Honorary Aryan (German: Ehrenarier) was an expression used in Nazi Germany to describe the unofficial status of persons, including Mischlinge, who were not recognized as belonging to the Aryan race, according to Nazi standards, but informally considered to be part of it.
The prevalent explanation as to why the status of "honorary Aryan" was bestowed by the Nazis upon other non-Nordic – or even less exclusively, non-Indo-Iranian/European peoples – is that the services of those peoples were deemed valuable to the German economy or war effort,
Den Begriff „Ehrenarier" gab es offiziell nicht, nur in der Umgangssprache. Er bedeutete wohl, daß ein jüdischer Mischling auf Grund seiner Stellung und Verdienste im Reich wie ein Arier angesehen wurde und keinerlei Anstalten machen mußte, eine Besserstellung oder Gleichstellung durch Hitler zu erreichen.
An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus (大和民族を中核とする世界政策の検討,, Yamato Minzoku wo Chūkaku to suru Sekai Seisaku no Kentō) was a secret Japanese government report created by the Ministry of Health and Welfare's Population Problems Research Center (now the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research), and completed on July 1, 1943.
The document, comprising six volumes totaling 3,127 pages, deals with race theory in general, and the rationale behind policies adopted by wartime Japan towards other races, while also providing a vision of Asia under Japanese control.The document was written in an academic style, surveying Western philosophy on race from the writings of Plato and Aristotle to modern German social scientists, such as Karl Haushofer. A connection between racism, nationalism and imperialism was also claimed, with the conclusion, drawing by citing both British and German sources, that overseas expansionism was essential not only for military and economic security, but for preserving racial consciousness. Concerns pertaining to the cultural assimilation of second and third generation immigrants into foreign cultures were also mentioned.Aryan race
The Aryan race is a racial grouping that emerged in the period of the late 19th century and mid-20th century to describe people of Indo-European heritage.The concept derives from the notion that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages and their descendants up to the present day constitute a distinctive race or subrace of the Caucasian race.Emmerich Kálmán
Emmerich Kálmán (24 October 1882 – 30 October 1953) was a Hungarian composer of operettas.Franz Lehár
Franz Lehár (Hungarian: Lehár Ferenc; 30 April 1870 – 24 October 1948) was an Austro-Hungarian composer. He is mainly known for his operettas, of which the most successful and best known is The Merry Widow (Die lustige Witwe).Geltungsjude
Geltungsjude was the term for people who were considered Jews by the first supplementary decree to the Nuremberg Laws from 14 November 1935. The term wasn't used officially, but was coined because the persons were deemed (gelten in German) Jews rather than exactly belonging to any of the categories of the previous Nuremberg Laws. There were three categories of Geltungsjuden: 1. offspring of an intermarriage who belonged to the Jewish community after 1935; 2. offspring of an intermarriage who was married to a Jew after 1935; 3. illegitimate child of a Geltungsjude, born after 1935.German Blood Certificate
A German Blood Certificate (German: Deutschblütigkeitserklärung) was a document provided by Hitler to Mischlinge (those with partial Jewish heritage), declaring them deutschblütig (of German blood). This practice was begun sometime after the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, and allowed exemption from most of Germany's racial laws.Mischling is a term used during the Third Reich era in Germany to denote persons deemed to have partial Jewish ancestry. This word literally means "mixed".
In order to join the Nazi party and get a certificate, the candidate had to prove through baptismal records that all direct ancestors born since 1750 were not Jewish, or they could apply for a German Blood Certificate.
These certificates were 300 mm (11¾ in) by 210 mm (8¼ in), with a signature on the front and the red seal of the Office of Racial Research of the Nazi Party. The back listed the ancestry of the individual concerned, back to the grandparents of the father and the mother.Hans Rothfels
Hans Rothfels (12 April 1891 – 22 June 1976) was a nationalist conservative German historian. He supported an idea of authoritarian German state, dominance of Germany over Europe and was hostile to Germany's eastern neighbours. After his applications for honorary Aryan status were rejected, due to his Jewish ancestry and increased persecution of Jewish people by Nazis, he was forced to emigrate to the United Kingdom and later to the United States during the Second World War, after which he became opposed to the Nazi regime. Rothfels returned to West Germany after 1945 where he continued to influence history teaching and became an influential figure among West German scholars.Honorary
An honorary position is one given as an honor, with no duties attached, and without payment. Other uses include:
Honorary Academy Award, by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, United States
Honorary Aryan, a status in Nazi Germany
Honorary authorship, listing of uninvolved people as co-authors of research papers
Honorary César, awarded by the Académie des Arts et Techniques du Cinema, France
Honorary consul, an unpaid part-time diplomatic consul
Honorary Goya Award, by the Academia de las Artes y las Ciencias Cinematográficas de España, Spain
Honorary Police, unpaid police force in Jersey
Honorary Prelate, a title used in the Catholic Church
Honorary society (disambiguation), whose members are elected for meritorious conduct
honorary title, awarded as a mark of distinction
Honorary citizenship, awarded to aliens who have rendered service to the state
Honorary degree, academic degree awarded to someone not formally qualified to receive it
Honorary title (academic), an academic title such as honorary professor conferred by a university or professional body
Honorary trust, a trust with neither a charitable purpose, nor a private beneficiary
Honorary whites, a term that was used by the apartheid regime of South AfricaHonorary whites
Honorary whites is a term that was used by the apartheid regime of South Africa to grant almost all of the rights and privileges of whites to those who would otherwise been treated as non-whites. This was made on a case by case basis to select individuals but also to groups of people, most notably East Asians who were ascribed as honorary whites. Japanese, Koreans and Taiwanese were granted this honorary white status, and later on the Chinese and individually designated figures of various other races were added as well.Independent State of Croatia
The Independent State of Croatia (Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; German: Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Italian: Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy. It was established in parts of occupied Yugoslavia on 10 April 1941, after the invasion by the Axis powers. Its territory consisted of most of modern-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as some parts of modern-day Serbia and Slovenia, but also excluded many Croat-populated areas in Dalmatia (until late 1943), Istria, and Međimurje regions (which today are part of Croatia).
