Horseshoe whip snake

The horseshoe whip snake (Hemorrhois hippocrepis) is a species of snake in the family Colubridae . It is native to southwestern Europe and northern Africa.

Horseshoe whip snake
Albufeira, Horseshoe whip snake, 25 October 2016
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Colubridae
Genus: Hemorrhois
Species:
H. hippocrepis
Binomial name
Hemorrhois hippocrepis
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Mapa Hemorrhois hippocrepis
Synonyms

Description

Adults may attain a total length of 1.5 m (5 feet). Its body is slender, and its head is wider than its neck. The eye is large, with a round pupil, and with a row of small scales below it. The smooth dorsal scales are arranged in 25-29 rows, and the ventrals number 220-258. Dorsally it has a series of large spots which are either blackish or dark brown edged with black. There are a series of alternating smaller dark spots on the sides. The lighter ground color between the spots may be yellowish, olive, or reddish. The dark spots are closely spaced, giving the appearance of a dark snake with a light pattern resembling a chain or a series of X's. There is a light horseshoe-shaped mark on the neck and back of head.[3]

Distribution and habitat

It is found in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia in North Africa, and in southern and central Portugal, southern, eastern and central Spain, Gibraltar, southern Sardinia and Pantelleria Island in Europe. In the island locations, it may have been introduced. Its natural habitats are Mediterranean-type shrubby vegetation, rocky areas, rocky shores, sandy shores, arable land, pastureland, plantations, rural gardens, and urban areas.[1]

Conservation status

The horseshoe whip snake is assessed as being of "Least Concern" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in its Red List of Threatened Species. Its population trend is thought to be steady, it is able to adapt to modified habitats. Threats it faces include being run over by traffic, poisoned by agricultural chemicals and being captured for use by local snake charmers.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c Jose Antonio Mateo Miras; Marc Cheylan; M. Saïd Nouira, Ulrich Joger; Paulo Sá-Sousa; Valentin Pérez-Mellado; Iñigo Martínez-Solano; Roberto Sindaco; Antonio Romano (2009). "Hemorrhois hippocrepis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009: e.T61509A12495496. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009.RLTS.T61509A12495496.en. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  2. ^ Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History), Volume I. London. pp. 409-410.
  3. ^ Arnold, E.N. & J.A. Burton. 1978. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Britain and Europe. Collins. London. pp. 191-194.
Amphibia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Amphibia as:

Animals that are distinguished by a body cold and generally naked; stern and expressive countenance; harsh voice; mostly lurid color; filthy odor; a few are furnished with a horrid poison; all have cartilaginous bones, slow circulation, exquisite sight and hearing, large pulmonary vessels, lobate liver, oblong thick stomach, and cystic, hepatic, and pancreatic ducts: they are deficient in diaphragm, do not transpire (sweat), can live a long time without food, are tenatious of life, and have the power of reproducing parts which have been destroyed or lost; some undergo a metamorphosis; some cast (shed) their skin; some appear to live promiscuously on land or in the water, and some are torpid during the winter.

Linnaean characteristics

Heart: 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, dark red blood

Lungs: breathes uncertainly

Jaw: incumbent

Penis: (frequently) double

Eggs: (usually) membranaceous

Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils, eyes, ears

Covering: a naked skin

Supports: various, in some none. Creeps in warm places and hissesLinnaeus often regarded reptiles within the amphibian class because living in Sweden, he often noticed that the local reptiles (examples include the common adder and grass snake) would hunt and be active in the water.

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Linnaeus included several species of fishes (that do not belong the superclass Osteichthyes) into the amphibian class. It was not until later on that he would merge them into the Fish class and give them their own new order "Chondropterygious", defining them as species with cartilaginous gills.

Linnaeus divided the amphibians based upon the limb structures and the way they breathed.

Eurasian tree sparrow

The Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) is a passerine bird in the sparrow family with a rich chestnut crown and nape, and a black patch on each pure white cheek. The sexes are similarly plumaged, and young birds are a duller version of the adult. This sparrow breeds over most of temperate Eurasia and Southeast Asia, where it is known as the tree sparrow, and it has been introduced elsewhere including the United States, where it is known as the Eurasian tree sparrow or German sparrow to differentiate it from the native unrelated American tree sparrow. Although several subspecies are recognised, the appearance of this bird varies little across its extensive range.

The Eurasian tree sparrow's untidy nest is built in a natural cavity, a hole in a building or the large nest of a European magpie or white stork. The typical clutch is five or six eggs which hatch in under two weeks. This sparrow feeds mainly on seeds, but invertebrates are also consumed, particularly during the breeding season. As with other small birds, infection by parasites and diseases, and predation by birds of prey take their toll, and the typical life span is about two years.

The Eurasian tree sparrow is widespread in the towns and cities of eastern Asia, but in Europe it is a bird of lightly wooded open countryside, with the house sparrow breeding in the more urban areas. The Eurasian tree sparrow's extensive range and large population ensure that it is not endangered globally, but there have been large declines in western European populations, in part due to changes in farming practices involving increased use of herbicides and loss of winter stubble fields. In eastern Asia and western Australia, this species is sometimes viewed as a pest, although it is also widely celebrated in oriental art.

