Homologation

Homologation (Greek homologeo, ὁμολογέω, "to agree") is the granting of approval by an official authority. This may be a court of law, a government department, or an academic or professional body, any of which would normally work from a set of strict rules or standards to determine whether such approval should be given. The word may be considered very roughly synonymous with accreditation, and in fact in French and Spanish[1] may be used with regard to academic degrees (see apostille). Certification is another possible synonym, while to homologate is the infinitive verb form.

In today's marketplace, for instance, products must often be homologated by some public agency to assure that they meet standards for such things as safety and environmental impact. A court action may also sometimes be homologated by a judicial authority before it can proceed, and the term has a precise legal meaning in the judicial codes of some countries.

The equivalent process of testing and certification for conformance to technical standards is usually known as type approval in English-language jurisdictions.

Another usage pertains to the biological sciences, where it may describe the similarities used to assign organisms to the same family or taxon, similarities they have jointly inherited from a common ancestor.

Sport

Motorsports

In motorsports a vehicle must be type approved by the sanctioning body to race in a given league, such as World Superbikes, International Level Kart Racing, or other sportscar racing/touring car racing series.

Where a racing class requires that the vehicles raced be production vehicles only slightly adapted for racing, manufacturers typically produce a limited run of such vehicles for public sale so that they can legitimately race them in the class. These vehicles are commonly called "homologation specials".[2]

Olympics

The term is also applicable in the Olympic Games, in venue certifications, prior to the start of competition. An issue was raised at Cesana Pariol—the bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track used for the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin—over its safety in luge. This delayed homologation of the track from January 2005 to October 2005 in order to achieve safe runs during luge competitions.

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Homologation Specials, www.rallycars.com.

External links

Academic homologation

Other uses

ACI Vallelunga Circuit

The Autodromo Vallelunga Piero Taruffi is a racing circuit situated 32 km (20 miles) north of Rome, Italy, near Vallelunga of Campagnano. Vallelunga was built as a sand 1.8 km (1.102 miles) oval in 1959. From 1963 the circuit held the Rome Grand Prix, and in 1967 a new loop was added when the track became the property of the Automobile Club d'Italia (ACI). Further refurbishment was undertaken in 1971. The track is named for the famous Italian racing driver Piero Taruffi.

In August 2004 work started on a 1 km (1,093.6 yards) extension to the track, bringing the track up to its current length. The new configuration has received homologation from the FIA as a test circuit, being used by various Formula One teams. The circuit has also hosted the 6 Hours of Vallelunga endurance event.

The track is also used by ACI for public driving safety training courses, and in autumn of each year hosts a vast flea-market specialising mainly in vintage automotive spare parts.

The circuit is home to simulation software developers, Kunos Simulazioni, who occupy a pit garage as an office.

Arndt–Eistert reaction

The Arndt–Eistert reaction involves a series of chemical reactions that synthesise a carboxylic acid from its homologue with one fewer carbon atoms (i.e. the conversion of RCOOH to RCH2COOH). Named for the German chemists Fritz Arndt (1885–1969) and Bernd Eistert (1902–1978), Arndt–Eistert synthesis is a popular method of producing β-amino acids from α-amino acids. Acid chlorides react with excess diazomethane to give diazoketones. In the presence of a nucleophile (water) and a metal catalyst (Ag2O), diazoketones will form the desired acid homologue.

While the classic Arndt–Eistert synthesis uses thionyl chloride to prepare the acid chloride intermediate, alternative procedures can be used to effect this transformation. The diazoketone is traditionally generated using diazomethane, but other methods such as diazo-group transfer can also be applied. Diazomethane is toxic and violently explosive, which has led to safer alternative procedures being developed, such as the usage of ynolates (Kowalski ester homologation) or diazo(trimethylsilyl)methane.

Autodromo di Franciacorta

Autodromo di Franciacorta is a race track located in the homonymous area of Franciacorta from which it takes its name, in Castrezzato in the province of Brescia. The racetrack has received homologation from the FIA for motor racing competitions and from the FMI for motorcycling ones. The circuit was inaugurated in 2006.

Diesel 2000

Diesel 2000 is an FIA circuit racing classification for modified production based touring cars using turbodiesel engines.

Like its counterpart, Super 2000, the category is open to large-scale series production touring cars modified by a kit. Cars must have at least four seats and at least 2500 fully identical units must be produced within 12 consecutive months to allow homologation. However, unlike Super 2000, Diesel 2000 allows only 4-cylinder turbocharged diesel engines with a maximum capacity of 2000cc.The category was introduced to the European Touring Car Championship for 2004 to allow turbodiesel cars to compete alongside the existing petrol engined Super 2000 vehicles.

When the European Championship was upgraded to become the World Touring Car Championship in 2005, both Diesel 2000 and Super 2000 cars were eligible to compete for the new title.Spanish manufacturer SEAT has won the manufacturers award of the World Championship in both 2008 and 2009 with their Diesel 2000 León TDI model. Factory SEAT drivers Yvan Muller and Gabriele Tarquini have won the drivers titles with the same model in these two years respectively.