During its entire existence, the NDH was governed as a one-party state by the fascist Ustaša organization. The Ustaše was led by the Poglavnik, Ante Pavelić. The regime targeted Serbs, Jews and Roma as part of a large-scale campaign of genocide, as well as anti-fascist or dissident Croats and Muslims.Between 1941–45, 22 concentration camps existed inside the territory controlled by the Independent State of Croatia, two of which (Jastrebarsko and Sisak) housed only children and the largest of which was Jasenovac.The state was officially a monarchy after the signing of the Laws of the Crown of Zvonimir on 15 May 1941. Appointed by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta initially refused to assume the crown in opposition to the Italian annexation of the Croat-majority populated region of Dalmatia, annexed as part of the Italian irredentist agenda of creating a Mare Nostrum ("Our Sea"). He later briefly accepted the throne due to pressure from Victor Emmanuel III and was titled Tomislav II of Croatia, but never moved from Italy to reside in Croatia.From the signing of the Treaties of Rome on 18 May 1941 until the Italian capitulation on 8 September 1943, the state was a territorial condominium of Germany and Italy. In its judgement in the Hostages Trial, the Nuremberg Military Tribunal concluded that NDH was not a sovereign state. According to the Tribunal, "Croatia was at all times here involved an occupied country".In 1942, Germany suggested Italy take military control of all of Croatia out of a desire to redirect German troops from Croatia to the Eastern Front. Italy however rejected the offer as it did not believe that it could handle the unstable situation in the Balkans alone. After the ousting of Mussolini and the Kingdom of Italy's armistice with the Allies, the NDH on 10 September 1943 declared that the Treaties of Rome were null and void and annexed the portion of Dalmatia that had been ceded to Italy. The NDH attempted to annex Zara, which had been a recognized territory of Italy since 1919 but long an object of Croatian irredentism, but Germany did not allow it.Japanese people in South Africa
There is a small community of Japanese expatriate people living in or people who were born in South Africa with Japanese ancestry. Most of them live in Johannesburg and other major cities.
According to the 2011 census, Asians account for 2.5% of South Africa's total population. While the Indian, Chinese, and Vietnamese South African populations are relatively large, the number of Japanese is small and largely focused in Johannesburg and Cape Town.Jus trium liberorum
The ius trium liberorum, meaning “the right of three children” in Latin, was a privilege rewarded to Roman citizens who had produced at least three children or freedmen of both sexes who had produced at least four children. It was a direct result of the Lex Iulia and the Lex Papia Poppaea, laws introduced by Augustus in 18 BC and 9 AD, respectively. These laws were intended to increase the dwindling population of the Roman upper classes.
