Hot spring

A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust. While some of these springs contain water that is a safe temperature for bathing, others are so hot that immersion can result in injury or death.

Definitions

Natural iron hot spring
"Blood Pond" hot spring in Beppu, Japan

There is no universally accepted definition of a hot spring. For example, one can find the phrase hot spring defined as

  • any geothermal spring[1]
  • a spring with water temperatures above its surroundings[2]
  • a natural spring with water temperature above human body temperature – which is normally between 36.5 and 37.5 °C (97.7 and 99.5 °F)[3]
  • a natural spring with warm water above body temperature[4]
  • a thermal spring with water warmer than 36.7 °C (98 °F)[5][6]
  • a natural spring of water greater than 21.1 °C (70 °F) (synonymous with thermal spring)[7][8][9][10]
  • a natural discharge of groundwater with elevated temperatures[11]
  • a type of thermal spring in which hot water is brought to the surface. The water temperature of a hot spring is usually 6.5 °C (12 °F) or more above mean air temperature.[12] Note that by this definition, "thermal spring" is not synonymous with the term "hot spring"
  • a spring whose hot water is brought to the surface (synonymous with a thermal spring). The water temperature of the spring is usually 8.3 °C (15 °F) or more above the mean air temperature.[13]
  • a spring with water above the core human body temperature – 36.7 °C (98 °F).[14]
  • a spring with water above average ambient ground temperature.[15]
  • a spring with water temperatures above 50 °C (122 °F)[16]

The related term "warm spring" is defined as a spring with water temperature less than a hot spring by many sources, although Pentecost et al. (2003) suggest that the phrase "warm spring" is not useful and should be avoided.[14] The US NOAA Geophysical Data Center defines a "warm spring" as a spring with water between 20 and 50 °C (68 and 122 °F)

Sources of heat

Much of the heat is created by decay of naturally radioactive elements. An estimated 45 to 90 percent of the heat escaping from the Earth originates from radioactive decay of elements mainly located in the mantle.[17][18][19] The major heat-producing isotopes in the Earth are potassium-40, uranium-238, uranium-235, and thorium-232.[20]

Evolution of Earth's radiogenic heat
The radiogenic heat from the decay of 238U and 232Th are now the major contributors to the earth's internal heat budget.

Water issuing from a hot spring is heated geothermally, that is, with heat produced from the Earth's mantle. In general, the temperature of rocks within the earth increases with depth. The rate of temperature increase with depth is known as the geothermal gradient. If water percolates deeply enough into the crust, it will be heated as it comes into contact with hot rocks. The water from hot springs in non-volcanic areas is heated in this manner.

In active volcanic zones such as Yellowstone National Park, water may be heated by coming into contact with magma (molten rock). The high temperature gradient near magma may cause water to be heated enough that it boils or becomes superheated. If the water becomes so hot that it builds steam pressure and erupts in a jet above the surface of the Earth, it is called a geyser. If the water only reaches the surface in the form of steam, it is called a fumarole. If the water is mixed with mud and clay, it is called a mud pot.

Note that hot springs in volcanic areas are often at or near the boiling point. People have been seriously scalded and even killed by accidentally or intentionally entering these springs.

Warm springs are sometimes the result of hot and cold springs mixing. They may occur within a volcanic area or outside of one. One example of a non-volcanic warm spring is Warm Springs, Georgia (frequented for its therapeutic effects by paraplegic U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who built the Little White House there).

Flow rates

Islande source Deildartunguhver
Deildartunguhver, Iceland: the highest flow hot spring in Europe

Hot springs range in flow rate from the tiniest "seeps" to veritable rivers of hot water. Sometimes there is enough pressure that the water shoots upward in a geyser, or fountain.

