Hooded crow

The hooded crow (Corvus cornix) (also called hoodie[2]) is a Eurasian bird species in the Corvus genus. Widely distributed, it is also known locally as Scotch crow and Danish crow. In Ireland, it is called caróg liath or grey crow, just as in the Slavic languages and in Danish. In German, it is called "mist crow" ("Nebelkrähe"). Found across Northern, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe, as well as parts of the Middle East, it is an ashy grey bird with black head, throat, wings, tail, and thigh feathers, as well as a black bill, eyes, and feet. Like other corvids, it is an omnivorous and opportunistic forager and feeder.

It is so similar in morphology and habits to the carrion crow (Corvus corone), for many years they were considered by most authorities to be geographical races of one species. Hybridization observed where their ranges overlapped added weight to this view. However, since 2002, the hooded crow has been elevated to full species status after closer observation; the hybridisation was less than expected and hybrids had decreased vigour.[3][4] Within the hooded crow species, four subspecies are recognized, with one, the Mesopotamian crow, possibly distinct enough to warrant species status itself.

Hooded crow
Nebelkrähe Corvus cornix
Bodden, Baltic Sea, Germany
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Corvidae
Genus: Corvus
Species:
C. cornix
Binomial name
Corvus cornix
Hooded crow map2

Taxonomy

The hooded crow was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae and it bears its original name of Corvus cornix.[5] The binomial name is derived from the Latin words Corvus, "raven",[6] and cornix, "crow".[7] It was subsequently considered a subspecies of the carrion crow for many years,[8] hence known as Corvus corone cornix, due to similarities in structure and habits.

It is locally known as a hoodie in Scotland and as a grey crow in Northern Ireland.[9]

Subspecies

Four subspecies of the hooded crow are now recognised; previously, all were considered subspecies of Corvus corone. A fifth, C. c. sardonius (Trischitta, 1939) has been listed though it has been alternately partitioned between C. c. sharpii (most populations), C. c. cornix (Corsican population), and the Middle Eastern C. c. pallescens.

  • C. c. cornix, the nominate race, occurs in the British Isles (principally Scotland and Ireland) and Europe, south to Corsica.
  • C. c. pallescens (Madarász, 1904) is found in Turkey and Egypt, and is a paler form as its name suggests.
  • C. c. sharpii (Oates, 1889) is named for English zoologist Richard Bowdler Sharpe. This is a paler grey form found from western Siberia through to the Caucasus region and Iran.[10]
  • C. c. capellanus (P.L. Sclater, 1877) is known as the Mesopotamian crow or Iraqi pied crow. This distinctive form occurs in Iraq and southwestern Iran. It has very pale grey plumage which looks almost white from a distance.[10] It is possibly distinct enough to be considered a separate species.[11]

Genetic difference from carrion crows

Distribution of carrion and hooded crows across Europe
A map of Europe indicating the distribution of the carrion and hooded crows on either side of a contact zone (white line) separating the two species.

The hooded crow (Corvus cornix) and carrion crow (Corvus corone) are two closely related species whose geographical distribution across Europe is illustrated in the accompanying diagram. It is believed that this distribution might have resulted from the glaciation cycles during the Pleistocene, which caused the parent population to split into isolates which subsequently re-expanded their ranges when the climate warmed causing secondary contact.[4][12] Poelstra and coworkers sequenced almost the entire genomes of both species in populations at varying distances from the contact zone to find that the two species were genetically identical, both in their DNA and in its expression (in the form of mRNA), except for the lack of expression of a small portion (<0.28%) of the genome (situated on avian chromosome 18) in the hooded crow, which imparts the lighter plumage colouration on its torso.[4] Thus the two species can viably hybridize, and occasionally do so at the contact zone, but the all-black carrion crows on the one side of the contact zone mate almost exclusively with other all-black carrion crows, while the same occurs among the hooded crows on the other side of the contact zone. It is therefore clear that it is only the outward appearance of the two species that inhibits hybridization.[4][12] The authors attribute this to assortative mating (rather than to ecological selection), the advantage of which is not clear, and it would lead to the rapid appearance of streams of new lineages, and possibly even species, through mutual attraction between mutants. Unnikrishnan and Akhila[13] propose, instead, that koinophilia is a more parsimonious explanation for the resistance to hybridization across the contact zone, despite the absence of physiological, anatomical or genetic barriers to such hybridization.

