The hornbills (Bucerotidae) are a family of bird found in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Melanesia. They are characterized by a long, down-curved bill which is frequently brightly colored and sometimes has a casque on the upper mandible. Both the common English and the scientific name of the family refer to the shape of the bill, "buceros" being "cow horn" in Greek. Hornbills have a two-lobed kidney. They are the only birds in which the first and second neck vertebrae (the atlas and axis respectively) are fused together; this probably provides a more stable platform for carrying the bill. The family is omnivorous, feeding on fruit and small animals. They are monogamous breeders nesting in natural cavities in trees and sometimes cliffs. A number of species of hornbill are threatened with extinction, mostly insular species with small ranges.
Temporal range: Late Miocene to present
|Malabar grey hornbill|
14, see text
Hornbills show considerable variation in size, ranging from the black dwarf hornbill (Tockus hartlaubi), at 102 grams (3.6 oz) and 30 cm (1 ft) in length, to the great hornbill (Buceros bicornis), at up to 4 kg (8.8 lb) and 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) in length. Males are always bigger than the females, though the extent to which this is true varies according to species. The extent of sexual dimorphism also varies with body parts. For example, the difference in body mass between males and females is 1–17%, but the variation is 8–30% for bill length and 1–21% in wing length.
The most distinctive feature of the hornbills is the heavy bill, supported by powerful neck muscles as well as by the fused vertebrae. The large bill assists in fighting, preening, constructing the nest, and catching prey. A feature unique to the hornbills is the casque, a hollow structure that runs along the upper mandible. In some species it is barely perceptible and appears to serve no function beyond reinforcing the bill. In other species it is quite large, is reinforced with bone, and has openings between the hollow centre, allowing it to serve as a resonator for calls. In the helmeted hornbill the casque is not hollow but is filled with hornbill ivory and is used as a battering ram in dramatic aerial jousts. Aerial casque-butting has also been reported in the great hornbill.
The plumage of hornbills is typically black, grey, white, or brown, and is frequently offset by bright colours on the bill, or by patches of bare coloured skin on the face or wattles. Some species exhibit sexual dichromatism, where the coloration of soft parts varies by gender.
Hornbills possess binocular vision, although unlike most birds with this type of vision, the bill intrudes on their visual field. This allows them to see their own bill tip and aids in precision handling of food objects with their bill. The eyes are also protected by large eyelashes which act as a sunshade.
The Bucerotidae include about 55 living species, though a number of cryptic species may yet be split, as has been suggested for the red-billed hornbill. Their distribution includes Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian Subcontinent to the Philippines and the Solomon Islands, but no genus is found in both Africa and Asia. Most are arboreal birds, but the large ground hornbills (Bucorvus), as their name implies, are terrestrial birds of open savanna. Of the 24 species found in Africa, 13 are birds of the more open woodlands and savanna, and some occur even in highly arid environments; the remaining species are found in dense forests. This contrasts with Asia, where a single species occurs in open savanna and the remainder are forest species. The Indian subcontinent has 10 species of hornbills, of which 9 are found in India and adjoining countries, while the Sri Lanka grey hornbill is restricted to the island. The most common widespread species in the Indian subcontinent is the Indian grey hornbill. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Indonesia has 13 hornbill species: 9 of them exist in Sumatra, and the rest exist in Sumba, Sulawesi, Papua and Kalimantan. Kalimantan has the same hornbill species as Sumatra, except that the great hornbill is not found there. In the Neogene (at least in the late Miocene), hornbills inhabited North Africa and South Europe. Their remains have been found in Morocco and Bulgaria.
Hornbills are diurnal, generally travelling in pairs or small family groups. Larger flocks sometimes form outside the breeding season. The largest assemblies of hornbills form at some roosting sites, where as many as 2400 individual birds may be found.
Hornbills are omnivorous birds, eating fruit, insects and small animals. They cannot swallow food caught at the tip of the beak as their tongues are too short to manipulate it, so they toss it back to the throat with a jerk of the head. While both open country and forest species are omnivorous, species that specialise in feeding on fruit are generally found in forests, while the more carnivorous species are found in open country. Forest-dwelling species of hornbills are considered to be important seed dispersers.
