Church in Hortobágy.
Coat of arms
Location of Hortobágy in Hungary
|Region||Northern Great Plain|
|• Total||284.6 km2 (109.9 sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code||+36 74|
On 1 July 2016, 4 demolition experts of the Hungarian Defence Force were killed and another seriously injured while attempting to detonate a 250 kilogram Russian-made fragmentation bomb manufactured shortly after WW2. The incident took place at a firing range within the Hortobágy National Park. The firing range covers 4,000 hectares (about 9,800 acres) and has been used for practice by the Hungarian armed forces for decades. It was reported that the detonator had already been removed when the explosion occurred. The remote and sparsely populated area was used as a shooting range by the Hungarian Army for decades following World War II. The soldiers will be honored with the Hazáért Érdemjel medal.
Bugac is a village in Bács-Kiskun county, in the Southern Great Plain region of southern Hungary.
It covers an area of 131.11 km2 (51 sq mi) and has a population of 2889 people (2010).
The surrounding area, Bugac puszta is the largest of seven disjoint units making up the Kiskunság National Park.Csikós
The csikós is the mounted horse-herdsman of Hungary. The csikós tradition is closely associated with the Hungarian puszta, in recent times particularly in the environs of Debrecen and Hortobágy National Park. It is also closely linked to the Nonius breed of horse, for which one of the two principal breeding centres is the Máta Stud, some 3 kilometres from Hortobágy.Cultural landscape
A cultural landscape, as defined by the World Heritage Committee, is the "cultural properties [that] represent the combined works of nature and of man".
"a landscape designed and created intentionally by man"
an "organically evolved landscape" which may be a "relict (or fossil) landscape" or a "continuing landscape"
an "associative cultural landscape" which may be valued because of the "religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural element."Fishery Railway Hortobágy
The Fishery Railway Hortobágy (Hungarian: Hortobágy-halastavi Kisvasút) is a narrow gauge railway with a gauge of 760 mm (2 ft 5 15⁄16 in) at the fish ponds near Hortobágy in Hungary. It is the only fishery railway in Europe that operates with locomotives.Great Hungarian Plain
The Great Hungarian Plain (also known as Alföld or Great Alföld, Hungarian: Alföld or Nagy Alföld) is a plain occupying the majority of Hungary. It is the largest part of the wider Pannonian Plain.
In Hungarian, the plain is known as Alföld [ˈɒlføld].Hajdú-Bihar County
Hajdú-Bihar (Hungarian: Hajdú-Bihar megye, pronounced [ˈhɒjduː ˈbihɒr]) is an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in eastern Hungary, on the border with Romania. It shares borders with the Hungarian counties Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok and Békés. The capital of Hajdú-Bihar county is Debrecen. Together with Bihor County in Romania it constitutes the Biharia Euroregion.Hortobágy National Park
Hortobágy (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈhortobaːɟ]) is an 800 km2 national park in eastern Hungary, rich with folklore and cultural history. The park, a part of the Alföld (Great Plain), was designated as a national park in 1973 (the first in Hungary), and elected among the World Heritage sites in 1999. The Hortobágy is Hungary's largest protected area, and the largest semi-natural grassland in Europe.Until recently it was believed that this alkaline steppe was formed by the clear cutting of huge forests in the Middle Ages, followed by measures to control the course of the Tisza River, allegedly resulting in the soil's current structure and pH. However, Hortobágy is much older, with alkalinization estimated to have started ten thousand years ago, when the Tisza first found its way through the Great Hungarian Plain, cutting off many streams from their sources in the Northern Mountains. The formation was finished by grazing animals and wild horses during the Ice Age, followed by domesticated animals.One of its most iconic sites is the Nine-holed Bridge. Traditional T-shaped sweep wells dot the landscape, as well as the occasional mirage of trees shimmering in the reflected heat of the Puszta. Part of the national park is a dark sky preserve.Hortobágy has also had negative connotations. Hortobágy was a place where Hungarian Stalinists sent their political opponents to work in forced labour, especially after the Resolution of Informbiro (Cominform or Communist Information Bureau). In much the same way as prison Goli otok functioned in Tito's Yugoslavia (see Tito–Stalin split) and Bărăgan in Romania.Hortobágy labor camps
The forced labor camps of Hortobágy were established by the communist regime in the eastern parts of Hungary during the beginning of the 1950s.
