Hosay (originally from Husayn) is a Muslim Indo-Caribbean commemoration that is popularly observed in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, and Jamaica. In Trinidad and Tobago, multi-colored model mausoleums or Mosque shaped model tombs known as Tadjah are used to display the symbolic part of this commemoration. They are built and paraded, then ritually taken to the sea on last day of observance, and finally discarded into the water. The word 'Tadjah' derived from the Arabic word Ta'zieh and signifies different cultural meanings depending on the region, time period, occasion, and religion. In British Guiana, (now called Guyana), and Suriname, the festival was called Taziya or creolized into Tadjah in reference to these floats, argurably the most visible and decorative element of this festival.
Generally, Hosay lasts for 10 days and is observed in accordance with the Islamic lunar calendar and in line with ten days Ashura commemorated by Shia Muslims throughout the world. The last four days are the most popular as the first six days are days of fasting, prayer and building of the “Tadjahs” and “Moons”. Although Hosay was traditionally commemorated for Husain, its celebration in recent times has adopted all types of shades and characters from other religions including Roman Catholics, Hindus and Baptists, making the modern event a mixture of different cultures and religions. The event is attended by both Muslims and non-Muslims, depicting an environment of mutual respect and tolerance. A unique design of Tadja can be found during the Hosay celebrations in Cedros, a coastal village situated in the South-Western end of Trindad, that are built in an exclusive style that is not found anywhere else in the world, in terms of the art and style of construction. In nineteenth-century Trinidad newspapers as well as government reports called Hosay the "Coolie Carnival."
|Country||Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, Jamaica|
The Hosay (derived from Husayn or Hussein) celebration is a Caribbean manifestation of the Shia Muslim Remembrance of Muharram in Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica (where is it spelled Hussay). The name Hosay comes from "Husayn" who was assassinated by yazid in Karbala. This martyrdom is commemorated in the festival. In Trinidad and Tobago it is primarily celebrated in Saint James, in northwestern Trinidad and in Cedros in southwestern Trinidad. Recently it has been revived elsewhere. In Jamaica it is celebrated throughout the island. In the past, every plantation in each parish celebrated Hosay. Today it has been called an Indian carnival and is perhaps most well known in Clarendon where it is celebrated each August. People of all religions attend the event.
In the 1850s, very elaborately decorated models of mosques made of paper and tinsel called "tadjahs" were carried through the streets to the accompaniment of constant drumming. Small fires were lit in the gutters beside the streets over which the drumskins were heated to tighten the skins of the tassa drums. Mock stick fights celebrate the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali. The festival lasts three days ending with the throwing of the tadjahs into the sea at sunset on the third day. Although Hosay is a religious event for Shias, all of Trinidad's religious and ethnic communities participate in it, and it has become accepted as part of the national culture.
The Remembrance of Muharram was continued to the Caribbean by Muslim indentured labourers and other migrant laborers from India. Hindu and Muslim Indians, who emphasized their common culture and celebration over religion, namely from Indian Gujarat, Rajasthan, Bihar, Madras as well as the provinces of Oudh and City of Lucknow, are essential to this celebration. These people entered Guyana in 1838, and Trinidad after 1845, from colonial India under British auspices (see Indo-Caribbean people). The observance of Hosay in Trinidad is traced back to 1854.
In the 1880s the British colonial authorities became increasingly concerned about public gatherings, and in 1884 issued an ordinance to prevent the public Hosay commemorations. Thousands of workers, who had spent the year building their tadjahs joined a Hindu named Sookhoo, in petitioning the government to allow the festival per their agreement with the Governor, who was visiting London during this episode. When all appeals were ignored by the Protector of Immigrants, through ignorance of the new July 1884 prohibition, defiance, or both, the tadjahs were taken onto the streets at the appointed time, and in order of the estates. The first estate that took its tadjah onto the street had earned that right over the past months, and in some towns, Hosay went ahead. In Port-of-Spain (St. James) the police did not interfere, but in Mon Repos, San Fernando, on Thursday, October 30, 1884, buckshot was fired into the crowds of women, children and men.. After shots were fired by the police to disperse the procession, 22 "Indians" were killed immediately. Later, 120 were found with injuries, some of whom had run into the cane fields, to hide during the police attack. That day is commonly referred to in Trinidad history as the Muhurram Massacre by Indians and as the Hosay Riots in British and colonial records.