Description

Corvus cornix -Berlin, Germany-8
In Berlin, Germany
Corvus cornix -Egypt-8
In Egypt

Except for the head, throat, wings, tail, and thigh feathers, which are black and mostly glossy, the plumage is ash-grey, the dark shafts giving it a streaky appearance. The bill and legs are black; the iris dark brown. Only one moult occurs, in autumn, as in other crow species. The male is the larger bird, otherwise the sexes are alike. Their flight is slow and heavy and usually straight. Their length varies from 48 to 52 cm (19 to 20 in). When first hatched, the young are much blacker than the parents. Juveniles have duller plumage with bluish or greyish eyes and initially a red mouth. Wingspan is 98 cm (39 in) and weight is on average 510 g.[14]

The hooded crow, with its contrasted greys and blacks, cannot be confused with either the carrion crow or rook, but the kraa  call notes of the two are almost indistinguishable.[15]

Distribution

Flying Crow
In flight at Isfahan, Iran

The hooded crow breeds in northern and eastern Europe, and closely allied forms inhabit southern Europe and western Asia. Where its range overlaps with carrion crow, as in northern Britain, Germany, Denmark, northern Italy, and Siberia, their hybrids are fertile. However, the hybrids are less well-adapted than purebred birds, and this is one of the reasons this species was split from the carrion crow.[16] Little or no interbreeding occurs in some areas, such as Iran and central Russia.

In the British Isles, the hooded crow breeds regularly in Scotland, the Isle of Man, and the Scottish Islands; it also breeds widely in Ireland. In autumn, some migratory birds arrive on the east coast of Britain. In the past, this was a more common visitor.[17]

Behaviour

Diet

Hooded crow searching a rain gutter for (probably previously hidden) food in Berlin
Croaking of hooded crow in Kiev

The hooded crow is omnivorous, with a diet similar to that of the carrion crow, and is a constant scavenger. It drops molluscs and crabs to break them after the manner of the carrion crow, and an old Scottish name for empty sea urchin shells was "crow's cups".[17] On coastal cliffs, the eggs of gulls, cormorants, and other birds are stolen when their owners are absent, and this crow will enter the burrow of the puffin to steal eggs. It will also feed on small mammals, scraps, smaller birds, and carrion. The crow has the habit of hiding food, especially meat or nuts, in places such as rain gutters, flower pots, or in the earth under bushes, to feed on it later, sometimes on the insects that have meanwhile developed on it. Other crows often watch if another one hides food and then search this place later when the other crow has left.

Nesting

Crow Nest Moscow
Nest with eggs in urbanized environment Moscow
Crow babies 10 days old
Ten-day-old chicks (Moscow)
Kråka - Corvus cornix
Juvenile Hooded Crows Sweden

Nesting occurs later in colder regions: mid-May to mid-June in northwest Russia, Shetland, and the Faroe Islands, and late February in the Persian Gulf region.[10] In warmer parts of the European Archipelago , the clutch is laid in April.[18] The bulky stick nest is normally placed in a tall tree, but cliff ledges, old buildings, and pylons may be used. Nests are occasionally placed on or near the ground. The nest resembles that of the carrion crow, but on the coast, seaweed is often interwoven in the structure, and animal bones and wire are also frequently incorporated.[17][19] The four to six brown-speckled blue eggs are 4.3 cm × 3.0 cm (1.7 in × 1.2 in) in size and weigh 19.8 g (0.70 oz), of which 6% is shell.[14] The altricial young are incubated for 17–19 days by the female alone, that is fed by the male. They fledge after 32 to 36 days. Incubating females have been reported to obtain most of their own food and later that for their young.[20]

The typical lifespan is unknown, but that of the carrion crow is four years.[21] The maximum recorded age for a hooded crow is 16 years, and 9 months.[14]

