Horned guan

The horned guan (Oreophasis derbianus) is a large, approximately 85 cm long, turkey-like bird with glossed black upperparts plumage, red legs, white iris, yellow bill and a red horn on top of head. The breast and upper belly are white, and its long tail feathers are black with white band near base. Both sexes are similar. The young is duller with smaller horn, and has brown tail and wings.

The only member in monotypic genus Oreophasis, the horned guan is distributed in humid mountain forests of southeast Mexico-(Chiapas) and Guatemala of Central America. It is found in altitude up to 3,350 metres. Its diet consists mainly of fruits, green leaves and invertebrates. The female usually lays up to two eggs.

Oreophasis Gray

The horned guan is not a true guan, but merely resembles these birds most in overall shape and color, whereas the horn is more reminiscent of the helmeted curassows. In fact, this species is the only survivor of a very ancient lineage of cracids that has been evolving independently from all other living members of this family for at least 20, possibly as much as 40 million years.

Although it does not have any really close relatives among living cracids, the true guans are apparently most distant. Given that the basal relationships of the living cracids are not well resolved, the horned guan is often placed into a distinct subfamily, the Oreophasinae. Alternatively, it might be included in a large Cracinae with curassows and chachalacas (Pereira et al. 2002)

Due to ongoing habitat loss, small population size, limited range and hunting in some areas, the horned guan is evaluated as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed on Appendix I of CITES.

Horned guan
Horned Guan
at the Saint Louis Zoological Park
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Cracidae
Subfamily: Oreophasinae
Sclater & Salvin, 1870
Genus: Oreophasis
G.R. Gray, 1844
O. derbianus
Binomial name
Oreophasis derbianus
Gray, 1844


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2013). "Oreophasis derbianus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  • Pereira, Sérgio Luiz; Baker, Allan J.& Wajntal, Anita (2002): Combined nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences resolve generic relationships within the Cracidae (Galliformes, Aves). Systematic Biology 51(6): 946-958. doi:10.1080/10635150290102519 PMID 12554460 PDF fulltext

External links

Africam Safari

Africam Safari is a Mexican safari park that was established in 1972 by Captain Carlos Camacho Espíritu. It is located about 17 kilometres (11 mi) from the city of Puebla, Mexico.Africam Safari is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) and the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA).


The chachalacas, guans and curassows are birds in the family Cracidae. These are species of tropical and subtropical Central and South America. The range of one species, the plain chachalaca, just reaches southernmost parts of Texas in the United States. Two species, the Trinidad piping guan and the rufous-vented chachalaca occur on the islands of Trinidad and Tobago respectively.


Curassows are one of the three major groups of cracid birds. Three of the four genera are restricted to tropical South America; a single species of Crax ranges north to Mexico. They form a distinct clade which is usually classified as the subfamily Cracinae.

Guan (bird)

The guans are a number of bird genera which make up the largest group in the family Cracidae. They are found mainly in northern South America, southern Central America, and a few adjacent Caribbean islands. There is also the peculiar horned guan (Oreophasis derbianus) which is not a true guan, but a very distinct and ancient cracid with no close living relatives (Pereira et al. 2002).

List of Galliformes by population

This is a list of Galliformes species by global population. While numbers are estimates, they have been made by the experts in their fields. For more information on how these estimates were ascertained, see Wikipedia's articles on population biology and population ecology.

This list is not comprehensive, as not all Galliformes have had their numbers quantified.

List of birds of North America (Galliformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Galliformes, and are native to North America.

List of endangered birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 469 endangered avian species. 4.0% of all evaluated avian species are listed as endangered.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

For a species to be considered endangered by the IUCN it must meet certain quantitative criteria which are designed to classify taxa facing "a very high risk of exintction". An even higher risk is faced by critically endangered species, which meet the quantitative criteria for endangered species. Critically endangered birds are listed separately. There are 634 avian species which are endangered or critically endangered.