The intent of the jus trium liberorum has led scholars to interpret it as eugenic legislation. This interpretation is long outdated, however. Most current scholarship sees the law as a politically-motivated effort to increase birth rates among the senatorial class. Men who had received the jus trium liberorum were excused from munera (compulsory services). Women with jus trium liberorum were no longer subject to tutela mulierum (guardianship by a male relative) and could receive inheritances which would otherwise descend to their children.The senatorial reaction to the jus trium liberorum was largely to find loopholes, however. The prospect of having a large family was still not appealing. A person who caught a citizen in violation in this law was entitled to a portion of the inheritance involved, creating a lucrative business for professional spies. The spies became so pervasive that the reward was reduced to a quarter of its previous size. As time went on, the ius trium liberorum was granted by consuls to some citizens as rewards for general good deeds, holding important professions or as personal favors, not just prolific propagation. Eventually the ius trium liberorum was repealed in 534 AD by Justinian.Lionel Royce
Lionel Royce (born Leon Moriz Reiss; March 30, 1891 – April 1, 1946), known also during his European career as Leo Reuss, was an Austrian-American actor of stage and screen. He began his career in theater in Vienna, Austria in 1919, before moving to Berlin in 1925. Being Jewish, his work began to be restricted in the 1930s in Nazi Germany. Fleeing the Nazis he returned to Austria in 1936, where to hide his heritage, he created the persona of Kaspar Brandhofer, a Tyrolian peasant, and became a sensation as a natural actor on the stage in Vienna. When he admitted his ruse, he became blacklisted in Austria, after which he emigrated to the United States in 1937. He had an active film career in the United States, appearing in almost 40 films between 1938 and 1946. While on tour with the USO, he died in Manila in 1946.Lisette de Brinon
Lisette, Marquise de Brinon (1896 – 26 March 1982) was best known as the Jewish wife of the pro-Nazi French collaborator, Fernand de Brinon.Nazism and race
Nazism and race concerns the Nazi Party's adoption and further development of several hypotheses concerning their concept of race. Classifications of human races were made and various measurements of population samples were carried out during the 1930s.Persecution of Chinese people in Nazi Germany
Although spared from genocide, Chinese people in Germany were still subject to large-scale and systematic persecution in Nazi Germany. Especially after the collapse of the Sino-German Cooperation due to the start of World War II in Europe, many Chinese nationals in Germany were forced to leave the country due to increasing government surveillance and coercions. After the Chinese declaration of war on Germany following the Attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the Gestapo launched multiple mass arrests of Chinese Germans and Chinese nationals across Germany, and concentrated the majority of them in Langer Morgen Labour Camp in Wilhelmsburg, Hamburg, using them as slave labourers; many were killed by the Gestapo's torture or forced labour. By the end of World War II, the pre-war Chinese communities in Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen were all destroyed, and there was virtually no Chinese presence left in Germany.Reinhold Schünzel
Reinhold Schünzel (7 November 1888 – 11 November 1954) was a German actor and director, active in both Germany and the United States. The son of a German father and a Jewish mother, he was born in St. Pauli, the poorest part of Hamburg. Despite being Jewish, Schünzel was allowed by the Nazis to continue making films for several years until he eventually left to live abroad.Stephanie von Hohenlohe
Stephanie Julianne von Hohenlohe, born Stephany Julienne Richter (16 September 1891 – 13 June 1972) was an Austrian princess by her marriage to the diplomat Prince Friedrich Franz von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, a member of the princely Hohenlohe family. She was born a commoner of Jewish family background.
A Hungarian national, she relocated to London after her divorce from the prince, where she is suspected of having acted as a spy for Germany during the 1930s. She developed close connections among the Nazi hierarchy, including Adolf Hitler. She also developed other influential relationships, including with Harold Sidney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, and promoted British support for Germany while living in London from 1932. The British, French and Americans all suspected her of being a spy for the German Government. During the 1930s, she was awarded the Gold Medal of the Nazi Party for her services.Fleeing from Britain to San Francisco in 1939 after war was declared, she was put under surveillance by the US government. After the attack on Pearl Harbor she was arrested by the FBI and interned in the United States as an enemy alien. She provided information to the Office of Strategic Services which was used in a 1943 report on the personality of Adolf Hitler. In May 1945 she was released on parole and returned to Germany, where she cultivated influential connections in post-war German society.Ustashe
The Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Croatian: Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), commonly known as Ustaše (pronounced [ûstaʃe], Croatian: Ustaše), was a Croatian fascist, racist, ultranationalist and terrorist organization, active, as one organization, between 1929 and 1945. Its members murdered hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Jews, and Roma as well as political dissidents in Yugoslavia during World War II.They are variously known in English as the Ustaše, Ustashe, Ustashi, Ustahis, or Ustashas; with the associated adjective sometimes being Ustashe or Ustasha, apart from Ustaše. This variance stems from the fact that Ustaše is the plural form of Ustaša in the Serbo-Croatian language.
The ideology of the movement was a blend of fascism, Roman Catholicism and Croatian nationalism. The Ustaše supported the creation of a Greater Croatia that would span the Drina River and extend to the border of Belgrade. The movement emphasized the need for a racially "pure" Croatia and promoted genocide against Serbs, Jews and Romani people, and persecution of anti-fascist or dissident Croats and Bosniaks. The Ustaše viewed the Bosniaks as "Muslim Croats," and as a result, Bosniaks were not persecuted on the basis of race.Fiercely Roman Catholic, the Ustaše espoused Roman Catholicism and Islam as the religions of the Croats and Bosniaks and condemned Orthodox Christianity, which was the main religion of the Serbs. Roman Catholicism was identified with Croatian nationalism, while Islam, which had a large following in Bosnia and Herzegovina, was praised by the Ustaše as the religion that "keeps true the blood of Croats."When it was founded in 1930, it was a nationalist organization that sought to create an independent Croatian state. When the Ustaše came to power in the NDH, a quasi-protectorate established by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany during World War II, its military wings became the Army of the Independent State of Croatia and the Ustaše militia (Croatian: Ustaška vojnica). However the Ustaše never received massive support.The movement functioned as a terrorist organization before World War II but in April 1941, they were appointed to rule a part of Axis-occupied Yugoslavia as the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), which has been described as both an Italian-German quasi-protectorate, and as a puppet state of Nazi Germany.