This species is a secondary host of the parasitic great spotted cuckoo, the European magpie being the preferred host. However, in areas where the latter species is absent, such as Israel and Egypt, the hooded crow becomes the normal corvid host.[22]

This species, like its relative, is seen regularly killed by farmers and on grouse estates. In County Cork, Ireland, the county's gun clubs shot over 23,000 hooded crows in two years in the early 1980s.[17]

Status

The IUCN Red List does not distinguish the hooded crow from the carrion crow, but the two species together have an extensive range, estimated at 10 million km2 (3.8 million mi2), and a large population, including an estimated 14 to 34 million individuals in Europe alone. They are not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e., declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations), so are evaluated as Least Concern.[14][23] The carrion crow/hooded crow hybrid zone is slowly spreading northwest, but the hooded crow has on the order of three million territories in just Europe (excluding Russia).[19]

Cultural significance

CrowWastebag
Searching for food from punctured wastebag

In Celtic folklore, the bird appears on the shoulder of the dying Cú Chulainn,[24] and could also be a manifestation of the Morrígan, the wife of Tethra, or the Cailleach.[25] This idea has persisted, and the hooded crow is associated with fairies in the Scottish highlands and Ireland; in the 18th century, Scottish shepherds would make offerings to them to keep them from attacking sheep.[26] In Faroese folklore, a maiden would go out on Candlemas morn and throw a stone, then a bone, then a clump of turf at a hooded crow – if it flew over the sea, her husband would be a foreigner; if it landed on a farm or house, she would marry a man from there, but if it stayed put, she would remain unmarried.[27]

The old name of Royston crow originates from the days when this bird was a common winter visitor to southern England, the sheep fields around Royston, Hertfordshire, providing carcasses on which the birds could feed. The local newspaper, founded in 1855, is called The Royston Crow,[17] and the hooded crow is also featured on the crest of the North Hertfordshire District Council.[28]

The hooded crow is one of the 37 Norwegian birds depicted in the Bird Room of the Royal Palace in Oslo.[29] Jethro Tull mentions the hooded crow on the song "Jack Frost and the hooded crow" as a bonus track on the digitally remastered version of Broadsword and the Beast and on their The Christmas Album.[30]

