Homicide

Homicide is the act of one human killing another.[1] A homicide requires only a volitional act by another person that results in death, and thus a homicide may result from accidental, reckless, or negligent acts even if there is no intent to cause harm.[2] Homicides can be divided into many overlapping legal categories, including murder, manslaughter, justifiable homicide, killing in war (either following the laws of war or as a war crime), euthanasia, and capital punishment, depending on the circumstances of the death. These different types of homicides are often treated very differently in human societies; some are considered crimes, while others are permitted or even ordered by the legal system.

Criminal homicide

Criminal homicide takes many forms including accidental killing or purposeful murder. Criminal homicide is divided into two broad categories, murder and manslaughter, based upon the state of mind and intent of the person who commits the homicide.[3]

Murder

Murder is the most serious crime that can be charged following a homicide.[4] In many jurisdictions, homicide may be punished by life in prison or even capital punishment.[5] Although categories of murder can vary by jurisdiction, murder charges fall under two broad categories:

  • First degree murder: the premeditated, unlawful, intentional killing of another person.
  • Second degree murder: The intentional, unlawful killing of another person, but without any premeditation.

In some jurisdictions, a homicide that occurs during the commission of a dangerous crime may constitute murder, regardless of the actor's intent to commit homicide. In the United States, this is known as the felony murder rule.[6] In simple terms, under the felony murder rule a person who commits a felony may be guilty of murder if someone dies as a result of the commission of the crime, including the victim of the felony, a bystander or a co-felon, regardless their intent—or lack thereof—to kill, and even when the death results from the actions of a co-defendant or third party who is reacting to the crime.[4]

Manslaughter

Manslaughter is a form of homicide in which the person who commits the homicide either does not intend to kill the victim, or kills the victim as the result of circumstances that would cause a reasonable person to become emotionally or mentally disturbed to the point of potentially losing control of their actions.[7] The distinction between murder and manslaughter is sometimes said to have first been made by the ancient Athenian lawmaker Draco in the 7th century BC. The penalty for manslaughter is normally less than the penalty for murder. The two broad categories of manslaughter are:[7][4]

  • Voluntary manslaughter: the intentional, unpremeditated killing of another person as the result of a disturbed state of mind, or heat of passion.
  • Involuntary manslaughter: the unintentional killing of another person through an act of recklessness that shows indifference to the lives and safety of others, or an act of negligence that could reasonably be foreseen to result in death. The act that results in death may be intentional, such as pushing somebody in anger, but their death (such as by their subsequently falling, striking their head, and suffering a lethal head injury) is not.

Another form of manslaughter in some jurisdictions is constructive manslaughter, which may be charged in the event that a person causes a death without intention, but as the result of violating an important safety law or regulation.[8] [9]

Defenses to homicide

Not all homicides are crimes, or subject to criminal prosecution.[10] Some are legally privileged, meaning that they are not criminal acts at all. Others may occur under circumstances that provide the defendant with a full or partial defense to criminal prosecution. Common defenses include:

  • Self-defense: while most homicides by civilians are criminally prosecutable, a right of self-defense (often including the right to defend others)[11] is widely recognized, including, in dire circumstances, the use of deadly force.[12]
  • Mental incapacity: A defendant may attempt to prove that they are not criminally responsible for a homicide due to a mental disorder. In some jurisdictions, mentally incompetent killers may be involuntarily committed in lieu of criminal trial. Mental health and development are often taken into account during sentencing. For example, in the United States, the death penalty cannot be applied to convicted murderers with intellectual disabilities.[13]

if the defendant in a capital case is sufficiently mentally disabled in the United States they cannot be executed. Instead, the individual is placed under the category of "insane".

  • Defense of infancy - Small children are not held criminally liable before the age of criminal responsibility. A juvenile court may handle defendants above this age but below the legal age of majority, though because homicide is a serious crime some older minors are charged in an adult justice system. Age is sometimes also taken into account during sentencing even if the perpetrator is old enough to have criminal responsibility.
  • Justifiable homicide or privilege: Due to the circumstances, although a homicide occurs, the act of killing is not unlawful. For example, a killing on the battlefield during war is normally lawful, or a police officer may shoot a dangerous suspect in order to protect the officer's own life or the lives and safety of others.

