Hong Kong Canadians

Hong Kong Canadians or Canadians of Hong Kong origin (Chinese: 香港裔加拿大人 or 加拿大港人) are Canadian citizens who identify themselves to be of Hong Kong descent. The largest wave of immigration to Canada from Hong Kong occurred during the late 1980s and early 1990s, chiefly as the fear of uncertainties concerning the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997.

The vast majority of Canadians of Hong Kong origin are ethnically Chinese, though some choose to eschew their "Chinese" identity.[3] They often trace their ancestry to Cantonese, Hakka, Hoklo, and Toisan cultural groups.

Many Hong Kong Canadians hold multiple citizenships, often possessing Canadian and HKSAR passports. Some Hong Kong Canadians have returned to Hong Kong from Canada since 1997 and have resettled in the territory permanently. As of 2014, Hong Kong has the highest concentration of Canadian citizens in Asia, with approximately 300,000 Canadian citizens of all ethnic backgrounds living in the city.[4]

In Canada, the majority of Hong Kong Canadians reside in the metropolitan areas of Toronto and Vancouver.

Hong Kong Canadians
Total population
500,000+ (estimated)[1]
205,430 (born in Hong Kong)[2]
Regions with significant populations
 OntarioToronto
 British ColumbiaVancouver
 AlbertaCalgary, Edmonton
Languages
Cantonese, English
Religion
Anglicanism, Catholicism, Protestantism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism
Related ethnic groups
Chinese Canadians, Taiwanese Canadians

History

The majority of Chinese Canadians migrated to Canada from the mid 1980s to 2000. However early settlement could be traced back to the early 19th Century when Hong Kong became a British crown colony, natives from Kwangtung (now Guangdong) escaped and settled in Hong Kong for a short while before migrating to North America.

In 1984, the Sino-British Joint Declaration was signed which largely shaped the future politics and economy of Hong Kong. The then British colony would become a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. Many people in Hong Kong at the time perceived a negative image of the China's government which was largely influenced by their experience with the illegal immigrants from the Canton province who smuggled into Hong Kong in the hope of finding freedom and better living standard than the lives ruled by the Chinese Communists.

The fear of losing their freedom and prosperity under the China's government drove the Hong Kong citizens to despise their own Chinese identity. Their fear and worries were proved to be correct by the 1989 Tiananmen Square Crackdown which later drove a large emigration wave to the anglophone world between 1980's to early 2000's. One of the most popular destination chosen by the immigrants was Canada, where thousands of Hongkongers settled in Greater Toronto and Metro Vancouver.

Numbers

In 2006, among the 790,035 speakers of any of the varieties of Chinese, 300,590 were speakers of Cantonese.[5] According to 2001 statistics, 44% of the Cantonese speakers were born in Hong Kong, 27% were born in Guangdong, the Chinese province where most Hongkongers have their ancestral roots, and 18% were Canadian-born.[6]

During the 2000s, some Canadian citizens from Hong Kong and their descendants have returned to Hong Kong for job opportunities. There are estimated to be as many as 300,000 Canadians in Hong Kong.[7] Conversely, according to the Canadian Consulate General in Hong Kong, there are 500,000 people of Hong Kong descent in Canada.[8] Hong Kong boasts one of the largest Canadian communities abroad (an estimated 295,000). This community, along with some 500,000 people of Hong Kong descent in Canada, plays a dynamic role in building vibrant bilateral relations between Canada and Hong Kong.

Canada's presence in Hong Kong is also reflected by the presence of Hong Kong-Canadian associations, such as the Chinese Canadian Association, established in 1989 and the Canadian University Association, which now acts as an umbrella group for some twenty Canadian university alumni associations active in Hong Kong today.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Canada-Hong Kong Relations". Consulate of Canada in Hong Kong.
  2. ^ "NHS Profile, Canada, 2011;".
  3. ^ Wong, Edward; Wong, Alan (Oct 7, 2014). "Seeking Identity, 'Hong Kong People' Look to City, Not State". The New York Times.
  4. ^ Keung, Nicholas (February 24, 2011). "Hong Kong: Asia's most Canadian city". The Toronto Star.
  5. ^ The 790,035 figure includes 300,590 persons listed as speaking Cantonese, 143,385 listed as speaking Mandarin, 4,580 listed as speaking Taiwanese, and 341,480 speaking other varieties or else simply filling out the relevant question on their census forms by noting "Chinese" without being more specific. See Statistics Canada, 2006 Census Profile of Federal Electoral Districts (2003 Representation Order): Language, Mobility and Migration and Immigration and Citizenship. Ottawa, 2007, p. 8 and note no. 1 on p. 503.
  6. ^ Chui, Tina; Tran, Kelly; Flanders, John (Spring 2005). "Chinese Canadians: Enriching the cultural mosaic" (PDF). Canadian Social Trends. Statistics Canada (76). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2008.
  7. ^ "中國評論新聞:香港住了30萬加拿大人 成加國第16大城市". chinareviewnews.com.
  8. ^ "Canada-Hong Kong Relations". canadainternational.gc.ca.