"Architect of Victory" is a concert march composed by James L. Hosay in 1994 as a tribute to United States Army General Gordon Russell Sullivan for performance on the occasion of his retirement as Chief of Staff of the United States Army. At the time Hosay composed the march, he was a member of the United States Army Band.Ashura
Yom Ashura or Ashura (Arabic: عاشوراء, romanized: ʻĀshūrā’ [ʕaːʃuːˈraːʔ]) is the tenth day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. It marks the day that Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was martyred in the Battle of Karbala. Ashura is a major holiday and occasion for pilgrimage and fasting in Shia Islam, as well as a recommended but non-obligatory day of fasting in Sunni Islam. Ashura has origins in Yom Kippur from Judaism.Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram, the annual commemoration of the death of Husayn and his family and supporters at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (in AHt: October 10, 680 CE). Mourning for the incident began almost immediately after the battle. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, and the earliest public mourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty.
In Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Bahrain and Pakistan Ashura has become a national holiday, and many ethnic and religious communities participate in it.For Sunni Muslims, Ashura also marks the day that Moses and the Israelites were saved from Pharaoh by God creating a path in the Sea or Noah leaving the Ark.Culture of Trinidad and Tobago
The culture of Trinidad and Tobago reflects the influence of European, African, Indian, Spanish (Hispanic or Latino), Arab, cultures. The histories of Trinidad and Tobago are different. There are differences in the cultural influences which have shaped each island. Trinidad and Tobago is an English-speaking country with strong links to the United Kingdom.
Historical membership in the British Empire left a major influence on the country, including the differences of the English language and the popularity of the two top sports in the country, football, and cricket.Hosay massacre
The Hosay massacre (also known as the Hosay riots or the Jahaji massacre) took place on 30 October 1884 in San Fernando, Trinidad when the British colonial authorities fired on participants in the annual Hosay procession (the local name for the Shi'a Festival of Muharram) who had been banned from entering the town.Indo-Caribbean Americans
Indo-Caribbean Americans are Americans who trace their ancestry ultimately to India, though whose recent ancestors lived in the Caribbean, where they began migrating in 1838 as indentured laborers. There are large groups of Indo-Trinidadians, Indo-Guyanese, Indo-Surinamese, and Indo-Jamaicans in the United States, especially in New York and Florida. The Washington metropolitan area, Texas, and Minnesota also have small numbers of Indo-Guyanese and Indo-Trinidadians.Islam in Trinidad and Tobago
Muslims constitute 5 percent of the population of Trinidad and Tobago, representing 102,421 individuals. The majority live in Trinidad but there are a handful in Tobago as well.Jacen Tan
Jacen Tan is a Singaporean independent film director, and has been named by The Straits Times Life! as one of Singapore's "most exciting young talents" and “Singapore’s latest film funnyman”.
Jacen’s first short film, Tak Giu (Kick Ball), became a viral hit on the Internet in 2005, with over 100,000 views. It was spread by e-mail in the pre-YouTube days, and overwhelming traffic caused the servers to crash. Many fans offering to host the 42mb video file on their servers, and it became 'Singapore's first viral short film'.Popularising the local slang “Hosay” (“Great!”) has helped Tan stand out as a filmmaker who has embraced being Singaporean by touching on topics close to the hearts of the people. 8 Days magazine refers to Jacen’s films as having “more Singaporean flavour than a pot of curry.”
In 2011, Jacen released Hosaywood, a DVD compilation of his short films.
Jacen's latest short documentary, Homeground, was awarded for the POSB Storytellers Grant in 2015.
Jacen also served as assistant director on Han Yew Kwang’s comedy hit, Rubbers.
