the Keilor Campus. Canowindra is the name given to the Year 9 Campus (adjoining to the Taylors Lakes Campus) in honour of the Aboriginal custodians that owned the land prior to industrialisation of the area.
Students at the school are encouraged to become involved in a range of co-curricular activities that complement the academic program. Christian education is a core subject at all levels. Outstanding academic results have been consistently achieved at VCE level. Families are encouraged to take part in a Contribution Scheme, whereby they contribute 18 hours of service to the College each term. The school has participated for many years in the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge in both the junior, premier and RAW divisions. The current Principal is James Laussen.Road transport
Road transport or road transportation is a type of transport by using roads. Transport on roads can be roughly grouped into the transportation of goods and transportation of people. In many countries licensing requirements and safety regulations ensure a separation of the two industries. Movement along roads may be by bike or automobile, truck, or by animal such as horse or oxen. Standard networks of roads were adopted by Romans, Persians, Aztec, and other early empires, and may be regarded as a feature of empires. Cargo may be transported by trucking companies, while passengers may be transported via mass transit. Commonly defined features of modern roads include defined lanes and signage. Various classes of road exist, from two-lane local roads with at-grade intersections to controlled-access highways with all cross traffic grade-separated.
The nature of road transportation of goods depends on, apart from the degree of development of the local infrastructure, on the distance the goods are transported by road, the weight and volume of an individual shipment, and the type of goods transported. For short distances and light, small shipments a van or pickup truck may be used. For large shipments even if less than a full truckload a truck is more appropriate. (Also see Trucking and Hauling below). In some countries cargo is transported by road in horse-drawn carriages, donkey carts or other non-motorized mode. Delivery services are sometimes considered a separate category from cargo transport. In many places fast food is transported on roads by various types of vehicles. For inner city delivery of small packages and documents bike couriers are quite common.
People are transported on roads. Special modes of individual transport by road such as cycle rickshaws may also be locally available. There are also specialist modes of road transport for particular situations, such as ambulances.Surf Life Saving Australia
Surf Life Saving Australia (SLSA) is an Australian not-for-profit community organisation that promotes water safety and provides surf rescue services.
SLSA strives to create a safe environment on Australia's beaches and coastline through patrols, education and training, public safety campaigns and the promotion of health and fitness. As of 30 June 2018 the organisation had 173,865 members with 314 affiliated surf life saving clubs. The majority of its services are provided by volunteer surf lifesavers, that provided 1.35 million hours of service, rescued 10,879 people, and provided 108,044 first aid treatments during 2016/17. In 1973, the organisation established the Westpac Life Saver Rescue Helicopter Service that, during 2016/17, delivered 850 rescue missions via helicopter.Surf Life Saving Australia also operates Australia's largest lifeguard service, contracting to local government and other coastal land managers. Additional income is sourced through community donations, fundraising and corporate sponsorship. SLSA is a foundation member of the International Life Saving Federation (ILS) and plays a vital leadership role in developing lifesaving, beach safety and drowning prevention standards around the world. SLSA is an organisation which prides itself on saving lives, creating great Australians, and building better communities.Title 45 of the United States Code
Title 45 of the United States Code outlines the role of rail transport in the United States Code.
Chapter 1: Safety Appliances and Equipment on Railroad Engines and Cars, and Protection of Employees and Travelers
Chapter 2: Liability for Injuries to Employees
Chapter 3: Hours of Service of Employees
Chapter 4: Care of Animals in Transit
Chapter 5: Government-Aided Railroads
Chapter 6: Mediation, Conciliation, and Arbitration in Controversies Between Carriers and Employees
Chapter 7: Adjustment Boards and Labor Boards
Chapter 8: Railway Labor
Chapter 9: Retirement of Railroad Employees
Chapter 10: Tax on Carriers and Employees
Chapter 11: Railroad Unemployment Insurance
Chapter 12: Temporary Railroad Unemployment Insurance Program
Chapter 13: Railroad Safety
Chapter 14: Rail Passenger Service
Chapter 15: Emergency Rail Services
Chapter 16: Regional Rail Reorganization
Chapter 17: Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform
Chapter 18: Milwaukee Railroad Restructuring
Chapter 19: Rock Island Railroad Employee Assistance
Chapter 20: Northeast Rail Service
Chapter 21: Alaska Railroad Transfer
Chapter 22: Conrail PrivatizationTransit Windsor
Transit Windsor provides public transportation in the city of Windsor, Ontario, Canada as well as La Salle, Ontario to more than 6 million passengers each year (6.73 million in 2017), covering an area of 310km2 and a population of 218,000. They operate a cross border service between the downtown areas of Windsor and Detroit, Michigan via the Tunnel Bus, and service to events at Detroit's Comerica Park, Little Caesars Arena, Cobo Hall, and Ford Field. The Transit station (WITT) neighbours with the Windsor International Aquatic and Training Centre.Truck driver
A truck driver (commonly referred to as a trucker, teamster or driver in the United States and Canada; a truckie in Australia and New Zealand; a lorry driver, or driver in Ireland, the United Kingdom, India, Nepal and Pakistan) is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck (usually a semi truck, box truck or dump truck).Trucking industry in the United States
The trucking industry serves the American economy by transporting large quantities of raw materials, works in process, and finished goods over land—typically from manufacturing plants to retail distribution centers. Trucks are also used in the construction industry, as dump trucks and portable concrete mixers move the large amounts of rocks, dirt, concrete, and other building materials used in construction. Trucks in America are responsible for the majority of freight movement over land and are tools in the manufacturing, transportation, and warehousing industries.