High-flow hot springs

There are many claims in the literature about the flow rates of hot springs. There are many more high flow non-thermal springs than geothermal springs. For example, there are 33 recognized "magnitude one springs" (having a flow in excess of 2,800 L/s (99 cu ft/s) in Florida alone. Silver Springs, Florida has a flow of more than 21,000 L/s (740 cu ft/s). Springs with high flow rates include:

  • The Excelsior Geyser Crater in Yellowstone National Park yields about 4,000 U.S. gal/min (0.25 m3/s).
  • Evans Plunge in Hot Springs, South Dakota has a flow rate of 5,000 U.S. gal/min (0.32 m3/s) of 87 °F (31 °C) spring water. The Plunge, built in 1890, is the world's largest natural warm water indoor swimming pool.
  • The combined flow of the 47 hot springs in Hot Springs, Arkansas is 35 L/s (1.2 cu ft/s).
  • The hot spring of Saturnia, Italy with around 500 liters a second[21]
  • The combined flow of the hot springs complex in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico is estimated at 99 liters/second.[22]
  • Lava Hot Springs in Idaho has a flow of 130 liters/second.
  • Glenwood Springs in Colorado has a flow of 143 liters/second.
  • Elizabeth Springs in western Queensland, Australia might have had a flow of 158 liters/second in the late 19th century, but now has a flow of about 5 liters/second.
  • Deildartunguhver in Iceland has a flow of 180 liters/second.
  • The hot springs of Brazil's Caldas Novas ("New Hot Springs" in Portuguese) are tapped by 86 wells, from which 333 liters/second are pumped for 14 hours per day. This corresponds to a peak average flow rate of 3.89 liters/second per well.
  • The 2,850 hot springs of Beppu in Japan are the highest flow hot spring complex in Japan. Together the Beppu hot springs produce about 1,592 liters/second, or corresponding to an average hot spring flow of 0.56 liters/second.
  • The 303 hot springs of Kokonoe in Japan produce 1,028 liters/second, which gives the average hot spring a flow of 3.39 liters/second.
  • Ōita Prefecture has 4,762 hot springs, with a total flow of 4,437 liters/second, so the average hot spring flow is 0.93 liters/second.
  • The highest flow rate hot spring in Japan is the Tamagawa Hot Spring in Akita Prefecture, which has a flow rate of 150 liters/second. The Tamagawa Hot Spring feeds a 3 m (9.8 ft) wide stream with a temperature of 98 °C (208 °F).
  • There are at least three hot springs in the Nage region 8 km (5.0 mi) south west of Bajawa in Indonesia that collectively produce more than 453.6 liters/second.
  • There are another three large hot springs (Mengeruda, Wae Bana and Piga) 18 km (11 mi) north east of Bajawa, Indonesia that together produce more than 450 liters/second of hot water.
  • The Dalhousie Springs complex in Australia had a peak total flow of more than 23,000 liters/second in 1915, giving the average spring in the complex an output of more than 325 liters/second. This has been reduced now to a peak total flow of 17,370 liters/second so the average spring has a peak output of about 250 liters/second.[23]
  • In Yukon’s Boreal Forest, 25 minutes north-west of Whitehorse in northern Canada, Takhini Hot Springs flows out of the Earth’s interior at 385 L/min (85 imp gal/min; 102 US gal/min) and 47 °C (118 °F) year-round.[24]

Therapeutic uses

Onsen in Nachikatsuura, Japan
Japanese open air hot spring (onsen) in Nachikatsuura, Wakayama
Bain romain de Khenchela
Hammam Essalihine, Roman hot spring in Algeria

Because heated water can hold more dissolved solids than cold water, warm and especially hot springs often have very high mineral content, containing everything from simple calcium to lithium, and even radium. Because of both the folklore and the claimed medical value some of these springs have, they are often popular tourist destinations, and locations for rehabilitation clinics for those with disabilities.[25][26][27]

Biota

A thermophile is an organism — a type of extremophile — that thrives at high temperatures, between 45 and 80 °C (113 and 176 °F).[28] Thermophiles are found in hot springs, as well as deep sea hydrothermal vents and decaying plant matter such as peat bogs and compost.

Algal mats on hot pool, Orakei Korako 1
Algal mats growing in the Map of Africa hot pool, Orakei Korako, New Zealand

Some hot springs biota are infectious to humans. For example:

Examples

Geothermal springs map US
Distribution of geothermal springs in the US
Jigokudani hotspring in Nagano Japan 001
Macaques enjoying an open air hot spring or "onsen" in Nagano

There are hot springs in many countries and on all continents of the world. Countries that are renowned for their hot springs include China, Costa Rica, Iceland, Iran, Japan, New Zealand, Peru, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States, but there are hot springs in many other places as well:

