A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust. While some of these springs contain water that is a safe temperature for bathing, others are so hot that immersion can result in injury or death.
There is no universally accepted definition of a hot spring. For example, one can find the phrase hot spring defined as
The related term "warm spring" is defined as a spring with water temperature less than a hot spring by many sources, although Pentecost et al. (2003) suggest that the phrase "warm spring" is not useful and should be avoided. The US NOAA Geophysical Data Center defines a "warm spring" as a spring with water between 20 and 50 °C (68 and 122 °F)
Much of the heat is created by decay of naturally radioactive elements. An estimated 45 to 90 percent of the heat escaping from the Earth originates from radioactive decay of elements mainly located in the mantle. The major heat-producing isotopes in the Earth are potassium-40, uranium-238, uranium-235, and thorium-232.
Water issuing from a hot spring is heated geothermally, that is, with heat produced from the Earth's mantle. In general, the temperature of rocks within the earth increases with depth. The rate of temperature increase with depth is known as the geothermal gradient. If water percolates deeply enough into the crust, it will be heated as it comes into contact with hot rocks. The water from hot springs in non-volcanic areas is heated in this manner.
In active volcanic zones such as Yellowstone National Park, water may be heated by coming into contact with magma (molten rock). The high temperature gradient near magma may cause water to be heated enough that it boils or becomes superheated. If the water becomes so hot that it builds steam pressure and erupts in a jet above the surface of the Earth, it is called a geyser. If the water only reaches the surface in the form of steam, it is called a fumarole. If the water is mixed with mud and clay, it is called a mud pot.
Note that hot springs in volcanic areas are often at or near the boiling point. People have been seriously scalded and even killed by accidentally or intentionally entering these springs.
Warm springs are sometimes the result of hot and cold springs mixing. They may occur within a volcanic area or outside of one. One example of a non-volcanic warm spring is Warm Springs, Georgia (frequented for its therapeutic effects by paraplegic U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who built the Little White House there).
There are many claims in the literature about the flow rates of hot springs. There are many more high flow non-thermal springs than geothermal springs. For example, there are 33 recognized "magnitude one springs" (having a flow in excess of 2,800 L/s (99 cu ft/s) in Florida alone. Silver Springs, Florida has a flow of more than 21,000 L/s (740 cu ft/s). Springs with high flow rates include:
Because heated water can hold more dissolved solids than cold water, warm and especially hot springs often have very high mineral content, containing everything from simple calcium to lithium, and even radium. Because of both the folklore and the claimed medical value some of these springs have, they are often popular tourist destinations, and locations for rehabilitation clinics for those with disabilities.
A thermophile is an organism — a type of extremophile — that thrives at high temperatures, between 45 and 80 °C (113 and 176 °F). Thermophiles are found in hot springs, as well as deep sea hydrothermal vents and decaying plant matter such as peat bogs and compost.
Some hot springs biota are infectious to humans. For example:
There are hot springs in many countries and on all continents of the world. Countries that are renowned for their hot springs include China, Costa Rica, Iceland, Iran, Japan, New Zealand, Peru, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States, but there are hot springs in many other places as well:
The customs and practices observed differ depending on the hot spring. It is common practice that bathers should wash before entering the water so as not to contaminate the water (with/without soap). In many countries, like Japan, it is required to enter the hot spring with no clothes on, including swimwear. Typically in these circumstances, there are different facilities or times for men and women. In some countries, if it is a public hot spring, swimwear is required.
A thermal spring is defined as a spring that brings warm or hot water to the surface.Leet states that there are two types of thermal springs; hot springs and warm springs.
Atri a small village in the Khurda district of Odisha.
Atri is around 15 km west of Khurda. The nearest airport is at Bhubaneswar. Nearest railhead is Khurda Road Junction Railway Station. Atri is famous for its perennial hot spring. The hot spring is reputed to have medical properties which is used both intensively and extensively for the cure of skin diseases. The water of the hot spring (57 °C) contains small doses of sulphur flavour when heated to 100 °C.