He will release his first feature film, Zombiepura in 2018.List of visual anthropology films
This is a chronologic list of representative anthropologically-minded films and filmmakers:Alfred C. Haddon – UK
Torres Strait Expedition, 1898
Edward S. Curtis – US
In the Land of the Head Hunters, 1916
Percy Powell-Cotton - UK
Crafts in the Cameroons, 1931
Gorilla Drive, Cameroons, 1931
Osonigbe Juju House and Benin Brass Cutting, 1931
Robert J. Flaherty – US
Nanook of the North, 1922
Man of Aran, 1934
Louisiana Story, 1948
José Leitão de Barros – Portugal
Maria do Mar, 1930
Ala-Arriba! (film), 1942
Jean Epstein – Poland
L'or des mers (The ocean's gold), 1932
Diana and Antoinette Powell-Cotton - UK
Angola: Dombondola Potter, 1936
Angola: Scenes from a household (Dombondola), 1936
Jean Rouch – France
Les Maîtres Fous (The Mad Masters), 1954
Moi, un noir, 1958
Chronique d’un été (Chronicle of a Summer), 1961
Jaguar (Jean Rouch film), 1954 – 1967
Petit à petit, 1972
Lionel Rogosin – US
On the Bowery, 1957
Come Back, Africa, 1957
John Marshall – US
The Hunters (1957 film), 1957
N!ai: The Story of a !Kung Woman, 1980
A Kalahari Family, 1951 – 2000
António Campos – Portugal
A Almadraba atuneira (Tuna net), 1961
Vilarinho das Furnas, 1971
Histórias selvagens (Savage stories), 1978
Falamos de Rio de Onor (Let’s talk about Rio de Onor)
Gente da Praia da Vieira (The people of Praia da Vieira), 1976
Terra fria (Cold land), 1992
Manoel de Oliveira – Portugal
Acto da Primavera (Act of Spring), 1963
Michel Brault – Canada
Pour la suite du monde, (Of Whales, the Moon and Men), 1963
Les Ordres (Orderers) 1975
Les Noces de papier (Paper wedings), 1990
Pierre Perrault – Canada
Pour la suite du monde (Of Whales, the Moon and Men, 1963
Robert Gardner – US
Dead Birds, 1964
The Nuer, 1970
Rivers of Sand, 1975
Sons of Shiva, 1985
Forest of Bliss, 1986
David MacDougall and Judith MacDougall – Australia
To Live with Herds, 1968/1972
The Wedding Camels, 1974/1977
Lorang's Way, 1974/1979
A Wife among Wives, 1974/1981
Three Horsemen, 1978/1982
Stockman's Strategy, 1982/1984
Collum Calling Canberra, 1982/1984
Doon School Chronicles,1997-1998/2000
Tim Asch – US
The Feast, 1969
Yanomamo: A Multidisciplinary Study, 1971
Magical Death, 1974
The Ax Fight, 1975
A Man Called "Bee": Studying the Yanomamo, 1975
A Balinese Trance Seance, 1979
Jero on Jero: A Balinese Trance Seance Observed, 1980
Jero Tapakan: Stories From the Life of a Balinese Healer, 1983
The Medium is the Masseuse: A Balinese Massage, 1983
The Water of Words: A Cultural Ecology of an Eastern Indonesian Island, 1983
Spear and Sword: a Ceremonial Payment of Bridewealth, 1989
Releasing the Spirits, 1990
A Celebration of Origins, 1992
António Reis and Margarida Cordeiro – Portugal
Ana (film), 1984
Noémia Delgado – Portugal
Máscaras (Masks), 1976
Bob Connolly and Robin Anderson
First Contact, 1983
Joe Leahy’s Neighbors, 1988
Black Harvest, 1991
Dennis O'Rourke – Australia
Yumi Yet – Independence for Papua New Guinea, 1976
Ileksen – Politics in Papua New Guinea, 1978
Yap ... How Did you Know We’d Like TV, 1980
The Shark Callers of Kontu, 1982
Couldn’t Be Fairer, 1984
Half Life: A Parable for the Nuclear Age, 1985
Cannibal Tours, 1988
The Good Woman of Bangkok, 1991
Land Mines -- A Love Story, 2004
John Melville Bishop - US
Rhesus Play, 1977
YoYo Man, 1978
The Land Where The Blues Began, 1979
New England Fiddles & New England Dances, 1983
The Last Window, 1987
Himalayan Herders, 1997
Hosay Trinidad (1999)
Oh What A Blow That Phantom Gave Me, 2003, (with Harald E.L. Prins)
Oss Tales, 2007
John Bishop Short Films, (14 films 1975-2007)
Pedro Costa – Portugal
Casa de Lava (Down to Earth), 1994
Ossos (Bones), 1997
No Quarto da Vanda (In Vanda’s room), 2000
Juventude em Marcha (Colossal youth), 2006
Flora Gomes – Guiné-Bissau
Po di Sangui, 1996
Nha Fala, 2002
Fernando Meirelles – Brazil
Cidade de Deus, (City of God), 2002
Flock of Dodos, 2006