  • Widely renowned since a chemistry professor's report in 1918 classified them as one of the world's most electrolytic mineral waters, the Rio Hondo Hot Springs in northern Argentina have become among the most visited on earth.[37] The Cacheuta Spa is another famous hot springs in Argentina.
Chaudes-Aigues-Lavoir
Chaudes-Aigues-Lavoir
  • The springs in Europe with the highest temperatures are located in France, in a small village named Chaudes-Aigues. Located at the heart of the French volcanic region Auvergne, the thirty natural hot springs of Chaudes-Aigues have temperatures ranging from 45° C (113° F) to more than 80° C (176° F). The hottest one, the "Source du Par", has a temperature of 82° C (179.6° F). The hot waters running under the village have provided heat for the houses and for the church since the 14th Century. Chaudes-Aigues (Cantal, France) is a spa town known since the Roman Empire for the treatment of rheumatism.
  • One of the highly potential geothermal energy reservoirs in India is the Tattapani thermal springs of Madhya Pradesh.[38][39]

Etiquette

The customs and practices observed differ depending on the hot spring. It is common practice that bathers should wash before entering the water so as not to contaminate the water (with/without soap).[40] In many countries, like Japan, it is required to enter the hot spring with no clothes on, including swimwear. Typically in these circumstances, there are different facilities or times for men and women. In some countries, if it is a public hot spring, swimwear is required.

See also

References

  1. ^ "MSN Encarta definition of hot spring". Archived from the original on 2009-11-01.
  2. ^ Miriam-Webster Online dictionary definition of hot spring
  3. ^ Wordsmyth definition of hot spring
  4. ^ American Heritage dictionary, fourth edition (2000) definition of hot spring Archived 2007-03-10 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Infoplease definition of hot spring
  6. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006. definition of hot spring
  7. ^ Wordnet 2.0 definition of hot spring
  8. ^ Ultralingua Online Dictionary definition of hot spring
  9. ^ Rhymezone definition of hot spring
  10. ^ Lookwayup definition of hot spring
  11. ^ Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth edition, article on hot spring Archived 2007-02-11 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Don L. Leet (1982). Physical Geology (6th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-669706-0. A thermal spring is defined as a spring that brings warm or hot water to the surface. Leet states that there are two types of thermal springs; hot springs and warm springs.
  13. ^ "Water Words Glossary - Hot Spring". NALMS. 2007. Archived from the original on January 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
  14. ^ a b Allan Pentecost; B. Jones; R.W. Renaut (2003). "What is a hot spring?". Can. J. Earth Sci. 40 (11): 1443–6. Bibcode:2003CaJES..40.1443P. doi:10.1139/e03-083. Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. provides a critical discussion of the definition of a hot spring.
  15. ^ For example, ambient ground temperature is usually around 55–57 °F (13–14 °C) in the eastern United States
  16. ^ US NOAA Geophysical Data Center definition
  17. ^ Turcotte, DL; Schubert, G (2002). "4". Geodynamics (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 136–7. ISBN 978-0-521-66624-4.
  18. ^ Anuta, Joe (2006-03-30). "Probing Question: What heats the earth's core?". physorg.com. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
  19. ^ Johnston, Hamish (19 July 2011). "Radioactive decay accounts for half of Earth's heat". PhysicsWorld.com. Institute of Physics. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  20. ^ Sanders, Robert (2003-12-10). "Radioactive potassium may be major heat source in Earth's core". UC Berkeley News. Retrieved 2007-02-28.
  21. ^ Terme di Saturnia, website
  22. ^ John W. Lund; James C. Witcher (December 2002). "Truth or Consequences, New Mexico- A Spa City" (PDF). GHC Bulletin. 23 (4).
  23. ^ W. F. Ponder (2002). "Desert Springs of Great Australian Arterial Basin". Conference Proceedings. Spring-fed Wetlands: Important Scientific and Cultural Resources of the Intermountain Region. Archived from the original on 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2013-04-06.
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-26. Retrieved 2013-09-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ The web site of the Roosevelt rehabilitation clinic in Warm Springs, Georgia Archived 2003-09-19 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Web site of rehabilitation clinics in Central Texas created because of a geothermal spring
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-26. Retrieved 2013-09-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Analytical results for Takhini Hot Springs geothermal water:
  28. ^ Madigan MT, Martino JM (2006). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Pearson. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-13-196893-6.
  29. ^ Naegleria at eMedicine
  30. ^ Shinji Izumiyama; Kenji Yagita; Reiko Furushima-Shimogawara; Tokiko Asakura; Tatsuya Karasudani; Takuro Endo (July 2003). "Occurrence and Distribution of Naegleria Species in Thermal Waters in Japan". J Eukaryot Microbiol. 50: 514–5. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2003.tb00614.x. PMID 14736147.
  31. ^ Yasuo Sugita; Teruhiko Fujii; Itsurou Hayashi; Takachika Aoki; Toshirou Yokoyama; Minoru Morimatsu; Toshihide Fukuma; Yoshiaki Takamiya (May 1999). "Primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri: An autopsy case in Japan". Pathology International. 49 (5): 468–70. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1827.1999.00893.x. PMID 10417693.
  32. ^ Southern New Mexico web site article about some local hot springs, including a warning about Naegleria fowler Archived 2006-11-15 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ CDC description of acanthamoeba
  34. ^ Miyamoto H, Jitsurong S, Shiota R, Maruta K, Yoshida S, Yabuuchi E (1997). "Molecular determination of infection source of a sporadic Legionella pneumonia case associated with a hot spring bath". Microbiol. Immunol. 41 (3): 197–202. doi:10.1111/j.1348-0421.1997.tb01190.x. PMID 9130230.
  35. ^ Eiko Yabauuchi; Kunio Agata (2004). "An outbreak of legionellosis in a new facility of hot spring Bath in Hiuga City". Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 78 (2): 90–8. ISSN 0387-5911. PMID 15103899.
  36. ^ Häring M, Rachel R, Peng X, Garrett RA, Prangishvili D (August 2005). "Viral diversity in hot springs of Pozzuoli, Italy, and characterization of a unique archaeal virus, Acidianus bottle-shaped virus, from a new family, the Ampullaviridae". J. Virol. 79 (15): 9904–11. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.15.9904-9911.2005. PMC 1181580. PMID 16014951.
  37. ^ Welcome Argentina: Turismo en Argentina 2009
  38. ^ Ravi Shanker; J.L. Thussu; J.M. Prasad (1987). "Geothermal studies at Tattapani hot spring area, Sarguja district, central India". Geothermics. 16 (1): 61–76. doi:10.1016/0375-6505(87)90079-4.
  39. ^ D. Chandrasekharam; M.C. Antu (August 1995). "Geochemistry of Tattapani thermal springs, Himachal Pradesh, India—field and experimental investigations". Geothermics. 24 (4): 553–9. doi:10.1016/0375-6505(95)00005-B.
  40. ^ Fahr-Becker, Gabriele (2001). Ryokan. p. 24. ISBN 978-3-8290-4829-3.