Ferrari 288 GTO

The Ferrari GTO (often referred to as Ferrari 288 GTO)(Type F114) is an exotic homologation of the Ferrari 308 GTB produced from 1984 to 1987 in Ferrari's Maranello factory, designated GT for Gran Turismo and O for Omologata (homologated in Italian).

Ford Escort RS Cosworth

The Ford Escort RS Cosworth is a sports derivative and the 1st 2500 were rally homologation special of the fifth generation European Ford Escort. It was designed to qualify as a Group A car for the World Rally Championship, in which it competed between 1993 and 1998. It was available as a road car from 1992–1996 in very limited numbers. The smaller turbo cars were not F.I.A recognised and only the first 2500 cars made before 1 January 1993 are in fact "Homologation special versions." It was instantly recognisable due to its large "whale tail" rear spoiler. The main selling point was the Cosworth YBT, a highly tunable turbocharged 2.0 L (1,993 cc) with a bore x stroke of 90.8 mm × 77 mm (3.57 in × 3.03 in) Inline-four engine which had an output of 227 PS (167 kW; 224 bhp) in standard trim. Tuning companies have achieved power outputs of over 1,000 bhp (746 kW; 1,014 PS).

Ford RS200

The Ford RS200 is a mid-engined, four-wheel drive sports car that was produced by Ford Motorsport in Boreham, UK, from 1984 to 1986. The road-going RS200 was the basis for Ford's Group B rally car and was designed to comply with FIA homologation regulations, which required 200 parts kits to be produced and at least one road-legal car to be assembled. It was first displayed to the public at the Belfast Motor Show.

Group 2 (racing)

The Group 2 racing class referred to regulations for cars in touring car racing and rallying, as regulated by the FIA. Group 2 was replaced by Group A in 1982.

The FIA established Appendix J regulations for Touring and GT cars for 1954 and the term Group 2 was in use to define Touring Cars in the Appendix J of 1959. By 1961 Appendix J included specifications for both Group 1 Series Touring Cars and Group 2 Improved Touring Cars with a minimum production of 1,000 units in twelve consecutive months required to allow homologation of a model into either group. Technical modifications beyond those allowed for Group 1 cars were permitted in Group 2.The British Saloon Car Championship was open to Group 2 cars each year from 1961 to 1965 and from 1970 to 1973.Group 2 was the specified category for the European Touring Car Challenge from 1963 to 1967 and the cars were also eligible alongside Group 5 special touring cars in 1968 and 1969. It was again the premier category when the series was renamed as the European Touring Car Championship for 1970 and continued to be so until it was replaced by Group A for 1982.The Sports Car Club of America’s Trans-American Sedan Championship was contested by Group 2 touring cars from its inception in 1966 through to the 1972 season.

Group A

Group A was a set of motorsport regulations introduced by FIA covering production-derived vehicles intended for outright competition in Touring car racing and Rallying. In contrast to the short-lived Group B and Group C, the Group A referred to production-derived vehicles limited in terms of power, weight, allowed technology and overall cost. Group A was aimed at ensuring a large number of privately owned entries in races.

Group A was introduced by the FIA in 1982 to replace the outgoing Group 2 as "modified touring cars", while Group N would replace Group 1 as "standard touring cars". The FIA continued to promulgate regulations for Group A Touring Cars until at least 1993, and the category survived in domestic championships until 1994. However, Group A is still used as the basis for most rally competitions around the world.

Group GT1

Group GT1 also known simply as GT1, was a set of regulations maintained formerly by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, for Grand Tourer racing. The category was first created in 1994, as the top class of the BPR Global GT Series, and was included in the 24 Hours of Le Mans. It fell under FIA regulation from 1997, after the BPR series came under the control of the FIA, becoming known as the FIA GT Championship. The category was dissolved at the end of 2011. The category may be split into 4 distinctive eras, from its debut in 1994-1996,1997-1998, 2000-2009, 2010-2011.

Group GT3

Group GT3, known technically as Cup Grand Touring Cars and commonly referred to as simply GT3, is a set of regulations maintained by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) for grand tourer racing cars designed for use in various auto racing series throughout the world. The GT3 category was initially created in 2005 by the SRO Group as a third rung in the ladder of grand touring motorsport, below the Group GT1 and Group GT2 categories which were utilized in the SRO's FIA GT Championship, and launched its own series in 2006, the FIA GT3 European Championship. Since then, Group GT3 has expanded to become the de facto category for many national and international grand touring series, although some series modify the ruleset from the FIA standard. By 2013, nearly 20 automobile manufacturers have built or been represented with GT3 machines.

Group GT3 allows for a wide variety of car types to be homologated with almost no limit on engine sizes and configurations or chassis construction or layout. GT3 cars must be based on production road car models in mass production. Performance of all the Group GT3 cars are regulated, either by the GT Bureau of the FIA or by a series' specific ruling body, through Balance of Performance formulae that adjusts limits on horsepower, weight, engine management, and aerodynamics to prevent a single manufacturer from becoming dominant in the class. The cars in GT3 are designed to have a weight between 1200kg and 1300kg (2645lbs and 2866lbs) with horsepower between 500hp and 600hp. All cars have a very similar power to weight ratio but achieved either by high power and high weight such as the Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG or low power and low weight such as the Porsche 911 GT3. GT3 cars also have traction control, ABS and built in air jacks for quick pit stops.