Between 1950 and 1953 about ten thousand people were taken here without a legal verdict. They had to work under armed supervision and in inhuman conditions on the state farms in Hortobágy, Nagykunság, and Hajdúság. The laborers couldn't return to their homes even after the 1953 amnesty and weren’t eligible for compensation.The deportations beginning on June 23rd 1950 were the typical examples of the morbid fears of the communist regime. Thousands of families from the western and southern borders, which were claimed to be “unsafe” because of the Cold War by the government at the time (Dobi István, Rákosi Mátyas, Nagy Imre), were taken to the twelve labor camps on the Alföld. The deported had barely an hour to pack, their papers were taken, and their beds were about half a meter wide. Their forced labor took place on the state farms of nearby villages until the first Nagy Imre government declared amnesty in July 1953. The camps were closed in the fall of the same year. However, the aggrieved could not return to their homes and were only employed as unskilled laborers. As such, the real estates and wealth of the claimed seditionaries were confiscated by the state, by which it hoped to frighten the population. The victims haven’t been compensated since.Hortobágyi palacsinta
Hortobágyi palacsinta is a savoury Hungarian Crêpe, filled with meat (usually veal). The meat is prepared as a stew; minced meat is fried with onions and spices like the pörkölt or the paprikás dish, using veal, veal with mushrooms, chicken, or Hungarian sausage.The crêpes are filled with the minced meat, tucking in the ends, and are baked in the oven with a paprika and tejföl (sour cream) sauce, then topped with fresh parsley. Popular serving option in Hungary is rolling the filled crêpes up, or folding them into half and rolling them up on the shorter side. The rolled up crêpes then can be stacked on each other with the sauce poured over them. The dish does not originate from the Hortobágy National Park region of the Great Hungarian Plain and has nothing to do with Hortobágy. It was originally invented for the 1958 Brussels World Fair. However, some Hungarian recipe books already featured a similar recipe in the 1930s. The name of the food is simply a marketing trick.Hârtibaciu
The Hârtibaciu (German: Harbach, Hungarian: Hortobágy) is a river in the Transylvania historical region of Romania. It develops in the South Carpathians and flows into the Cibin, a tributary of the Olt, in Mohu, southeast of Sibiu. It flows through the towns and villages Bărcuț, Retiș, Brădeni, Netuș, Agnita, Benești, Alțâna, Nocrich, Hosman, Cornățel and Cașolț.
King Géza II of Hungary settled the initial Transylvanian Saxon colonists along the Hârtibaciu, referred to by them as the Harbach. The Saxons established many towns along the river such as Agnita with Kirchenburgen, or fortified churches.List of World Heritage Sites in Hungary
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972. Hungary accepted the convention on 15 July 1985, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list.Sites in Hungary were first inscribed on the list at the 11th Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Paris, France in 1987. At that session, two sites were added: "Budapest, the Banks of the Danube with the district of Buda Castle" and "Hollókő". The names of these and other Hungarian sites were changed to their present names at the 27th session of the Committee in 2003. Sites were added one at a time in the years 1995, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002. As of July 2014, Hungary has 8 total sites inscribed on the list. Of these two sites are shared with other countries: "Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape" with Austria; and the "Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst" with Slovakia. The latter is also the only natural site in Hungary.Nagylapos
Nagylapos is a village situated in the peaceful Kálmánháza Nagylapos in Bekes County, Hungary, located near the city of Gyomaendrőd and Hortobágy National Park. The name Nagylapos means "great flatness" and arises from the town's location on the Great Hungarian Plain. The town has 172 permanent residents.Nagylaposnak railway station is located on the Budapest–Szolnok–Békéscsaba–Lőkösháza railway line, and the town adjoins the Hortobágy National Park. The town is known for birkapörkölt (mutton stew) a local specialty.National symbols of Hungary
The national symbols of Hungary are flags, icons or cultural expressions that are emblematic, representative or otherwise characteristic of Hungary or Hungarian culture. The highly valued special Hungarian products and symbols are called Hungaricum.Nine-arched Bridge
The Nine-arched Bridge (Hungarian: Kilenclyukú híd, literally "nine-holed bridge") is the most identifiable symbol of the Hortobágy National Park, Hungary's great plain. This Arch bridge is the longest road stone bridge in historic Hungary prior to 1921 when Hungary was reduced to one third of its former territory. The bridge was built between 1827 and 1833 in a Classical style.