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Corvus corone". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22706016A118784397. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22706016A118784397.en. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  2. ^ Greenoak, F. (1979). All the birds of the air; the names, lore and literature of British birds. Book Club Associates, London.
  3. ^ Parkin, David T. (2003). "Birding and DNA: species for the new millennium". Bird Study. 50 (3): 223–242. doi:10.1080/00063650309461316.
  4. ^ a b c d Poelstra, Jelmer W.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Bossu, Christen M.; et al. (2014). "The genomic landscape underlying phenotypic integrity in the face of gene flow in crows" (PDF). Science. 344 (6190): 1410–1414. doi:10.1126/science.1253226. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 24948738. Further reading: [1]
  5. ^ Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata (in Latin). v.1. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). p. 105. C. cineraſ cens, caplte gula alis caudaque nigris.
  6. ^ "Corvus". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  7. ^ Simpson, DP (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-304-52257-6.
  8. ^ Vere Benson, S. (1972). The Observer's Book of Birds. London: Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7232-1513-4.
  9. ^ Macafee, CI, ed. (1996). A Concise Ulster Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-863132-3.
  10. ^ a b c Goodwin, D. (1983). Crows of the World. Queensland University Press, St Lucia, Qld. ISBN 978-0-7022-1015-0.
  11. ^ Madge, Steve & Burn, Hilary (1994): Crows and jays: a guide to the crows, jays and magpies of the world. A&C Black, London. ISBN 0-7136-3999-7
  12. ^ a b de Knijf, Peter (2014). "How carrion and hooded crows defeat Linnaeus's curse". Science. 344 (6190): 1345–1346. doi:10.1126/science.1255744. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 24948724.
  13. ^ Poelstra, Jelmer W.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Bossu, Christen M.; et al. (2014). "The genomic landscape underlying phenotypic integrity in the face of gene flow in crows". Science. 344 (6190): 1410–1414. doi:10.1126/science.1253226. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 24948738. The phenotypic differences between Carrion and Hooded Crows across the hybridization zone in Europe are unlikely to be due to assortative mating. — Commentary by Mazhuvancherry K. Unnikrishnan and H. S. Akhila
  14. ^ a b c d "Hooded Crow Corvus cornix [Linnaeus, 1758]". BTOWeb BirdFacts. British Trust for Ornithology. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  15. ^ Mullarney, Killian; v, Lars; Zetterstrom, Dan; Grant, Peter (2001). Birds of Europe. Princeton Field Guides. Princeton University Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-691-05054-6.
  16. ^ Jones, Steve (1999): Almost Like A Whale: The Origin Of Species Updated. Doubleday, Garden City. ISBN 978-0-385-40985-8
  17. ^ a b c d e Cocker, Mark; Mabey, Richard (2005). Birds Britannica. London: Chatto & Windus. pp. 418–425. ISBN 978-0-7011-6907-7.
  18. ^ Evans, G (1972). The Observer's Book of Birds' Eggs. London: Warne. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7232-0060-4.
  19. ^ a b Snow, David; Perrins, Christopher M., eds. (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic concise edition (2 volumes). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1478–1480. ISBN 978-0-19-854099-1.
  20. ^ Yom-Tov, Yoram (June 1974). "The Effect of Food and Predation on Breeding Density and Success, Clutch Size and Laying Date of the Crow (Corvus corone L.)". J. Anim. Ecol. 43 (2): 479–498. doi:10.2307/3378. JSTOR 3378.
  21. ^ "Carrion Crow Corvus corone [Linnaeus, 1758]". BTOWeb BirdFacts. British Trust for Ornithology. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  22. ^ Snow & Perrin (1998) 873–4
  23. ^ BirdLife International (2004). "Corvus corone". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2006. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 5 May 2006.
  24. ^ Armstrong, Edward A. (1970) [1958]. The Folklore of Birds. Dover. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-486-22145-8.
  25. ^ Armstrong, p. 83
  26. ^ Ingersoll, Ernest (1923). Birds in legend, fable and folklore. New York: Longmans, Green and Co. p. 165. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
  27. ^ Armstrong, Edward A. (1970) [1958]. The Folklore of Birds. Dover. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-486-22145-8.
  28. ^ Young, Robert (2005–2009). "Civic Heraldry of England and Wales - Thames Valley and Chilterns". Civic Heraldry. self. Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  29. ^ "The Bird Room". The Norwegian Royal Family - Official Website. The Norwegian Royal Family. 3 February 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  30. ^ Anderson, Ian (2007). "The Jethro Tull Christmas Album Special Edition Features Bonus DVD in USA!". Jethro Tull - The Official Website. Jethro Tull. Archived from the original on 2008-03-04. Retrieved 2008-03-17.

External links

20 Years of Jethro Tull

20 Years of Jethro Tull is a 1988 boxed set which spans the first twenty years of Jethro Tull. It was issued as five LPs: Radio Archives, Rare Tracks, Flawed Gems, Other Sides of Tull, and The Essential Tull. It was simultaneously released as both a 3CD and a 3-cassette set, titled 20 Years of Jethro Tull: The Definitive Collection. All three versions were housed in a 12x12inch cardboard-box, with 24-page booklet, the CD and cassette versions having a black plastic tray.

A single CD sampler and a double LP album were also created, titled 20 Years of Jethro Tull: Highlights.

American crow

The American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) is a large passerine bird species of the family Corvidae. It is a common bird found throughout much of North America.

American crows are the New World counterpart to the carrion crow and the hooded crow. Although the American crow and the hooded crow are very similar in size, structure and behavior, their calls are different. The American crow, nevertheless, occupies the same role that the hooded crow does in Eurasia.

From beak to tail, an American crow measures 40–50 cm (16–20 in), almost half of which is tail. Mass varies from about 300 to 600 g (11 to 21 oz). Males tend to be larger than females.