The availability of defenses to a criminal charge following a homicide may affect the homicide rate. For example, it has been suggested that the availability of "stand your ground" defense has resulted in an increase in the homicide rate in U.S. jurisdictions that recognize the defense,[14] including Florida.[15][16]

By state actors

Killing by governments and the agents thereof may be considered lawful or unlawful according to:

  • Domestic law
  • International law to which the government has agreed by treaty
  • Peremptory norms which are de facto enforced as obligatory on all countries, such as prohibitions against genocide, piracy, and slavery

Types of state killings include:

  • Capital punishment, where the judicial system authorizes the death penalty in response to a severe crime, though some countries have abolished it completely
  • Lawful killing during war, such as the killing of enemy combatants
  • Lawful use of deadly force by law enforcement officers to maintain public safety in emergency situations
  • Extrajudicial killing, where government actors kill people (typically individuals or small groups) without judicial court proceedings
  • War crimes that involve killing (war crimes not authorized by the government may also be committed by individuals who are then subject to domestic military justice)
  • Widespread, systematic killing by the government of a particular group, which depending on the target, could be called genocide, politicide, or classicide. In some cases these events may also meet definitions of crimes against humanity.

Scholars study especially large homicide events (typically 50,000 deaths in five years or less) as mass killings. Some medium- and large-scale mass killings by state actors have been term massacres, though not all such killings have been so named. The term "democide" has been coined by Rudolph Rummel to describe "murder by government" in general, which includes both extrajudicial killings and widespread systematic homicide.

Killing by government might be called "murder" or "mass murder" in general usage, especially if seen by the commentator as unethical, but the domestic legal definitions of murder, manslaughter, etc., usually exclude killings carried out by lawful government action.

Examples of widespread systematic government killing

Deliberate massacres of captives or civilians during wartime or periods of civil unrest by the state's military forces, include those committed by Genghis Khan, the Golden Horde, the troops of Vlad the Impaler,the British Empire in its colonies, the Empire of Japan, the Soviet Union, and Nazi Germany during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II, the Nanjing Massacre, the Katyn Forest Massacre of Polish citizens in 1940 and the massacres of political prisoners after the launch of Operation Barbarossa, the Three Alls Policy, the massacre of Soviet Jews at Babi Yar, the mass murder of the Hungarian, Serbian and German population in Vojvodina in the "Vengeance of Bacska", the murder of 24 unarmed villagers by British troops in the Batang Kali massacre during the Malayan Emergency, the mass killings in Indonesia during Suharto's rise to power,[17] the murder of suspected leftists during Operation Condor in South America,[18] the murder of Vietnamese civilians by American soldiers in the My Lai Massacre during the Vietnam War, the genocidal massacres of the Maya population during the Guatemalan Civil War,[19] the massacre at El Mozote during the Salvadoran Civil War,[20], and repeated attacks on civilians during the Syrian Civil War including the Al-Qubeir massacre.

Actions in which the state indirectly caused the death of large numbers of people include man-made disasters caused by the state, such as the famines in India during British rule,[21] the atrocities in the Congo Free State,[22] the Holodomor famine in the Soviet Union,[23] the Khmer Rouge years in Cambodia, the famines and poverty caused by the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution in the People's Republic of China,[24] and the famine in Yemen triggered by the U.S.–backed Saudi Arabian-led intervention and blockade.[25][26][27]

Global statistics

A multi-country comparison with global average, Homicide Rates per 100000 people
A comparison of homicide rates, per 100,000 population, for some countries (data from 2008). Terror and war-related deaths are not included. Chinese homicide data is not available.
2010 homicide rates - gun PLUS non-gun - high-income countries
Gun-related homicide rates plus non-gun-related homicide rates in high-income OECD countries, 2010, countries in graph ordered by total homicides. Graph illustrates how U.S. gun homicide rates exceed total homicide rates in each of the other high-income OECD countries.[28]

A 2011 study by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime brought together a wide variety of data sources to create a worldwide picture of trends and developments.[29] Sources included multiple agencies and field offices of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, and national and international sources from 207 countries.