Gibraltar Nature Reserve

The Gibraltar Nature Reserve (formerly the Upper Rock Nature Reserve) is a protected nature reserve in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar that covers over 40% of the country's land area. It was established as the Upper Rock Nature Reserve in 1993 under the International Union for Conservation of Nature's category Ia (strict nature reserve) and was last extended in 2013. It is known for its semi-wild population of Barbary macaques, and is an important resting point for migrating birds.

Hemorrhois

Hemorrhois is a genus of snakes in the family Colubridae .

It contains the following four species:

Hemorrhois algirus (Jan, 1863)

Hemorrhois hippocrepis (Linnaeus, 1758), horseshoe whip snake

Hemorrhois nummifer (Reuss, 1834)

Hemorrhois ravergieri (Ménétries, 1832)

List of least concern reptiles

As of September 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 2,900 least concern reptile species. 56% of all evaluated reptile species are listed as least concern.

The IUCN also lists two reptile subspecies as least concern.

Of the subpopulations of reptiles evaluated by the IUCN, six species subpopulations have been assessed as least concern.

This is a complete list of least concern reptile species and subspecies evaluated by the IUCN. Species and subspecies which have least concern subpopulations (or stocks) are indicated.

List of reptiles of Europe

This is a list of European reptiles. It includes all reptiles currently found in Europe. It does not include species found only in captivity or extinct in Europe, except where there is some doubt about this, nor (with few exceptions) does it currently include species introduced in recent decades. Each species is listed, with its binomial name and notes on its distribution where this is limited.

Also this list is incomplete.

Conservation status - IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:

EX - Extinct, EW - Extinct in the Wild

CR - Critically Endangered, EN - Endangered, VU - Vulnerable

NT - Near Threatened, LC - Least Concern

DD - Data Deficient, NE - Not Evaluated

(v. 2013.2, the data is current as of March 5, 2014)

List of reptiles of Italy

The Italian reptile fauna totals 48 species (including introduced and naturalised species).

They are listed here in three systematic groups (Sauria, Serpentes, and Testudines) in alphabetical order by scientific name.

List of reptiles of Spain

This is a list of all reptiles living in Spain, both in the Iberian Peninsula and other territories such as Ceuta, Melilla, the Balearic Islands and the Canary Islands (including marine reptiles that can be found on its shores). Both native and introduced species are included.

Tibesti Mountains

The Tibesti Mountains are a mountain range in the central Sahara, primarily located in the extreme north of Chad, with a small extension into southern Libya. The highest peak in the range, Emi Koussi, lies to the south at a height of 3,445 metres (11,302 ft) and is the highest point in both Chad and the Sahara. Bikku Bitti, the highest peak in Libya, is located in the north of the range. The central third of the Tibesti is of volcanic origin and consists of five shield volcanoes topped by large craters: Emi Koussi, Tarso Toon, Tarso Voon, Tarso Yega and Toussidé. Major lava flows have formed vast plateaus that overlie Paleozoic sandstone. The volcanic activity was the result of a continental hotspot that arose during the Oligocene and continued in some places until the Holocene, creating fumaroles, hot springs, mud pools and deposits of natron and sulfur. Erosion has shaped volcanic spires and carved an extensive network of canyons through which run rivers subject to highly irregular flows that are rapidly lost to the desert sands.

Tibesti, which means "place where the mountain people live," is the domain of the Toubou people. The Toubou live mainly along the wadis, on rare oases where palm trees and limited grains grow. They harness the water that collects in gueltas, the supply of which is highly variable from year-to-year and decade-to-decade. The plateaus are used to graze livestock in the winter and harvest grain in the summer. Temperatures are high, although the altitude ensures that the range is cooler than the surrounding desert. The Toubou, who first appeared in the range in the 5th century BC, adapted to these conditions and turned the range into a large natural fortress. They arrived in several waves, taking refuge in times of conflict and dispersing in times of prosperity, although not without intense internal hostility at times.

The Toubou came into contact with the Carthaginians, Berbers, Tuaregs, Ottomans and the Arabs, as well as the French colonists who first entered the range in 1914 and took control of the area in 1929. The independent spirit of the Toubou and the geopolitical situation in the region has complicated the exploration of the range as well as the ascent of its peaks. Tensions continued after Chad and Libya gained independence in the mid-20th century, with hostage-taking and armed struggles occurring amid border disputes over the allocation of natural resources. The geopolitical situation and the lack of infrastructure has hampered the development of tourism.

The Saharomontane flora and fauna, which include the rhim gazelle and Barbary sheep, have adapted to the mountains, yet the climate has not always been as harsh. Greater biodiversity existed in the past, as evidenced by scenes portrayed in rock and parietal art found throughout the range, which date back several millennia, even before the arrival of Toubou. The isolation of the Tibesti has sparked the cultural imagination in both art and literature.

Valle de Abdalajís

Valle de Abdalajís (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈba.ʎe ðe aβ.ða.laˈxis]) is a town and municipality in the province of Málaga, part of the autonomous community of Andalucía in southern Spain. It is located in the comarca of Antequera. The municipality is situated approximately 50 kilometres from the provincial capital of Málaga. It has a population of approximately 3,000 residents. The natives are called Vallesteros.

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