Driving large trucks and buses require a commercial driver's license (CDL) to operate. Obtaining a CDL requires extra education and training dealing with the special knowledge requirements and handling characteristics of such a large vehicle. Drivers of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) must adhere to the hours of service, which are regulations governing the driving hours of commercial drivers. These and all other rules regarding the safety of interstate commercial driving are issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). The FMCSA is a division of the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), which governs all transportation-related industries such as trucking, shipping, railroads, and airlines. Some other issues are handled by another branch of the USDOT, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).
Developments in technology, such as computers, satellite communication, and the Internet, have contributed to many improvements within the industry. These developments have increased the productivity of company operations, saved the time and effort of drivers, and provided new, more accessible forms of entertainment to men and women who often spend long periods of time away from home. In 2006, the United States Environmental Protection Agency implemented revised emission standards for diesel trucks (reducing airborne pollutants emitted by diesel engines) which promises to improve air quality and public health.United States Coast Guard Auxiliary
The United States Coast Guard Auxiliary (USCGA, USCGAUX, CGAux, or USCG Aux) is the civilian volunteer uniformed auxiliary service of the United States Coast Guard (USCG). Congress established the unit on June 23, 1939, as the United States Coast Guard Reserve. On February 19, 1941, the organization was re-designated as the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary. The Auxiliary exists to support all USCG missions except roles that require "direct" law enforcement or military engagement. As of 2018, there were approximately 24,000 members of the U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary.Collectively the Auxiliary contributes over 4.5 million hours of service each year and completed nearly 500,000 missions in service to support the Coast Guard. Every year Auxiliarists help to save approximately 500 lives, assist 15,000 distressed boaters, conduct over 150,000 safety examinations of recreational vessels, and provide boater safety instruction to over 500,000 students. In total the Coast Guard Auxiliary saves taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars each year.Weigh station
A weigh station is a checkpoint along a highway to inspect vehicular weights. Usually, trucks and commercial vehicles are subject to the inspection.
Weigh stations are equipped with truck scales, some of which are weigh in motion and permit the trucks to continue moving while being weighed, while older scales require the trucks to stop. There are many different scales used, from single axle scales to multi-axle sets. Signal lights indicate if the driver should pull over for additional inspection or if they are allowed to return to the highway.
Many jurisdictions employ the use of portable scales, allowing weigh stations to be set up at any point. Portable scales allow states to set up temporary scales for situations such as seasonal check points, temporary checkpoints on isolated roads often used by trucks, and help prevent drivers from avoiding scales at fixed locations. Portable scales may be set up at purpose built locations that are not normally manned. A common reason for setting up portable scales is to monitor trucks during harvest season.Yangon Circular Railway
Yangon Circular Railway (Burmese: ရန်ကုန် မြို့ပတ် ရထား [jàɴɡòʊɴ mjo̰baʔ jətʰá]) is the local commuter rail network that serves the Yangon metropolitan area. Operated by Myanmar Railways, the 45.9-kilometre (28.5 mi) 39-station loop system connects satellite towns and suburban areas to the city. Circa 2008–2010, the railway had about 200 coaches, had 20 daily runs, and sold 100,000 to 150,000 tickets daily. The loop, which takes about three hours to complete, is a way to see a cross section of life in Yangon. The Railway is heavily utilized by lower-income commuters, as it is (along with buses) the cheapest method of transportation in Yangon.The hours of service have been consistent over the years, from 3:45 am to 10:15 pm daily. In 2011, the cost of a ticket for a distance of 15 miles was two hundred kyats (~eighteen US cents), and that for over 15 miles was four hundred kyats (~37 US cents). In the new currency (introduced in 2012) long distance tickets are 200 kyat (~20 US cents).
|Rules of the road|
|Road user guides|
|Traffic violations reciprocity|