Further reading

  • Marjorie Gersh-Young (2011). Hot Springs and Hot Pools of the Southwest: Jayson Loam's Original Guide. Aqua Thermal Access. ISBN 978-1-890880-07-1.
  • Marjorie Gersh-Young (2008). Hot Springs & Hot Pools Of The Northwest. Aqua Thermal Access. ISBN 978-1-890880-08-8.
  • G. J Woodsworth (1999). Hot springs of Western Canada: a complete guide. West Vancouver: Gordon Soules. ISBN 978-0-919574-03-8.
  • Clay Thompson (1-12-03). "Tonopah: It's Water Under The Bush". Arizona Republic. p. B12. Check date values in: |date= (help)

External links

Atri (hot spring)

Atri a small village in the Khurda district of Odisha.

Atri is around 15 km west of Khurda. The nearest airport is at Bhubaneswar. Nearest railhead is Khurda Road Junction Railway Station. Atri is famous for its perennial hot spring. The hot spring is reputed to have medical properties which is used both intensively and extensively for the cure of skin diseases. The water of the hot spring (57 °C) contains small doses of sulphur flavour when heated to 100 °C.

There is a Bathing Complex of Govt. of Odisha at Atri. Not far from the Hot spring there is a shrine of Lord Hattakeswar Mahadev. The temple is the venue of a grand annual fair, Makar Jatra, on the day of Makar Sankranti (mid January). On this day the visitors congregate in large numbers to worship Lord Hatakeswar to fulfill their desires and they also bath in the ponds to get cured of their diseases.