Some hornbills defend a fixed territory. Territoriality is related to diet; fruit sources are often patchily distributed and require long-distance travel to find. Thus, species that specialise in fruit are less territorial.
Hornbills generally form monogamous pairs, although some species engage in cooperative breeding. The female lays up to six white eggs in existing holes or crevices, either in trees or rocks. The cavities are usually natural, but some species may nest in the abandoned nests of woodpeckers and barbets. Nesting sites may be used in consecutive breeding seasons by the same pair. Before incubation, the females of all Bucerotinae—sometimes assisted by the male—begin to close the entrance to the nest cavity with a wall made of mud, droppings and fruit pulp. When the female is ready to lay her eggs, the entrance is just large enough for her to enter the nest, and after she has done so, the remaining opening is also all but sealed shut. There is only one narrow aperture, big enough for the male to transfer food to the mother and eventually the chicks. The function of this behaviour is apparently related to protecting the nesting site from rival hornbills. The sealing can be done in just a few hours; at most it takes a few days. Having sealed the nest it takes a further five days for the first egg to be laid. Clutch size varies from one or two eggs in the larger species to up to eight eggs for the smaller species. During the incubation period the female undergoes a complete and simultaneous moult. It has been suggested that the darkness of the cavity triggers a hormone involved in moulting. Non-breeding females and males go through a sequential moult. When the chicks and the female are too big to fit in the nest, the mother breaks out the nest and both parents feed the chicks. In some species the mother rebuilds the wall, whereas in others the chicks rebuild the wall unaided. The ground hornbills do not adopt this behaviour, but are conventional cavity-nesters.
A number of hornbills have associations with other animal species. For example, some species of hornbills in Africa have a mutualistic relationship with dwarf mongooses, foraging together and warning each other of nearby birds of prey and other predators. Other relationships are commensal, for example following monkeys or other animals and eating the insects flushed up by them.
The family Bucerotidae was introduced (as Buceronia) by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815. There are two subfamilies: the Bucorvinae contain the two ground hornbills in a single genus, and the Bucerotinae contain all other taxa. Traditionally they are included in the order Coraciiformes (which includes also kingfishers, rollers, hoopoes and bee-eaters). In the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, however, hornbills are separated from the Coraciiformes into an order of their own, Bucerotiformes, with the subfamilies elevated to family level. Given that they are almost as distant from the rollers, kingfishers and allies as are the trogons, the arrangement chosen is more a matter of personal taste than any well-established taxonomic practice. All that can be said with reasonable certainty is that placing the hornbills outside the Coraciiformes and the trogons inside would be incorrect.
Recent genetic data suggests that ground hornbills and Bycanistes form a clade outside the rest of the hornbill lineage. They are thought to represent an early African lineage, while the rest of Bucerotiformes evolved in Asia. However, another study claims that the ground hornbills diverged first, followed by Tockus. Within Tockus, two clades have been identified based on genetics and vocal types - 'whistlers' and 'cluckers'. The 'cluckers' have been suggested to form a distinct genus, Lophoceros.
Bycanistes belongs to a clade of mostly African species that also includes Ceratogymna and Tropicranus. Another member of this clade is the Black dwarf hornbill. The Black dwarf hornbill is typically classified in the genus Tockus but in this study, is a sister species to the White-crested hornbill. If these two species are classified in congeneric, Tropicranus becomes a junior synonym of Horizocerus, as that was one of the old names used for the Black dwarf hornbill. This clade also includes one Southeast Asian species, the White-crowned hornbill.
As for the other Asian hornbill species, Buceros and Rhinoplax are each other's closest relatives, Anorrhinus is part of a clade that has Ocyceros and Anthracoceros as sister taxa, and Aceros, Rhyticeros, and Penelopides form another clade. However, according to this study, Aceros is polyphyletic; the Rufous-headed hornbill, Writhed hornbill, and Wrinkled hornbill form a clade with the Sulawesi hornbill, and are in turn more closely related to Penelopides. These four species have been classified in a separate genus, Rhabdotorrhinus. Similarly, the Knobbed hornbill is more closely related to Rhyticeros, leaving the Rufous-necked hornbill the only member of the genus Aceros.