Oh, What a Blow that Phantom Gave Me! 2003 (with John Bishop)
Harjant Gill - US / India
Milind Soman Made Me Gay, 2007
Roots of Love, 2011
Sent Away Boys, 2016
Robert Lemelson – US
40 Years of Silence: An Indonesian Tragedy, 2009
Afflictions: Culture and Mental Health in Indonesia Film Series, 2010 / 2011
Shadows and Illuminations, 2010
Family Victim, 2010
The Bird Dancer, 2010
Kites and Monsters, 2011
Memory of My Face, 2011
Ritual Burdens, 2011
Jathilan: Trance and Possession in Java, 2011
Ngaben: Emotion and Restraint in a Balinese Heart, 2012
Standing on the Edge of a Thorn, 2012List of wars involving Trinidad and Tobago
This is a list of wars and conflicts involving Trinidad and Tobago.Muharram
The Tenth day of Muharram is known as the Day of Ashura. Sometimes, as part of the Mourning of Muharram Shia Muslims practice faka (partial fasting) and Sunni Muslims practice fasting on Ashura.
Shia Muslims mourn the death of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī and his family, honoring the martyrs by prayer and abstinence from joyous events. Shia Muslims do not fast on the 10th of Muharram, but some will not eat or drink until Zawal (afternoon) to show their sympathy with Husayn. In addition there is an important ziyarat book, the Ziyarat Ashura about Husayn ibn Ali. In the Shia sect, it is popular to read this ziyarat on this date.National symbols of Trinidad and Tobago
National symbols of Trinidad and Tobago are the symbols that are used in Trinidad and Tobago and abroad to represent the country and its people.
Prominently, the Coat of Arms of Trinidad and Tobago is a Trinbagonian symbol, and is depicted on all its money.Saint James, Trinidad and Tobago
Saint James is a district of Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. The main road is the Western Main Road. It runs from Woodbrook to Cocorite.
Port of Spain's last major municipal expansion occurred in 1938, when the St. James district north of Woodbrook and west of St. Clair was incorporated into the city limits. In the late 19th century, Indian indentured labourers on nearby sugar estates established houses here, and St. James gradually became the centre of Port of Spain's Indian population, with many streets named after cities and districts in India. Western Main Road, the area's major thoroughfare, has long been the city's main nightlife district, sometimes nicknamed "the city that never sleeps".
Long Circular Road, which curves north from Western Main Road then east to meet Maraval Road, forms part of the city boundary. Its "circle" encloses Flagstaff Hill, a small rise with the US ambassador's residence at its summit, which lends its name to an area of apartment buildings at its southern foot.
South of St. James and near the seashore at Invaders Bay is Mucurapo, a mostly residential district which also contains the city's second-largest cemetery.
V.S. Naipaul, a winner of the Nobel Prize for literature, grew up in St. James.
Singer, songwriter and actress Nicki Minaj was born in St. James and lived there until relocating with her family to Queens, New York, United States in 1987.Soaz
Soaz or soz (Persian and Urdu: سوز) is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the honor of Husain ibn Ali and his family and Sahabah in the battle of Karbala. In its form the soaz, salam and Marsiya, with a rhyming quatrain and a couplet on a different rhyme. This form found a specially congenial soil in Lucknow (a city in Northern India), chiefly because it was the center of Shia Muslim community, which regarded it an act of piety and religious duty to eulogies and bemoan the person who killed in the battle of Karbala. The form reached its peak in the writing of Mir Babar Ali Anis. A soaz is written to commemorate the honor of Ahl al-Bayt, Imam Hussain and Battle of Karbala. The sub-parts of Marsiya can be called Noha and soz which means the lamentation and burning of (heart) respectively.