The report estimated that in 2010, the total number of homicides globally was 468,000. More than a third (36%) occurred in Africa, 31 percent in the Americas, 27 percent in Asia, five percent in Europe and one percent in Oceania. Since 1995, the homicide rate has been falling in Europe, North America, and Asia, but has risen to a near “crisis point” in Central America and the Caribbean. Of all homicides worldwide, 82 percent of the victims were men, and 18 percent were women.[30] On a per-capita scaled level, "the homicide rate in Africa and the Americas (at 17 and 16 per 100,000 population, respectively) is more than double the global average (6.9 per 100,000), whereas in Asia, Europe and Oceania (between 3 and 4 per 100,000) it is roughly half".[30]

UNODC, in its 2013 global report, estimated the total number of homicides worldwide dropped to 437,000 in 2012. Americas accounted for 36 percent of all homicides globally, Africa 21 percent, Asia 38 percent, Europe five percent and Oceania 0.3%.[31] The world's average homicide rate stood at 6.2 per 100,000 population in 2012, but Southern Africa region and Central America have intentional homicide rates four times higher than the world average. They are the most violent regions globally, outside of regions experiencing wars and religious or sociopolitical terrorism.[31] Asia exclusive of West Asia and Central Asia, Western Europe, Northern Europe, as well as Oceania had the lowest homicide rates in the world. About 41 percent of the homicides worldwide occurred in 2012 with the use of guns, 24 percent with sharp objects such as knife, and 35 percent by other means such as poison. The global conviction rate for the crime of intentional homicide in 2012 was 43 percent.[32]

[W]here homicide rates are high and firearms and organized crime in the form of drug trafficking play a substantial role, 1 in 50 men aged 20 will be murdered before they reach the age of 31. At the other, the probability of such an occurrence is up to 400 times lower.

[H]omicide is much more common in countries with low levels of human development, high levels of income inequality and weak rule of law than in more equitable societies, where socioeconomic stability seems to be something of an antidote to homicide.