Bucorvus brailloni – Late Miocene (Morocco)
Euroceros bulgaricus – Late Miocene (Bulgaria)
Most species' casques are very light, containing much airspace. However, the helmeted hornbill has a solid casque made of a material called hornbill ivory, which is greatly valued as a carving material in China and Japan. It was used as a medium for the art of netsuke.
None of the African species of hornbills are seriously threatened, but many Asian hornbills are threatened by hunting and habitat loss, as they tend to require primary forest. Among these threatened species, only the plain-pouched hornbill and rufous-necked hornbill are found on the Asian mainland; all others are insular in their distribution. In the Philippines alone, one species (the Palawan hornbill) is vulnerable, and two species (the Mindoro and Visayan hornbills) are endangered. Two of the three critically endangered hornbills, the rufous-headed hornbill and the Sulu hornbill, are also restricted to the Philippines. The latter species is one of the world's rarest birds, with only 20 breeding pairs or 40 mature individuals, and faces imminent extinction. The Ticao hornbill, a subspecies of the Visayan hornbill, is probably already extinct. The other critically endangered species is the helmeted hornbill, is threatened by uncontrolled hunting and the trade in hornbill ivory.
The Rhinoceros hornbill is the official state animal of Sarawak, a Malaysian state located in Borneo.
Great hornbill, a member of the hornbill family, is the official state bird of Kerala, an Indian state.
The dictionary definition of hornbill at WiktionaryAbyssinian ground hornbill
The Abyssinian ground hornbill or northern ground hornbill (Bucorvus abyssinicus) is an African bird, found north of the equator, and is one of two species of ground hornbill. The other is the slightly larger southern ground hornbill; the two are the largest species of hornbills found in Africa.African grey hornbill
The African grey hornbill (Lophoceros nasutus) is a member of the hornbill family of tropical near-passerine birds found in the Old World. It is a widespread and common resident breeder in much of Sub-Saharan Africa and into Arabia. The African grey hornbill has escaped or been deliberately released in to Florida, USA, but there is no evidence that the population is breeding and may only persist due to continuing releases or escapes.
This bird prefers open woodland and savannah. The female lays two to four white eggs in a tree hollow, which is blocked off during incubation with a cement made of mud, droppings and fruit pulp. There is only one narrow aperture, just big enough for the male to transfer food to the mother and the chicks. When the chicks and female outgrow the nest, the mother breaks out and rebuilds the wall, after which both parents feed the chicks.
At 45 centimetres (18 in) in length, this is a large bird, although it is one of the smaller hornbills. It has mainly grey plumage, but the head, flight feathers and long tail are a darker shade. There is a white line down each side of the head and one on the back which is visible only in flight. The long curved bill is black and has a small casque and a creamy horizontal stripe.
The male has a black bill, whereas the female has red on the mandibles. The plumage of the male and female is similar. Immature birds are more uniformly grey. The flight is undulating. The similarly sized red-billed hornbill has uniformly grey plumage.
The African grey hornbill is omnivorous, taking insects, fruit and reptiles. It feeds mainly in trees.
This conspicuous bird advertises its presence with a piping pee-o pee-o pee-o call.Bombay Natural History Society
The Bombay Natural History Society, founded on 15 September 1883, is one of the largest non-governmental organisations in India engaged in conservation and biodiversity research. It supports many research efforts through grants and publishes the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Many prominent naturalists, including the ornithologists Sálim Ali and S. Dillon Ripley, have been associated with it. The society is commonly known by its initials, BNHS. BNHS is the partner of BirdLife International in India. It has been designated as a 'Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation' by the Department of Science and Technology. It's headquarter is in Mumbai and has one regional centre at Wetland Research and Training Centre, near Chilika Lake, Odisha.Bucerotiformes
Bucerotiformes is an order that contains the hornbills, hoopoe and wood hoopoes. Sometimes classified as members of Coraciiformes although increasing amount of evidence seem to support these birds being distinctive enough to warrant their own order.Chainat Hornbill F.C.