People who recite soaz are known as soazkhawan.Social unrest in Trinidad and Tobago
Social unrest has shaped the development of Trinidad and Tobago since the middle of the 19th century. Attempts by the British colonial government to crack down on the celebration of Carnival sparked the Canboulay Riots in 1881 and 1884. Attempts to control the celebration of Hosay by the Indian population culminated in the Hosay Riots in 1884. In the early 20th century, the Water riots culminated in the destruction of the Red House , the seat of government, by a mob of protestors.
In response to poor working conditions and inadequate pay, the Labour riots of 1937 shook Trinidad and led to the birth of the trade union movement. Labour problems again resulted in unrest in 1965. The rise of the Black Power movement late in the 1960s culminated in the 1970 Black Power Revolution which threatened the government of Prime Minister Eric Williams. In 1975 there was labour unrest when the major unions representing oil workers and sugar workers marched in San Fernando and were met by brutal police resistance. This became known as "Bloody Tuesday". Further unrest in the 1970s had little lasting impact. The economic downturn following the end of the oil boom saw the People's National Movement losing power after 30 unbroken years in government. Austerity measures introduced by the new National Alliance for Reconstruction government led to a series of protests by labour and social groups. One of these groups, the Islamist Jamaat al Muslimeen staged an attempted coup d'état in July 1990.Ta'zieh
Ta'zieh or Ta'zïye or Ta'zīya or Tazīa or Ta'ziyeh, (Arabic: تعزية, Persian: تعزیه, Urdu: تعزیہ) means comfort, condolence or expression of grief. It comes from roots aza (عزو and عزى) which means mourning.
Depending on the region, time, occasion, religion, etc. the word can signify different cultural meanings and practices:
In Persian cultural reference it is categorized as Condolence Theater or Passion Play inspired by a historical and religious event, the tragic death of Hussein, symbolizing epic spirit and resistance.
In South Asia and in the Caribbean it refers specifically to the Miniature Mausoleums (imitations of the mausolems of Karbala, generally made of coloured paper and bamboo) used in ritual processions held in the month of Muharram.Ta'zieh, primarily known from the Persian tradition, is a shi'ite Muslim ritual that reenacts the death of Hussein (the prophet Muhammad's grandson) and his male children and companions in a brutal massacre on the plains of Karbala, Iraq in the year 680 A.D. His death was the result of a power struggle in the decision of control of the Muslim community (called the caliph) after the death of the Prophet Muhammad.Today, we know of 250 Ta'zieh pieces. They were collected by an Italian ambassador to Iran, Cherulli, and added to a collection which can be found in the Vatican Library. Various other scripts can be found scattered throughout Iran.Tabuik
A Tabuik is the local manifestation of the Remembrance of Muharram among the Minangkabau people in the coastal regions of West Sumatra, Indonesia, particularly in the city of Pariaman.Tassa
In Trinidad and Tobago and other parts of the Caribbean, the term "tassa" refers to a drumming ensemble drawn from an amalgamation of various of North Indian folk drumming traditions, most importantly dhol-tasha, a style that remains popular today in many parts of India and Pakistan. Beginning in the 1830s and lasting until 1918, dhol-tasha was taken around the world by Indian workers, mostly from present-day Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, enmeshed in a global scheme of indentured labor in British, French, and Dutch territories.Trinidad and Tobago cuisine
Trinidad and Tobago cuisine reflects a blending of African-West African, Amerindian, Arab, Chinese, Creole, European, North Indian-South Asian, and Latin American-Spanish-Portuguese influences.Western Main Road
The Western Main Road is the main road in Trinidad and Tobago that runs west from Green Corner in downtown Port of Spain, through St. James, where it is the main thoroughfare, til the Military Base in Chaguaramas.
It is most notable as the scene of the Hosay which his held annually in May or June.