The most usual call is CaaW!-CaaW!-CaaW!.

The American crow is all black, with iridescent feathers. It looks much like other all-black corvids. They can be distinguished from the common raven (C. corax) because American crows are smaller, from the fish crow (C. ossifragus) because American crows do not hunch and fluff their throat feathers when they call and from the carrion crow (C. corone) by the enunciation of their calls.

American crows are common, widespread, and susceptible to the West Nile virus, making them useful as a bioindicator to track the virus's spread. Direct transmission of the virus from American crows to humans is unheard of and unlikely.

Carrion crow

The carrion crow (Corvus corone) is a passerine bird of the family Corvidae and the genus Corvus which is native to western Europe and eastern Asia.

Crow

A crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly a synonym for all of Corvus. The term "crow" is used as part of the common name of many species. Species with the word "crow" in their common name include:

Corvus albus – pied crow (Central African coasts to southern Africa)

Corvus bennetti – little crow (Australia)

Corvus brachyrhynchos – American crow (United States, southern Canada, northern Mexico)

Corvus capensis – Cape crow or Cape rook (Eastern and southern Africa)

Corvus caurinus – northwestern crow (Olympic peninsula to southwest Alaska)

Corvus cornix – hooded crow (Northern and Eastern Europe and Northern Africa)

Corvus corone – carrion crow (Europe and eastern Asia)

Corvus edithae – Somali crow (eastern Africa)

Corvus enca – slender-billed crow (Malaysia, Borneo, Indonesia)

Corvus florensis – Flores crow (Flores Island)

Corvus fuscicapillus – brown-headed crow (New Guinea)

Corvus hawaiiensis (formerly C. tropicus) – Hawaiian crow (Hawaii)

Corvus imparatus – Tamaulipas crow (Gulf of Mexico coast)

Corvus insularis – Bismarck crow (Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea)

Corvus jamaicensis – Jamaican crow (Jamaica)

Corvus kubaryi – Mariana crow or aga (Guam, Rota)

Corvus leucognaphalus – white-necked crow (Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico)

Corvus macrorhynchos – jungle crow (Eastern Asia, Himalayas, Philippines)

Corvus macrorhynchos macrorhynchos – large-billed crow

Corvus macrorhynchos levaillantii – eastern jungle crow (India, Burma)

Corvus macrorhynchos culminatus – Indian jungle crow

Corvus meeki – Bougainville crow or Solomon Islands crow (Northern Solomon Islands)

Corvus moneduloides – New Caledonian crow (New Caledonia, Loyalty Islands)

Corvus nasicus – Cuban crow (Cuba, Isla de la Juventud, Grand Caicos Island)

Corvus orru – Torresian crow or Australian crow (Australia, New Guinea and nearby islands)

Corvus ossifragus – fish crow (Southeastern U.S. coast)

Corvus palmarum – palm crow (Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic)

Corvus ruficolis edithae – Somali crow or dwarf raven (Northeast Africa)

Corvus sinaloae – Sinaloan crow (Pacific coast from Sonora to Colima)

Corvus splendens – house crow or Indian house crow (Indian subcontinent, Middle East, east Africa)

Corvus torquatus – collared crow (Eastern China, south into Vietnam)

Corvus tristis – grey crow or Bare-faced crow (New Guinea and neighboring islands)

Corvus typicus – piping crow or Celebes pied crow (Sulawesi, Muna, Butung)

Corvus unicolor – Banggai crow (Banggai Island)

Corvus validus – long-billed crow (Northern Moluccas)

Corvus violaceus – violet crow (Seram) – recent split from slender-billed crow

Corvus woodfordi – white-billed crow or Solomon Islands crow (Southern Solomon Islands)

Cyanopica

Cyanopica is a genus of magpie in the family Corvidae. They belong to a common lineage with the genus Perisoreus.