Chainat Hornbill Football Club (Thai สโมสรฟุตบอลชัยนาท ฮอร์นบิล) is a Thai professional football club based in Chai Nat Province. The club plays in Thai League 1.Fly Hornbill
Fly Hornbill is an Indian Regional airline based in Guwahati.Great hornbill
The great hornbill (Buceros bicornis) also known as the great Indian hornbill or great pied hornbill, is one of the larger members of the hornbill family. It is found in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Its impressive size and colour have made it important in many tribal cultures and rituals. The great hornbill is long-lived, living for nearly 50 years in captivity. It is predominantly frugivorous, but is an opportunist and will prey on small mammals, reptiles and birds.Ground hornbill
The ground hornbills (Bucorvidae) are a family of the order Bucerotiformes, with a single genus Bucorvus and two extant species (though possibly including another genus with six extant species). The family is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa: the Abyssinian ground hornbill occurs in a belt from Senegal east to Ethiopia, and the southern ground hornbill occurs in southern and East Africa.
Ground hornbills are large, with adults around a metre tall. Both species are ground-dwelling, unlike other hornbills, and feed on insects, snakes, other birds, amphibians and even tortoises. They are among the longest-lived of all birds, and the larger southern species is possibly the slowest-breeding (triennially) and longest-lived of all birds.Indian grey hornbill
The Indian grey hornbill (Ocyceros birostris) is a common hornbill found on the Indian subcontinent. It is mostly arboreal and is commonly sighted in pairs. It has grey feathers all over the body with a light grey or dull white belly. The horn is black or dark grey with a casque extending to the point of curvature of the horn. It is one of the few hornbill species found in urban areas in many cities where they are able to make use of large trees in avenues.Kohima
Kohima ( pronunciation ) is the hilly capital city of India's north eastern state of Nagaland. With a resident population of 99,039 it is the second largest city in the state. Originally known as Kewhira, it was founded in 1878 when the British Empire established its headquarters of the then Naga Hills. It officially became the capital after the state of Nagaland was inaugurated in 1963.
Kohima is the land of the Angami Naga tribe. It is situated in the foothills of Japfu range located south of Kohima District (25.67°N 94.12°E / 25.67; 94.12) and has an average elevation of 1261 metres (4137 feet).List of foreign Thai League 1 players
This is a list of foreign players in the Thai League 1, which commenced play in 1996.
The List includes players from 1996 to 2018. Players of the current season are also included. All following players have played at least one Thai League game.
National flag before the name: players who have represented their national football senior team in FIFA International Match and have at least one international appearance cap.
In bold: players who have played at least one Thai League game in the current season (2018), and are still at the clubs for which they have played. This does not include current players of a Thai League club who have not played a Thai League game in the current season.
As for dual citizen, nationality is listed under official registration.
The list of players by country is sorted by the year of transfer in.