The distance between the two abutments standing on either side of the river is 92.13 metres while the entire length of the stone bridge measures 167.3 metres. The entrance to the bridge on each side is broader, thus making the life of the herdsman easier as approaching animals being herded onto the bridge entered the funnel shaped opening of the bridge.
The predecessor of the Nine Hole Bridge was a wooden structure built in 1697 which finally no longer corresponded to requirements due to the heavy traffic and deterioration over time. Increasingly frequent repairs made maintenance more and more expensive and thus, in 1825, the nearby city of Debrecen decided to dismantle the wooden bridge and build a new stone bridge in its place. After a review of several designs, the plan of Ferenc Povolny was accepted. Construction of the new bridge began in 1827 and after its completion in 1833 the wooden bridge was dismantled.Pannonian Steppe
The Pannonian Steppe is a variety of grassland ecosystems found in the Pannonian Basin.Protected areas of Hungary
Protected areas of Hungary includes 10 national parks, 35 landscape protection areas and 145 minor nature reserves. The national policy for governing and management of the protected areas is implemented by the Minister of Agriculture (State Secretary for the Environment). The first national park in Hungary at the Great Hungarian Plain is Hortobágy National Park, established in 1973.
Types of protected areas:
National Park (Hungarian: Nemzeti park; abbr. NP)
Protected Landscape Area (Hungarian: Tájvédelmi körzet; abbr. TK)
National Nature Reserve (Hungarian: Természetvédelmi terület; abbr. TT)Püspökladány
Püspökladány (pronounced [ˈpyʃpøklɒdaːɲ]) is the sixth largest town of Hajdú-Bihar county in North Eastern Hungary with a population of approximately 16,000 people. It is located southwest of Debrecen at the juncture of three regions: Sárrét, Hortobágy and Nagykunság. It is an important transportation hub at the junction of national highway 4 from Budapest to Záhony, and national highway No. 42 from Romania to Biharkeresztes. The town is served by four different rail lines.Racka
The Racka (pronounced ) or Hortobágy Racka Sheep (Ovis aries strepsiceros hungaricus) is a breed of sheep known for its unusual spiral-shaped horns. These unique appendages are unlike any other domestic sheep horns, and may grow up to 2.0 ft (0.61 m) long. The smallest standard length is 20 in (51 cm) for rams and 12–15 in (30–38 cm) for ewes.
The Hungarian Racka sheep (Ovis aries strepsiceros hungaricus) - formerly Hortobágy racka sheep - is an old Hungarian sheep breed which, according to some historians, has been a companion of Hungarians since the conquest of the Carpathian basin(Honfoglalás - 896).
Now the largest stocks are found in the Hortobágy steppes of Hungary and to a lesser extent in Caras Severin, Romania. Due to its unique features, appealing for show it has recently been exported in growing numbers to United Kingdom, United States and France, while in its home range interest remains limited. It is a hardy, multi-purpose breed used for milking, wool and meat. Their wool is long and coarse, and appears in two general types: a cream wool with light brown faces and legs, and a black variation. Ewes weigh around 88 lb (40 kg), and rams 132 lb (60 kg).The breed's unique appearance and quiet disposition would make it a desirable animal for hobby situations.
|City with county rights|