Women murdered by their past or present male partner make up the vast majority of [homicide] victims worldwide....[29]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Homicide definition". Cornell University Law School. Archived from the original on 7 June 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  2. ^ Melenik, Juey (9 September 2015). "7 Common Mistakes Regarding Autopsy Reports". Advantage Business Media. Forensic News Daily. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  3. ^ "Criminal Law: Criminal Homicide". M Libraries. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  4. ^ a b c Larson, Aaron (7 October 2016). "What Are Homicide and Murder". ExpertLaw. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  5. ^ "Federal Laws Providing for the Death Penalty". Death Penalty Information Center. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  6. ^ Fletcher, George P. (1980). "Reflections on Felony Murder". Southwestern University Law Review. 12: 413. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  7. ^ a b "Criminal Law: Manslaughter". M Libraries. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  8. ^ Slapper, Gary (1 December 1993). "Corporate Manslaughter: an Examination of the Determinants of Prosecutorial Polic". Social & Legal Studies. 2 (4): 423–443. doi:10.1177/096466399300200404.
  9. ^ e.d. fatal accidents with alpinists Condamnation de deux alpinistes pour « homicide involontaire » L’avocat du syndicat des guides dérape sur l’arête du Goûter
  10. ^ Stevens, T.L. (February 1957). "Manslaughter and Negligent Homicide". Judge Advocate General Journal. 1957. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  11. ^ See, e.g., California Constitution, Art. 1, Sec. 1
  12. ^ See, e.g., California Penal Code, Sec. 197.
  13. ^ See the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Atkins v. Virginia.
  14. ^ Vedantam, Shankar (2 January 2013). "'Stand Your Ground' Linked To Increase In Homicides". All Things Considered. National Public Radio. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  15. ^ Sanburn, Josh (14 November 2016). "Florida's 'Stand Your Ground' Law Linked to Homicide Increase". Time. Archived from the original on 23 March 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  16. ^ Cheng, Cheng; Hoekstra, Mark (2013). "Does Strengthening Self- Defense Law Deter Crime or Escalate Violence? Evidence from Expansions to Castle Doctrine" (PDF). Journal of Human Resources. 48 (3): 821–854. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  17. ^ Mark Aarons (2007). "Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide." In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9004156917 pp. 80–81.
  18. ^ McSherry, J. Patrice (2011). "Chapter 5: "Industrial repression" and Operation Condor in Latin America". In Esparza, Marcia; Henry R. Huttenbach; Daniel Feierstein. State Violence and Genocide in Latin America: The Cold War Years (Critical Terrorism Studies). Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 978-0415664578.
  19. ^ The Secrets in Guatemala’s Bones. The New York Times. June 30, 2016.
  20. ^ Maslin, Sarah Esther (December 13, 2016). "Remembering El Mozote, the Worst Massacre in Modern Latin American History". The Nation. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
  21. ^ Davis, Mike (2017). Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. Verso. p. 9. ISBN 978-1784786625.
  22. ^ Hochschild, Adam (1999). King Leopold's Ghost. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0618001903.
  23. ^ R.J. Rummel. Chapter 1: 61,911,000 Victims: Utopianism Empowered
  24. ^ Akbar, Arifa (17 September 2010). "Mao's Great Leap Forward 'killed 45 million in four years'". The Independent. London. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  25. ^ Horesh, Theo (April 30, 2017). "Is the Trump administration enabling genocide in Yemen? And will Americans ever pay attention?". Salon. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
  26. ^ "Saudi Arabia Threatens Famine, Genocide in Yemen". The Real News. November 13, 2017. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
  27. ^ Kristof, Nicholas (September 26, 2018). "Be Outraged by America's Role in Yemen's Misery". The New York Times. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
  28. ^ Grinshteyn, Erin; Hemenway, David (March 2016). "Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010". The American Journal of Medicine. 129 (3): 266–273. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025. PMID 26551975. (Table 4). (PDF).
  29. ^ a b "2011 Global Study on Homicide". UNODC. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2011. Archived from the original on 18 December 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  30. ^ a b "United Nations 2011 Global Study on Homicide". Journalist's Resource. Archived from the original on 30 December 2011.
  31. ^ a b UNODC, Global Study on Homicide Archived 3 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine 2013 Report
  32. ^ UNODC, Global Study on Homicide Archived 3 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine 2013 Report, page 18
Andre Braugher

Andre Keith Braugher (; born July 1, 1962) is an American actor. He is best known for his role as Frank Pembleton on the television series Homicide: Life on the Street and in the television film Homicide: The Movie, as well as his roles as Owen Thoreau Jr. on the television series Men of a Certain Age and Raymond Holt on the sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine. Braugher has received two Golden Globe Award nominations and ten Primetime Emmy Award nominations (winning two).

In film, he is best known for his supporting roles in many successful films such as Glory (1989), Primal Fear (1996), City of Angels (1998), Frequency (2000), Poseidon (2006), The Mist (2007), Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer (2007), and The Gambler (2014).

Crime in Brazil

Crime in Brazil involves an elevated incidence of violent and non-violent crimes. According to most sources, Brazil possesses high rates of violent crimes, such as murders and robberies; depending on the source (UNDP or World Health Organization), Brazil's homicide rate is 30–35 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants according to the UNODC, placing Brazil in the top 20 countries by intentional homicide rate. In recent times, the homicide rate in Brazil has been stabilizing at a very high level.Brazil is a heavy importer of cocaine, as well as part of the international drug routes. Arms and marijuana employed by criminals are mostly locally produced.

David Simon

David Judah Simon (born February 9, 1960) is an American author, journalist, and television writer and producer best known for his work on The Wire. He worked for the Baltimore Sun City Desk for twelve years (1982–95) and wrote Homicide: A Year on the Killing Streets (1991) and co-wrote The Corner: A Year in the Life of an Inner-City Neighborhood (1997) with Ed Burns. The former book was the basis for the NBC series Homicide: Life on the Street (1993–99), on which Simon served as a writer and producer. Simon adapted the latter book into the HBO mini-series The Corner (2000).