There is a Bathing Complex of Govt. of Odisha at Atri. Not far from the Hot spring there is a shrine of Lord Hattakeswar Mahadev. The temple is the venue of a grand annual fair, Makar Jatra, on the day of Makar Sankranti (mid January). On this day the visitors congregate in large numbers to worship Lord Hatakeswar to fulfill their desires and they also bath in the ponds to get cured of their diseases.Belknap Springs, Oregon
Belknap Springs is an unincorporated community and private hot springs resort in Lane County, Oregon, United States, near the McKenzie River. The springs were located and initially developed by R. S. Belknap in 1869. A post office named "Salt Springs" was established in the location in 1874, and the name changed to "Belknap Springs" in 1875. The post office closed in 1877 and reopened in 1891, operating intermittently until 1953. Today the location uses a McKenzie Bridge mailing address.Beppu
Beppu (別府市, Beppu-shi) is a city in Ōita Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, Japan, at the west end of Beppu Bay. As of March 31, 2017, the city had a population of 122,643 and a population density of 980/km2 (2,500/sq mi). The total area is 125.13 km2 (48.31 sq mi). Beppu is famous for its hot springs.David Delano Glover
David Delano Glover (January 18, 1868 – April 5, 1952) was a U.S. Representative from Arkansas's 6th congressional district, which was abolished in 1963 through reapportionment.Desert Hot Springs, California
Desert Hot Springs, also known as DHS, is a city in Riverside County, California, United States. The city is located within the Coachella Valley geographic region, sometimes referred to as the Desert Empire. The population was 25,938 at the 2010 census, up from 16,582 at the 2000 census. The city has undergone rapid development and high population growth since the 1970s, when there were 2,700 residents.
It is named for its many natural hot springs. It is one of few places in the world with naturally occurring hot- and cold mineral springs. Desert Hot Springs is home to the largest collection of warm mineral springs in the United States. More than 20 natural mineral spring lodgings can be found in town. Unlike most hot springs, the mineral springs in town are odorless.Ferdows Hot Spring
Ferdows Hot Spring or Ferdows Warm Spring (Persian: آبگرم معدنی فردوس – Abgarm-e-Ma'dani-e-Ferdows) is a hot mineral spring located about 20 km (12 mi) north of Ferdows in eastern Iran, near an inactive volcano. Its mineral water is useful in healing skin diseases and rheumatism.
It has several individual bathtubs and some public pools for visitors. For tourists, there is a motel and other residence options near the spring. Ferdows Hot Spring is one of the main attractions of the South Khorasan province, Iran.Grand Prismatic Spring
The Grand Prismatic Spring in Yellowstone National Park is the largest hot spring in the United States, and the third largest in the world, after Frying Pan Lake in New Zealand and Boiling Lake in Dominica. It is located in the Midway Geyser Basin.
Grand Prismatic Spring was noted by geologists working in the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871, and named by them for its striking coloration. Its colors match the rainbow dispersion of white light by an optical prism: red, orange, yellow, green, and blue.Hot Spring County, Arkansas
Hot Spring County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,923. The county seat is Malvern. Hot Spring County was formed on November 2, 1829, from a portion of Clark County. It was named for the hot springs at Hot Springs, Arkansas, which were within its boundaries until Garland County was formed in 1874. It is an alcohol prohibition or dry county. However, there is no record of this law.Hot Spring County comprises the Malvern, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Hot Springs-Malvern, AR Combined Statistical Area.Hydrogenophilaceae
The Hydrogenophilaceae are a family of the Hydrogenophilalia, with two genera – Hydrogenophilus and Tepidiphilus. Like all "Proteobacteria", they are Gram-negative. All known species are thermophilic, growing around 50 °C and using molecular hydrogen or organic molecules as their source of electrons to support growth - some species are autotrophs.
The genus Thiobacillus was previously considered to be a member in this family but was reclassified into the order Nitrosomonadales at the same time that the Hydrogenophilales were removed from the Betaproteobacteria and the class Hydrogenophilalia was formed.Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus is a facultative chemolithoautotroph originally isolated from a hot spring; however, it was detected 2004 in ice core samples retrieved from a depth around 3 km within the ice covering Lake Vostok in Antarctica. The presence of DNA from (and potentially live cells of) thermophilic bacteria in the ice suggests that a geothermal system could exist beneath the cold water body of Lake Vostok, or simply that non-thermophilic strains of Hydrogenophilus exist and were present in the ice.Kerling, Selangor
Kerling is a mukim (town) in Hulu Selangor District, Selangor, Malaysia. It is located 65 km north of Kuala Lumpur. The attraction in this town is Kolam Air Panas (hot spring).Lake Hamilton and Lake Catherine
Lake Hamilton and Lake Catherine are a pair of man-made lakes around Hot Springs, Arkansas. The two lakes have greatly improved the tourism in Hot Springs. Both Lakes were created by Arkansas Power & Light (now a subsidiary of Entergy).Malvern, Arkansas
Malvern is a city in and the county seat of Hot Spring County, Arkansas, United States. Founded as a railroad stop at the eastern edge of the Ouachita Mountains, the community's history and economy have been tied to available agricultural and mineral resources. The production of bricks from locally available clay has earned the city the nickname, "The Brick Capital of the World". The city had a population of 10,318 at the time of the 2010 census, and in 2015 the estimated population was 10,928.Motaalleq
Motaalleq Persian: متعلق, also Romanized as Mota‘alleq is a village in Abish Ahmad Rural District, Abish Ahmad District, Kaleybar County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 175, in 57 families.National Register of Historic Places listings in Hot Spring County, Arkansas
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Hot Spring County, Arkansas.