Additionally 61 avian species (0.59% of those evaluated) are listed as data deficient, meaning there is insufficient information for a full assessment of conservation status. As these species typically have small distributions and/or populations, they are intrinsically likely to be threatened, according to the IUCN. While the category of data deficient indicates that no assessment of extinction risk has been made for the taxa, the IUCN notes that it may be appropriate to give them "the same degree of attention as threatened taxa, at least until their status can be assessed."This is a complete list of endangered avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

List of endemic birds of Mexico and northern Central America

This article is one of a series providing information about endemism among birds in the world's various zoogeographic zones. For an overview of this subject see Endemism in birds.


Mapastepec is a town and municipality in the southeastern state of Chiapas, Mexico. Its name derives from the place name mapachtepec, "Hill of the Raccoon", a compound of the Nahuatl words mapachi ("raccoon") and tepetl ("mountain").

Mapestepec is on the Pacific Ocean, with roughly half of its territory on the Pacific Coastal Plain and half in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas mountain range. It is partly within two of Mexico's Biosphere Reserves, featuring a number of important species, including the horned guan (Oreophasis derbianus), Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), the Jaguar (Panthera once) and rare cloud forest and mangrove habitat.

The primary sector makes up over half of the local economy. Key products include cheese and dairy products and the local Ataulfo mango.


Papadzules (Spanish pronunciation: [papaˈtsules]; Mexican Spanish, from Mayan [papatsʼuːles]) is a traditional dish from the Yucatán Peninsula resembling enchiladas. In its simplest form it consists of corn tortillas dipped in a sauce of pepita (pumpkin seeds) filled with hard-boiled eggs, and garnished with a cooked tomato-pepper sauce.

Pronatura México

Pronatura México is the largest Mexican environmental conservation group. Founded in 1981, the organization covers 32 Mexican states, being now composed of 6 regional representations, which are:

Pronatura, A.C.

Pronatura Chiapas

Pronatura Noreste

Pronatura Noroeste

Pronatura Península de Yucatán

Pronatura VeracruzThese non government, nonprofit organizations share the mission of the conservation of the flora, fauna and priority ecosystems of Mexico, promoting society's development in harmony with nature. The logo, which represents a horned guan, was 'modernized' in 2006, due to the celebration of the 25th anniversary of Pronatura, keeping the horned guan, but giving it a more stylized image.

In addition to the geographic division of its conservation work, Pronatura bases its programs on Strategic Lines of Action, which are:

Conservation and sustainable management of priority ecosystems

Environmental education and strategic communication

Community sustainable development

Environmental policy and management

Production and management of information

Institutional developmentPronatura has a number of donors and partners, both in Mexico and internationally. This has helped Pronatura grow to be conformed by more than 500 individuals, amongst board members (both national and regional) and staff, and achieve a yearly conservation investment of over 10 million dollars.

There are four national programs, shared by all six Pronaturas with a national coordination. These are:

Private Lands Conservation Program

Pronatura's Centers for Conservation Information

National Wetlands Program

National Bird Program

Saint Louis Zoo

The Saint Louis Zoological Park, commonly known as the Saint Louis Zoo, is in Forest Park in St. Louis, Missouri. It is recognized as a leading zoo in animal management, research, conservation, and education. The zoo is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). Admission is free based on a public subsidy from a cultural tax district, the Metropolitan Zoological Park and Museum District (ZMD); fees are charged for some special attractions. A special feature is the 2 ft (610 mm) narrow gauge Emerson Zooline Railroad with passenger trains pulled by Chance Rides C.P. Huntington locomotives that encircle the zoo, stopping at the more popular attractions.The city purchased its first exhibit, the Flight Cage, from the Smithsonian Institution following the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. After the zoo was established in 1910, new exhibits, areas and buildings were added through the decades to improve care of the animals, the range of animals and habitats shown, as well as education and interpretation. The head of the male lesser kudu, with his elegant spiraled horns, is the symbol of the Saint Louis Zoo.