He was the creator, executive producer, head writer, and show runner for all five seasons of the HBO television series The Wire (2002–2008). He adapted the non-fiction book Generation Kill into a television mini-series, and served as the show runner for the project. He was selected as one of the 2010 MacArthur Fellows and named an Utne Reader visionary in 2011. Simon also created the HBO series Treme with Eric Overmyer, which aired for four seasons. Following Treme, Simon wrote the HBO mini-series Show Me a Hero with journalist William F. Zorzi, a colleague first at The Baltimore Sun, and again later on The Wire.

In August 2015, HBO commissioned two pilots from Simon's company Blown Deadline Productions. The first drama, The Deuce, about the New York porn industry in the 1970s and 1980s, stars Maggie Gyllenhaal and co-producer James Franco and began airing in September 2017. The second drama is an untitled program exploring a "detailed examination of partisanship" and money in Washington politics, to be co-produced with Carl Bernstein.

Detective

A detective is an investigator, usually a member of a law enforcement agency. They often collect information to solve crime by talking to witnesses and informants, collecting physical evidence, or searching records in databases. This leads them to arrest criminals and enable them to be convicted in court. A detective may work for the police or privately.

Gun control

Gun control (or firearms regulation) is the set of laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of firearms by civilians.

Most countries have a restrictive firearm guiding policy, with only a few legislations being categorized as permissive. Jurisdictions that regulate access to firearms typically restrict access to only certain categories of firearms and then to restrict the categories of persons who will be granted a license to have access to a firearm. In some countries such as the United States, gun control may be legislated at either a federal level or a local state level.

Homicide (wrestler)

Nelson Erazo (born March 20, 1977) is an American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, Homicide. He is currently signed to Impact Wrestling, where he is a one-time X Division Champion and three-time World Tag Team Champion, having won the NWA World Tag Team Championship twice and the TNA World Tag Team Championship once with tag team partner Hernandez. He is also known from his time in Ring of Honor, where he held the World Championship once, as well as Pro Wrestling Guerrilla (PWG), where he is a one-time World Tag Team Champion and winner of the Tango & Cash Invitational tournament alongside B-Boy, and Jersey All Pro Wrestling (JAPW), where he has held both the Heavyweight Championship and the Tag Team Championship seven times each.

Justifiable homicide

The concept of justifiable homicide in criminal law (e.g. as opposed to culpable homicide) stands on the dividing line between an excuse, a justification, and an exculpation. In certain circumstances, in most societies, homicide is justified when it prevents greater harm to innocents. A homicide can only be justified if there is sufficient evidence to prove that it was reasonable to believe that the offending party posed an imminent threat to the life or well-being of another, in so-called self-defense. A homicide in this instance is blameless and distinct from the less stringent criteria authorizing deadly force in stand your ground rulings.

List of countries by intentional homicide rate

List of countries by intentional homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants. The reliability of underlying national murder rate data may vary. UNODC data is used in the main table below. In some cases it is not as up to date as other sources. See farther down as to why its data is used over other sources.

Research suggests that intentional homicide demographics are affected by changes in trauma care, leading to changed lethality of violent assaults, so the intentional homicide rate may not necessarily indicate the overall level of societal violence. They may also be under-reported for political reasons.A study undertaken by the Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development estimated that there were approximately 490,000 intentional homicides in 2004. The study estimated that the global rate was 7.6 intentional homicides per 100,000 inhabitants for 2004. UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) reported a global average intentional homicide rate of 6.2 per 100,000 population for 2012 (in their report titled "Global Study on Homicide 2013"). UNODC calculated a rate of 6.9 in 2010.

Manslaughter

Manslaughter is a common law legal term for homicide considered by law as less culpable than murder. The distinction between murder and manslaughter is sometimes said to have first been made by the ancient Athenian lawmaker Draco in the 7th century BCE.The definition of manslaughter differs among legal jurisdictions.

Murder

Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, such as manslaughter. Manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, recklessness.

Most societies consider murder to be an extremely serious crime, and thus believe that the person charged should receive harsh punishments for the purposes of retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, or incapacitation. In most countries, a person convicted of murder generally faces a long-term prison sentence, possibly a life sentence; and in a few, the death penalty may be imposed.