Further reading

Americans in Hong Kong

There were estimated to be 60,000 Americans in Hong Kong as of 2009. They consist of both native-born Americans of various ethnic backgrounds, including Chinese Americans and Hong Kong Americans, as well as former Hong Kong emigrants to the United States who returned after gaining American citizenship. Many come to Hong Kong on work assignments; others study at local universities. They form a large part of the greater community of Americans in China.

Battle of Hong Kong

The Battle of Hong Kong (8–25 December 1941), also known as the Defence of Hong Kong and the Fall of Hong Kong, was one of the first battles of the Pacific War in World War II. On the same morning as the attack on Pearl Harbor, forces of the Empire of Japan attacked the British Crown colony of Hong Kong. The attack was in violation of international law as Japan had not declared war against the British Empire. The Hong Kong garrison consisted of British, Indian and Canadian units besides Chinese soldiers and conscripts from both within and outside Hong Kong.

Locations which played an important role in setting the pace of military operations during December 1941 include TaiPo Road, the Shing Mun Redoubt trench and tunnel complex in the Gin Drinkers' Line, Devil's Peak, Ma Lau Tong, Lyemun (also spelt as Lye Moon or Lei Yue Mun), North Point, Aldrich Bay (Quarry Bay), Shaukiwan, Saiwan Hill, Wong Nei Chong Gap (Wong Nai Chung Gap), Tytam (Tai Tam Gap & Reservoirs), Shouson Hill and Stanley Fort. Coastal defence batteries including those at Stonecutters Island, Pak Sha Wan, Lyemun fort, Saiwan, Mount Collinson, Mount Parker, Belchers, Mount Davis, Jubilee Hill, Bokara, and Stanley provided artillery support for ground operations till they were put out of action or surrendered.Within a week the defenders abandoned the mainland and less than two weeks later, with their position on the island untenable, the colony had raised the white flag of surrender.

Canada–Hong Kong relations

Canada–Hong Kong relations refers to international relations between Canada and Hong Kong. Canada has extensive and enduring interests in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The Canadian Government supports Hong Kong's "high degree of autonomy" under Chinese sovereignty as provided for by the Sino-British Joint Declaration, Hong Kong's mini-constitution, the Basic Law, and in accordance with China's policy of observing "one country, two systems".

Canadian policy toward Hong Kong is underpinned by its substantial commercial interests, and by the presence of a huge Canadian community living in Hong Kong. Hong Kong boasts one of the largest Canadian communities abroad (an estimated 295,000). Canada and Hong Kong SAR both shares "birthday" on the same day, 1 July, as Canada Day and Hong Kong SAR Establishment Day respectively.

Chinatowns in Canada

Chinatowns in Canada generally exist in the large cities of Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, Toronto, and Montreal, and existed in some smaller towns throughout the history of Canada. Prior to 1900, almost all Chinese were located in British Columbia, but have spread throughout Canada thereafter. From 1923 to 1967, immigration from China was suspended due to exclusion laws. In 1997, the handover of Hong Kong to China caused many from there to flee to Canada due to uncertainties. Canada had about 25 Chinatowns across the country between the 1930s to 1940s, some of which have ceased to exist.

Chinese Canadians

Chinese Canadians are Canadians of full or partial Chinese ancestry which includes Canadian-born Chinese. They comprise a subgroup of East Asian Canadians which is a further subgroup of Asian Canadians. Demographic research tends to include immigrants from Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau as well as overseas Chinese who have immigrated from South East Asia and South America into the broadly defined Chinese Canadian category. StatsCan refers to Taiwanese Canadians as a separate group apart from Chinese Canadians.Canadians of Chinese descent make up about five percent of the Canadian population, or about 1.76 million people as of 2016. The Chinese Canadian community is the largest ethnic group of Asian Canadians, consisting approximately 40% of the Asian Canadian population. Most Canadians of Chinese descent are concentrated within the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia.

Dorothy Kostrzewa

Dorothy Nan Kostrzewa (née Chung; August 17, 1928 – January 11, 2013) was a Canadian politician. She is notable as the first Chinese-Canadian woman to hold political office in Canada when she was elected to Chilliwack City Council in 1970. She served on city council for 33 years making her the longest serving city councillor in British Columbia.

Hong Kong Americans

Hong Kong Americans or American Hong Kongers, are Americans of Hong Kong ancestry. Since 1997, Hong Kong has been a special administrative region of China; from 1841 to 1997, it was a British crown colony.

Many of the Hong Kong Americans hold both United States citizenship and right of abode in Hong Kong. Other than the US passport, many of them also hold a HKSAR Passport or the British National (Overseas) passport.

Metrication in Canada

Metrication in Canada began in 1970 and while Canada has converted to the metric system for many purposes, there is still significant use of non-metric units and standards in many sectors of the Canadian economy. This is mainly due to historical ties with the United Kingdom (before metrication), the traditional use of the imperial system of measurement in Canada, proximity to the United States, and to public opposition to metrication during the transition period.

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