Group R-GT

Group R-GT (or sometimes Group RGT), is a FIA specification for GT cars in rallying. The R-GT regulations were introduced in 2011, and since 2014 technical passports for individual vehicles can be obtained. Thus a homologation for specific car models is no longer required.Internationally, R-GT cars compete in the FIA R-GT Cup, which is contested on tarmac rounds of the ERC and WRC.

Homologation (motorsport)

In motorsports, homologation is the type approval process through which a vehicle, a race track, or a standardised part is required to go for certification to race in a given league or series. The process of testing and certification for conformance to technical standards is usually known as type approval in English-language jurisdictions. The regulations and rules that must be met are generally set by the series' sanctioning body. The word is derived from the Greek homologeo—literally "I say the same"—for "agree".

Homologation reaction

A homologation reaction, also known as homologization, is any chemical reaction that converts the reactant into the next member of the homologous series. A homologous series is a group of compounds that differ by a constant unit, generally a (-CH2-) group. The reactants undergo a homologation when the number of a repeated structural unit in the molecules is increased. The most common homologation reactions increase the number of methylene (-CH2-) units in saturated chain within the molecule. For example, the reaction of aldehydes or ketones with diazomethane or methoxymethylenetriphenylphosphine to give the next homologue in the series.

Examples of homologation reactions include:

Kiliani-Fischer synthesis, where an aldose molecule is elongated through a three-step process consisting of:

Nucleophillic addition of cyanide to the carbonyl to form a cyanohydrin

Hydrolysis to form a lactone

Reduction to form the homologous aldose

Wittig reaction of an aldehyde with methoxymethylenetriphenylphosphine, which produces a homologous aldehyde.

Arndt–Eistert reaction is a series of chemical reactions designed to convert a carboxylic acid to a higher carboxylic acid homologue (i.e. contains one additional carbon atom)

Kowalski ester homologation, an alternative to the Arndt-Eistert synthesis. Has been used to convert β-amino esters from α-amino esters through an ynolate intermediate.

Seyferth–Gilbert homologation in which an aldehyde is converted to a terminal alkyne and then hydrolyzed back to an aldehyde.Some reactions increase the chain length by more than one unit. For example, the following are considered two-carbon homologation reactions.

Kowalski ester homologation

The Kowalski ester homologation is a chemical reaction for the homologation of esters.

This reaction was designed as a safer alternative to the Arndt–Eistert synthesis, avoiding the need for diazomethane. The Kowalski reaction is named after its inventor, Conrad J. Kowalski.

Seyferth–Gilbert homologation

The Seyferth–Gilbert homologation is a chemical reaction of an aryl ketone 1 (or aldehyde) with dimethyl (diazomethyl)phosphonate 2 and potassium tert-butoxide to give substituted alkynes 3. Dimethyl (diazomethyl)phosphonate 2 is often called the Seyferth–Gilbert reagent.

This reaction is called a homologation because the product has exactly one additional carbon more than the starting material.

Wittig reaction

The Wittig reaction or Wittig olefination is a chemical reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a triphenyl phosphonium ylide (often called a Wittig reagent) to give an alkene and triphenylphosphine oxide.

The Wittig reaction was discovered in 1954 by Georg Wittig, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1979. It is widely used in organic synthesis for the preparation of alkenes. It should not be confused with the Wittig rearrangement.

Wittig reactions are most commonly used to couple aldehydes and ketones to singly-substituted triphenylphosphonium ylides. For the reaction with aldehydes, the double bond geometry is readily predicted based on the nature of the ylide. With unstabilised ylides (R3 = alkyl) this results in (Z)-alkene product with moderate to high selectivity. With stabilized ylides (R3 = ester or ketone), the (E)-alkene is formed with high selectivity. The (E)/(Z) selectivity is often poor with semistabilized ylides (R3 = aryl).To obtain the (E)-alkene for unstabilized ylides, the Schlosser modification of the Wittig reaction can be used. Alternatively, the Julia olefination and its variants also provide the (E)-alkene selectively. Ordinarily, the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction provides the (E)-enoate (α,β-unsaturated ester), just as the Wittig reaction does. To obtain the (Z)-enoate, the Still-Gennari modification of the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction can be used.

Yamaha YZF750

The Yamaha YZF750 is a motorcycle that was produced from 1993 to 1998 in two forms, the standard R and the homologation model single seat SP. The 750R was the only version sold in the US.

Mechanically the later SP differed from the R in the following areas: adjustable swingarm pivot position, 39 mm Keihin FCR flatslide carburetors, a lower screen, a removable rear subframe and a single seat. The primary drive, gear box and final drive ratios are different on the SP. The rear suspension unit is different and vastly improved for the earlier SP however the R from 1996 also had the Ohlins rear shock. The SP was the homologation model of the Yamaha YZF750 for the World Superbike Championship before the rules changed to allow 1000cc bikes. The bike won the Suzuka 8 Hours endurance race four times between 1987 and 1996.

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