Edgbaston Pool

Edgbaston Pool is a Site of Special Scientific Interest located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, England. It is one of 23 SSSI's in the West Midlands. The site has two distinct units (areas) within it. The first is water-related and contains the 7 hectares (0.070 km2; 0.027 sq mi) lake and the input channel of the Chad Brook as well as some land that is either marsh or lake depending on the season. The second, the smaller section is woodland. In total the site measures 15.93 hectares (0.1593 km2; 0.0615 sq mi).

Also known as Edgbaston Park, the site is based on glacial sands and gravels overlying sandstone from the Late Triassic period. Maps from the 18th century show there used to be two ponds on the site but one has now been naturally filled in and overgrown. On the south side of the main pool is a dam holding the water in and a small weir. The site is adjacent to Winterbourne Botanic Garden and Edgbaston Golf Course and close to the University of Birmingham. Access is via Winterbourne Botanic Garden.

The pool's bird life has been recorded since at least the 1860s and has included hooded crow, nightingale, nightjar and hawfinch.The site, in the grounds of Edgbaston Hall, is part of the Calthorpe Estate, and is included in the leasehold of the Edgbaston Golf Club. The site was managed by a joint committee with members from the Birmingham Natural History Society and the Golf Club, in line with a management plan agreed with Natural England (formerly English Nature). However, in January 2012, the Birmingham Natural History Society announced that, after many years, it was withdrawing from its formal role in the management of the SSSI (whose designation it was instrumental in securing), due to a decline in the number of volunteers able to carry out that role. The site will now be managed by the golf club, under a new 99-year lease, in association with Natural England.

Hoodie (disambiguation)

A hoodie (also spelled hoody) is a type of jacket with a hood.

Hoodie or hoody may also refer to:

"Hoodie" (Lady Sovereign song), from the album Public Warning

"Hoodie" (Omarion song), from the album Ollusion

An abbreviation for "hoodiecrow", the hooded crow, a bird

Hoodie Allen, American hip-hop artist

an alternative term for chav, a stereotype used in Britain

Hoodie (software), open-source Javascript package, that enables offline first, Front-end web development

Hoody (singer) (born 1990), South Korean singer-songwriter

Järveküla Nature Reserve

Järveküla Nature Reserve is a nature reserve founded in 1990, situated by Lake Vörtsjärv in southern Estonia (Viljandi County) near the village of Järveküla. The nature reserve has been established to protect the population of white-tailed eagles present in the area, and includes pine forest and patches of bog.Other birds found in Järveküla Nature Reserve include: the Barn swallow (the national bird of Estonia), Eurasian wryneck, Eurasian golden oriole, Icterine warbler, River warbler, Spotted flycatcher, Eurasian tree sparrow, Common chaffinch, European greenfinch, European pied flycatcher, Eurasian skylark, Fieldfare, White wagtail, Yellowhammer, Hooded crow, Garden warbler, Grey heron, Eurasian blue tit, Eurasian blackcap, Common rosefinch, European goldfinch and Common chiffchaff among others.

List of fauna of the Scottish Highlands

This is a list of fauna of the Scottish Highlands.

Mesopotamian Marshes

The Mesopotamian Marshes or Iraqi Marshes are a wetland area located in southern Iraq and partially in southwestern Iran and Kuwait. Historically the marshlands, mainly composed of the separate but adjacent Central, Hawizeh and Hammar Marshes, used to be the largest wetland ecosystem of Western Eurasia. It is a rare aquatic landscape in the desert, providing habitat for the Marsh Arabs and important populations of wildlife. Draining of portions of the marshes began in the 1950s and continued through the 1970s to reclaim land for agriculture and oil exploration. However, in the late 1980s and 1990s, during the presidency of Saddam Hussein, this work was expanded and accelerated to evict Shia Muslims from the marshes. Before 2003, the marshes were drained to 10% of their original size. After the fall of Hussein's regime in 2003, the marshes have partially recovered but drought along with upstream dam construction and operation in Turkey, Syria and Iran have hindered the process. Since 2016 the mesopotamian marshes are listed as an UNESCO Heritage Site.