Belknap Springs, Oregon

Belknap Springs is an unincorporated community and private hot springs resort in Lane County, Oregon, United States, near the McKenzie River. The springs were located and initially developed by R. S. Belknap in 1869. A post office named "Salt Springs" was established in the location in 1874, and the name changed to "Belknap Springs" in 1875. The post office closed in 1877 and reopened in 1891, operating intermittently until 1953. Today the location uses a McKenzie Bridge mailing address.

Beppu

Beppu (別府市, Beppu-shi) is a city in Ōita Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, Japan, at the west end of Beppu Bay. As of March 31, 2017, the city had a population of 122,643 and a population density of 980/km2 (2,500/sq mi). The total area is 125.13 km2 (48.31 sq mi). Beppu is famous for its hot springs.

David Delano Glover

David Delano Glover (January 18, 1868 – April 5, 1952) was a U.S. Representative from Arkansas's 6th congressional district, which was abolished in 1963 through reapportionment.

Desert Hot Springs, California

Desert Hot Springs, also known as DHS, is a city in Riverside County, California, United States. The city is located within the Coachella Valley geographic region, sometimes referred to as the Desert Empire. The population was 25,938 at the 2010 census, up from 16,582 at the 2000 census. The city has undergone rapid development and high population growth since the 1970s, when there were 2,700 residents.

It is named for its many natural hot springs. It is one of few places in the world with naturally occurring hot- and cold mineral springs. Desert Hot Springs is home to the largest collection of warm mineral springs in the United States. More than 20 natural mineral spring lodgings can be found in town. Unlike most hot springs, the mineral springs in town are odorless.

Ferdows Hot Spring

Ferdows Hot Spring or Ferdows Warm Spring (Persian: آبگرم معدنی فردوس‎ – Abgarm-e-Ma'dani-e-Ferdows) is a hot mineral spring located about 20 km (12 mi) north of Ferdows in eastern Iran, near an inactive volcano. Its mineral water is useful in healing skin diseases and rheumatism.

It has several individual bathtubs and some public pools for visitors. For tourists, there is a motel and other residence options near the spring. Ferdows Hot Spring is one of the main attractions of the South Khorasan province, Iran.

Grand Prismatic Spring

The Grand Prismatic Spring in Yellowstone National Park is the largest hot spring in the United States, and the third largest in the world, after Frying Pan Lake in New Zealand and Boiling Lake in Dominica. It is located in the Midway Geyser Basin.

Grand Prismatic Spring was noted by geologists working in the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871, and named by them for its striking coloration. Its colors match the rainbow dispersion of white light by an optical prism: red, orange, yellow, green, and blue.

Hot Spring County, Arkansas

Hot Spring County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,923. The county seat is Malvern. Hot Spring County was formed on November 2, 1829, from a portion of Clark County. It was named for the hot springs at Hot Springs, Arkansas, which were within its boundaries until Garland County was formed in 1874. It is an alcohol prohibition or dry county. However, there is no record of this law.Hot Spring County comprises the Malvern, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Hot Springs-Malvern, AR Combined Statistical Area.

Hydrogenophilaceae

The Hydrogenophilaceae are a family of the Hydrogenophilalia, with two genera – Hydrogenophilus and Tepidiphilus. Like all "Proteobacteria", they are Gram-negative. All known species are thermophilic, growing around 50 °C and using molecular hydrogen or organic molecules as their source of electrons to support growth - some species are autotrophs.

The genus Thiobacillus was previously considered to be a member in this family but was reclassified into the order Nitrosomonadales at the same time that the Hydrogenophilales were removed from the Betaproteobacteria and the class Hydrogenophilalia was formed.Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus is a facultative chemolithoautotroph originally isolated from a hot spring; however, it was detected 2004 in ice core samples retrieved from a depth around 3 km within the ice covering Lake Vostok in Antarctica. The presence of DNA from (and potentially live cells of) thermophilic bacteria in the ice suggests that a geothermal system could exist beneath the cold water body of Lake Vostok, or simply that non-thermophilic strains of Hydrogenophilus exist and were present in the ice.

Kerling, Selangor

Kerling is a mukim (town) in Hulu Selangor District, Selangor, Malaysia. It is located 65 km north of Kuala Lumpur. The attraction in this town is Kolam Air Panas (hot spring).