The country that has more than 20 players played in Thai League will be categorized by year of transfer in.Malabar grey hornbill
The Malabar grey hornbill (Ocyceros griseus) is a hornbill endemic to the Western Ghats and associated hills of southern India. They have a large beak but lack the casque that is prominent in some other hornbill species. They are found mainly in dense forest and around rubber, arecanut or coffee plantations. They move around in small groups, feeding on figs and other forest fruits. Their loud cackling and laughing call makes them familiar to people living in the region.Malabar pied hornbill
The Malabar pied hornbill (Anthracoceros coronatus), also known as lesser pied hornbill, is a bird in the hornbill family, a family of tropical near-passerine birds found in the Old World.Oriental pied hornbill
The oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) is an Indo-Malayan pied hornbill, a large canopy-dwelling bird belonging to the Bucerotidae family. Two other common names for this species are sunda pied hornbill (convexus) and Malaysian pied hornbill. The species is considered to be among the smallest and most common of the Asian hornbills. It has the largest distribution in the genus and is found in the Indian Subcontinent and throughout Southeast Asia. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. The oriental pied hornbill's diet includes fruit, insects and small reptiles.Parti Bumi Kenyalang
The Parti Bumi Kenyalang (PBK, Land of the Hornbill Party) is a small political party registered in 2013 and based in Bintulu, Sarawak.The party's stated intent is to establish a just, equal, progressive, stable and harmonious society and serve as a platform for Sarawakians to express their concerns about issues affecting the state and safeguard the concerns and autonomy of the state . It also seeks to push for a review of the status of the rights of the state of Sarawak using the Malaysia Agreement and the Cobbold Commission report as its basis .Rhinoceros hornbill
The rhinoceros hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros) is a large species of forest hornbill (Bucerotidae). In captivity it can live for up to 35 years. It is found in lowland and montane, tropical and subtropical climates and in mountain rain forests up to 1,400 metres in Borneo, Sumatra, Java, the Malay Peninsula, Singapore, and southern Thailand.The rhinoceros hornbill is the state bird of the Malaysian state of Sarawak and the country's National Bird. Some Dayak people, especially the Ibanic groups, believe it to be the chief of worldly birds or the supreme worldly bird, and its statue is used to welcome the god of the augural birds, Sengalang Burong, to the feasts and celebrations of humankind. Contrary to some misunderstandings, the rhinoceros hornbill does not represent their war god, who is represented in this world by the brahminy kite.Southern ground hornbill
The southern ground hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri; formerly known as Bucorvus cafer), is one of two species of ground hornbill and is the largest species of hornbill. The other species of the genus Bucorvus is the Abyssinian ground hornbill, B. abyssinicus.USS Hornbill (AMS-19)
USS Hornbill (YMS-371/AMS-19/MSC(O)-19) was a YMS-1-class minesweeper of the YMS-135 subclass built for the United States Navy during World War II.
Hornbill was laid down as YMS-371 on 17 November 1942 by Weaver Shipyards, Orange, Texas and launched 27 November 1943. She was completed and commissioned on 29 February 1944, Lt. J. L. Grace in command.
After her commissioning, YMS-371 participated in operations in the Gulf of Mexico until the summer of 1945, when she transited the Panama Canal en route to Okinawa, where she arrived 5 July to begin minesweeping operations. On 17 August, she departed Okinawa for Japan to sweep mines in Tokyo Bay, around the island of Honshū and in the naval base of Sasebo.
On 16 February 1946, she ended her occupation duties and sailed for San Pedro, California, arriving 4 April. On 7 February 1947, YMS-371 was renamed USS Hornbill (AMS-19).
Hornbill served as a training ship on the U.S. West Coast and at Pearl Harbor until 1953, when she commenced duty with the U.S. Naval Schools of Mine Warfare, Yorktown, Virginia.
Reclassified MSC(O)-19 on 17 February 1955, Hornbill decommissioned September 1957. She was struck from the Naval Register 1 November 1959, and sold 30 June 1960.
Hornbill earned two battle stars for her service in World War II.Wreathed hornbill
The wreathed hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus), also known as the bar-pouched wreathed hornbill, is a species of hornbill found in forests from far north-eastern India and Bhutan, east and south through mainland Southeast Asia and the Greater Sundas in Indonesia, except Sulawesi. It is 75–100 cm (30–39 in) long. Males weigh from 1.8 kg (4.0 lb) to 3.65 kg (8.0 lb), and females weigh from 1.36 kg (3.0 lb) to 2.7 kg (6.0 lb). Both sexes are similar to the respective sexes of the closely related plain-pouched hornbill, but the wreathed hornbill can be recognized by the dark bar on the lower throat (hence the alternative common name, bar-pouched). Though commonly considered monotypic, evidence suggests some geographical variation in the appearance. The wreathed hornbill has escaped or been deliberately released in to Florida, USA, but there is no evidence that the population is breeding and may only persist due to continuing releases or escapes.