Mesopotamian crow

The Mesopotamian crow (Corvus cornix capellanus), also known as the Iraq pied crow, is a bird species of the Corvus genus. The Mesopotamian crow is native to the region of Mesopotamia, in southern Iraq and southwest Iran, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

The Mesopotamian crow is a subspecies of the hooded crow (Corvus cornix), but is also sometimes distinguished as its own species of crow, as it is characterized by its pied coloration.

Royston, Hertfordshire

Royston is a town and civil parish in the District of North Hertfordshire and county of Hertfordshire in England.

It is situated on the Greenwich Meridian, which brushes the town's eastern boundary, and at the northernmost apex of the county on the same latitude as towns such as Milton Keynes and Ipswich. It is about 43 miles (69 km) north of central London in a rural area.

Before the boundary changes of the 1890s, the boundary between Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire ran east–west through the centre of town along the middle of Melbourn Street. The town has a population of 15,781.

Royston Crow (newspaper)

The Royston Crow is a newspaper published in Royston, Hertfordshire, England. It was founded by John Warren in 1855. The newspaper is now a weekly publication, part of the Archant group. The newspaper's name is taken from a local name for the bird hooded crow (Corvus cornix).

The Best of Acoustic Jethro Tull

The Best of Acoustic (2007) is a greatest hits album by Jethro Tull. It includes some of the band's biggest acoustic hits from 1969 to 2007.

Treepie

The treepies comprise four closely related genera (Dendrocitta, Crypsirina, Temnurus and Platysmurus) of long-tailed passerine birds in the family Corvidae. There are 11 species of treepie. Treepies are similar to magpies. Most treepies are black, white, gray or brown. They are found in Southeast Asia. They live in tropical forests. They are highly arboreal and rarely come to the ground to feed.

Wilhelm Meise

Wilhelm Meise (September 12, 1901 – August 24, 2002) was a German ornithologist. He studied at the University of Berlin from 1924–1928, where he did his Ph.D. dissertation on the distribution of the carrion crow and the hooded crow, and hybridization between them under the supervision of Professor Erwin Stresemann, (1889–1972). . He also analysed taxonomic and historic relationships between the house sparrow and the Spanish sparrow in particular the status of the "Italian sparrow". He was curator of vertebrates at the Museum of Natural History in Dresden from 1929 until World War II.

Meise produced the first review of bird species new to science in 1934 at the eighth International Ornithological Congress (IOC), followed by an update at the ninth IOC in 1938. He spent three years in a prison camp in Siberia after the war, and joined the Berlin's Natural History Museum in 1948. In 1951, he was appointed curator of ornithology at the Museum of Natural History in Hamburg and professor at the University of Hamburg.During the 1950s, Meise was the President of the Jordsand Club for the Protection of Seabirds at a time when such endeavours were at an early stage. He undertook an expedition to Angola in 1955 and, during the following years, published several papers on geographical variation, speciation, and evolution of African birds.

Meise produced 47 parts of Max Schönwetter's handbook Handbuch der Oologie between 1960 and 1992, following Schönwetter's death in 1960. The work consists of 3666 pages and presents in detail all species and subspecies whose eggs are known. According to Meise, there are 30000 - 35000 sub-species of birds, and the eggs of only half of these are known to science.Meise’s 170 publications dealt mainly with birds, but occasionally with the taxonomy of scorpions, spiders, lizards, snakes, and molluscs. He retired in 1972, and died aged 101 in 2002.

William MacGillivray

William MacGillivray FRSE (25 January 1796 – 4 September 1852) was a Scottish naturalist and ornithologist.

Yenisei River

The Yenisei (Russian: Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Mongolian: Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug) also Romanised Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean. It is the central of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob and the Lena). Rising in Mongolia, it follows a northerly course to the Yenisei Gulf in the Kara Sea, draining a large part of central Siberia. The longest stream following the Yenisei-Angara-Selenga-Ider river system, together with its tributaries, Yenisei river is the fifth-longest river in the world.

The maximum depth of the Yenisei is 24 metres (80 ft) and the average depth is 14 metres (45 ft). The depth of river outflow is 32 metres (106 ft) and inflow is 31 metres (101 ft).

Extant species of family Corvidae

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