Selva Zoque

The Selva Zoque (English: Zoque Forest), which includes the Chimalapas rain forest, is an area of great ecological importance in Mexico. Most of the forest lies in the state of Oaxaca but parts are in Chiapas and Veracruz. It is the largest tract of tropical rainforest in Mexico, and contains the majority of terrestrial biodiversity in the country. The forest includes the Selva El Ocote, a federally protected biosphere reserve, but is otherwise not yet protected. Despite the rich ecology of the region, a 2003 study that focused on bird populations stated that "the fauna of the heart of the Chimalapas, including its vast rainforests, have seen little or no study". As it is an impoverished region, efforts to preserve the ecology are often at odds with demands to improve the economy.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 1

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a study of birds conducted by Charles Sibley and Burt Monroe. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

The Sibley-Monroe assignment of individual species to families, and of families to orders remains controversial however. Critics maintain that while it marks a great leap forward so far as the evidence from DNA-DNA hybridisation goes, it pays insufficient attention to other forms of evidence, both molecular and on a larger scale. There is no true consensus, but the broad middle-ground position is that the Sibley-Monroe classification, overall, is "about 80% correct". Research and debate concerning bird classification continue.

There are 9,994 species on the checklist, which is begun below and continues in several parts.

Sierra de las Minas

Sierra de las Minas is a mountain range in eastern Guatemala, extending 130 km west of the Lake Izabal. It is 15–30 km wide and bordered by the valleys of the rivers Polochic in the north and the Motagua in the south. Its western border is marked by the Salamá River valley which separates it from the Chuacús mountain range. The highest peak is Cerro Raxón at 3,015 m.

The Sierra's rich deposits of jade and marble have been mined throughout the past centuries. These small scale mining activities also explain the name of the mountain range.

The range has several different habitats, including Mesoamerica's largest cloud forests, and is home to a great variety of wildlife. A large part of the Sierra de las Minas was declared a biosphere reserve in 1990.

United States Fish and Wildlife Service list of endangered mammals and birds

This is a list of the bird and mammal species and subspecies described as endangered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. It contains species and subspecies not only in the U.S. and its territories, but also those only found in other parts of the world. It does not include endangered fish, amphibians, reptiles, plants, or invertebrates. The complete list can be found in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations Title 50 Part 17.

The listings for status are E for endangered or T for threatened. Species or subspecies may also be endangered or threatened because they are sufficiently similar in appearance to endangered or threatened species or subspecies and are marked for "similarity of appearance" as E(S/A) or T(S/A).

Threatened species are animals and plants that are likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future.

Identifying, protecting, and restoring endangered and threatened species and subspecies are the primary objectives of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's endangered species program.

Volcán Atitlán

Volcán Atitlán (Spanish pronunciation: [atiˈtlan]) is a large, conical, active stratovolcano adjacent to the caldera of Lake Atitlán in the Guatemalan Highlands of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas range. It is within the Sololá Department, northern Guatemala.

The volcano has been quite active historically, with more than a dozen eruptions recorded between 1469 and 1853, the date of its most recent eruption. Atitlán is part of the Central American Volcanic Arc. The arc is a chain of volcanoes stretching along Central America formed by subduction of the Cocos Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate. These volcanoes are part of the Ring of Fire around the Pacific Ocean.

Volcán Atitlán is few miles south of Volcán Tolimán, which rises from the southern shore of Lake Atitlán. Volcán San Pedro rises above Lake Atitlán northwest of Volcán Atitlán. A long narrow bay separates Volcán Atitlán and Volcán Toliman from Volcán San Pedro.

Zoo León

The Zoo León (formally León Zoological Park, or Parque Zoológico de León in Spanish) is a zoo located in León, Guanajuato, Mexico. The zoo is open 365 days a year.Zoo León is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA).

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