Lake Hamilton and Lake Catherine

Lake Hamilton and Lake Catherine are a pair of man-made lakes around Hot Springs, Arkansas. The two lakes have greatly improved the tourism in Hot Springs. Both Lakes were created by Arkansas Power & Light (now a subsidiary of Entergy).

Malvern, Arkansas

Malvern is a city in and the county seat of Hot Spring County, Arkansas, United States. Founded as a railroad stop at the eastern edge of the Ouachita Mountains, the community's history and economy have been tied to available agricultural and mineral resources. The production of bricks from locally available clay has earned the city the nickname, "The Brick Capital of the World". The city had a population of 10,318 at the time of the 2010 census, and in 2015 the estimated population was 10,928.

Motaalleq

Motaalleq Persian: متعلق‎, also Romanized as Mota‘alleq is a village in Abish Ahmad Rural District, Abish Ahmad District, Kaleybar County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 175, in 57 families.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Hot Spring County, Arkansas

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Hot Spring County, Arkansas.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Hot Spring County, Arkansas, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map.There are 28 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.

Onsen

An onsen (温泉) is a Japanese hot spring; the term also extends to cover the bathing facilities and traditional inns frequently situated around a hot spring. As a volcanically active country, Japan has thousands of onsens scattered throughout all of its major islands.Onsens come in many types and shapes, including outdoor (露天風呂 or 野天風呂, roten-buro or noten-buro) and indoor baths (内湯, uchiyu). Baths may be either publicly run by a municipality or privately, often as part of a hotel, ryokan, or bed and breakfast (民宿, minshuku).

The presence of an onsen is often indicated on signs and maps by the symbol ♨ or the kanji 湯 (yu, meaning "hot water"). Sometimes the simpler hiragana character ゆ (yu), understandable to younger children, is used.

Traditionally, onsens were located outdoors, although a large number of inns have now built indoor bathing facilities as well. Nowadays, as most households have their own bath, the number of traditional public baths has decreased, but the number of sightseeing hot spring towns has increased (most notable ones including Kinosaki Onsen, Togura Kamiyamada Onsen, and Akanko Onsen). Onsens by definition use naturally hot water from geothermally heated springs. Onsens are different from sentō, indoor public bath houses where the baths are filled with heated tap water.

Ouachita Mountains

The Ouachita Mountains (), simply referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. They are formed by a thick succession of highly deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, one of the important orogenic belts of North America. The Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the southeast where they make a poorly understood connection with the Appalachians and to the southwest where they join with the Marathon area of West Texas. Together with the Ozark Plateaus, the Ouachitas form the U.S. Interior Highlands. The highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet.

Sentō

Sentō (銭湯) is a type of Japanese communal bath house where customers pay for entrance. Traditionally these bath houses have been quite utilitarian, with a tall barrier separating the sexes within one large room, a minimum of lined up faucets on both sides and a single large bath for the already washed bathers to sit in among others. Since the second half of the 20th century, these communal bath houses have been decreasing in numbers as more and more Japanese residences now have baths. Some Japanese find social importance in going to public baths, out of the theory that physical proximity/intimacy brings emotional intimacy, which is termed skinship in pseudo-English Japanese. Others go to a sentō because they live in a small housing facility without a private bath or to enjoy bathing in a spacious room and to relax in saunas or jet baths that often accompany new or renovated sentōs.

Another type of Japanese public bath is onsen, which uses hot water from a natural hot spring. In general the word onsen means that the bathing facility has at least one bath filled with natural hot spring water. However throughout the Kansai region of Japan the word "onsen" is also a commonly used naming scheme for sentō. Sentō and supersentō in Kansai that do have access to a hot spring will often differentiate themselves by having "natural hot spring" (天然温泉) somewhere on their signage.

Surajkund hot spring

Surajkund hot spring (also called Surya Kund) is a natural hot spring in Belkapi gram panchayat of Barkatha community development block in Barhi subdivision of Hazaribagh district in the Indian state of Jharkhand.

Taiwanese hot springs

Taiwan is part of the collision zone between the Yangtze Plate and Philippine Sea Plate. Eastern and southern Taiwan are the northern end of the Philippine Mobile Belt.

Located next to an oceanic trench and volcanic system in a tectonic collision zone, Taiwan has evolved a unique environment that produces high-temperature springs with crystal-clear water, usually both clean and safe to drink. These hot springs are not only clean and potable but also commonly used for spas and resorts.

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