This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Hot Spring County, Arkansas, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map.There are 28 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county.
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.Onsen
An onsen (温泉) is a Japanese hot spring; the term also extends to cover the bathing facilities and traditional inns frequently situated around a hot spring. As a volcanically active country, Japan has thousands of onsens scattered throughout all of its major islands.Onsens come in many types and shapes, including outdoor (露天風呂 or 野天風呂, roten-buro or noten-buro) and indoor baths (内湯, uchiyu). Baths may be either publicly run by a municipality or privately, often as part of a hotel, ryokan, or bed and breakfast (民宿, minshuku).
The presence of an onsen is often indicated on signs and maps by the symbol ♨ or the kanji 湯 (yu, meaning "hot water"). Sometimes the simpler hiragana character ゆ (yu), understandable to younger children, is used.
Traditionally, onsens were located outdoors, although a large number of inns have now built indoor bathing facilities as well. Nowadays, as most households have their own bath, the number of traditional public baths has decreased, but the number of sightseeing hot spring towns has increased (most notable ones including Kinosaki Onsen, Togura Kamiyamada Onsen, and Akanko Onsen). Onsens by definition use naturally hot water from geothermally heated springs. Onsens are different from sentō, indoor public bath houses where the baths are filled with heated tap water.Ouachita Mountains
The Ouachita Mountains (), simply referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. They are formed by a thick succession of highly deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, one of the important orogenic belts of North America. The Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the southeast where they make a poorly understood connection with the Appalachians and to the southwest where they join with the Marathon area of West Texas. Together with the Ozark Plateaus, the Ouachitas form the U.S. Interior Highlands. The highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet.Sentō
Sentō (銭湯) is a type of Japanese communal bath house where customers pay for entrance. Traditionally these bath houses have been quite utilitarian, with a tall barrier separating the sexes within one large room, a minimum of lined up faucets on both sides and a single large bath for the already washed bathers to sit in among others. Since the second half of the 20th century, these communal bath houses have been decreasing in numbers as more and more Japanese residences now have baths. Some Japanese find social importance in going to public baths, out of the theory that physical proximity/intimacy brings emotional intimacy, which is termed skinship in pseudo-English Japanese. Others go to a sentō because they live in a small housing facility without a private bath or to enjoy bathing in a spacious room and to relax in saunas or jet baths that often accompany new or renovated sentōs.
Another type of Japanese public bath is onsen, which uses hot water from a natural hot spring. In general the word onsen means that the bathing facility has at least one bath filled with natural hot spring water. However throughout the Kansai region of Japan the word "onsen" is also a commonly used naming scheme for sentō. Sentō and supersentō in Kansai that do have access to a hot spring will often differentiate themselves by having "natural hot spring" (天然温泉) somewhere on their signage.Surajkund hot spring
Surajkund hot spring (also called Surya Kund) is a natural hot spring in Belkapi gram panchayat of Barkatha community development block in Barhi subdivision of Hazaribagh district in the Indian state of Jharkhand.Taiwanese hot springs
Taiwan is part of the collision zone between the Yangtze Plate and Philippine Sea Plate. Eastern and southern Taiwan are the northern end of the Philippine Mobile Belt.
Located next to an oceanic trench and volcanic system in a tectonic collision zone, Taiwan has evolved a unique environment that produces high-temperature springs with crystal-clear water, usually both clean and safe to drink. These hot springs are not only clean and potable but also commonly used for spas and resorts.