Murder (United States law)

In the United States, the law regarding murder varies by jurisdiction. In most U.S. jurisdictions there is a hierarchy of acts, known collectively as homicide, of which first degree murder and felony murder are the most serious, followed by second degree murder, followed by voluntary manslaughter and involuntary manslaughter which are not as serious, and ending finally in justifiable homicide, which is not a crime at all. However, because there are at least 52 relevant jurisdictions, each with its own criminal code, this is a considerable simplification.Sentencing also varies very widely depending upon the specific murder charge. "Life imprisonment" is a common penalty for first degree murder, but its meaning varies widely.Capital punishment is a legal sentence in 32 states, and also the federal civilian and military legal systems. The United States is unusual in actually performing executions, with 34 states having performed executions since capital punishment was reinstated in 1976. The methods of execution have varied but the most common method since 1976 has been lethal injection. In 2014 a total of 35 people were executed, and 3,002 were on death row.The Unborn Victims of Violence Act, enacted in 2004, codified at 18 U.S. Code § 1841, allows for a fetus to be treated as a victim in crimes. Subsection (c) of that statute specifically prohibits prosecutions related to consented abortions and medical treatments.

Murder–suicide

A murder–suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more people before (or while) killing themself. The combination of murder and suicide can take various forms, often linked to the first form:

Murder linked with suicide of a mentally unstable person with a homicidal ideation;

Murder which entails suicide, such as suicide bombing or driving a car with one or more passenger(s) over a precipice;

Suicide after murder to escape state punishment(s);

Suicide after murder as a form of self-punishment due to guilt;

Suicide after (or before) murder by proxy;

Suicide after or during murder inflicted by others;

Murder to receive a death sentence willfully;

Joint suicide in the form of killing the other with consent, and then killing oneself;

Murder before suicide with the intent of preventing future pain and suffering of others including family members and oneself, such as a parent killing their children before ending their own life;Suicide-lawful killing has three conceivable forms:

To kill one's assailant through proportionate self-defense killing oneself in the process;

Lawful killing to prevent an individual from causing harm to others, in so doing killing oneself;

Lawful killing indirectly resulting in or contributing to suicide.Many spree killings have ended in suicide, such as in many school shootings. Some cases of religiously-motivated suicides may also involve murder. All categorization amounts to forming somewhat arbitrary distinctions where relating to intention in the case of psychosis, where the intention(s) is/are more likely than not to be irrational. Ascertaining the legal intention (mens rea) is inapplicable to cases properly categorized as insanity.

Negligent homicide

Negligent homicide is a criminal charge brought against a person who, through criminal negligence, allows another person to die.Examples include the crash of Aeroperu Flight 603 near Lima, Peru. The accident was caused by a piece of duct tape that was left over the static ports (on the bottom side of the fuselage) after cleaning the aircraft, which led to the crash. An employee had left the tape on and was charged with negligent homicide. Other times, an intentional killing may be negotiated down to the lesser charge as a compromised resolution of a murder case, as in the case of former UFC fighter Gerald Strebendt's intentional shooting of an unarmed man after a traffic altercation.

Spree killer

A spree killer is someone who kills two or more victims in a short time, in multiple locations. The U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics defines a spree killing as "killings at two or more locations with almost no time break between murders".

Suicide attack

A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker accepts their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target. Suicide attacks have occurred throughout history, often as part of a military campaign such as the Japanese kamikaze pilots of World War II, and more recently as part of terrorist campaigns, such as the September 11 attacks.

While there were few, if any, successful suicide attacks anywhere in the world from the end of World War II until 1980, between 1981 and September 2015, a total of 4,814 suicide attacks occurred in over 40 countries, killing over 45,000 people. During this time the global rate of such attacks grew from an average of three a year in the 1980s, to about one a month in the 1990s, to almost one a week from 2001 to 2003, to approximately one a day from 2003 to 2015.Suicide attacks tend to be more deadly and destructive than other terror attacks because they give their perpetrators the ability to conceal weapons, make last-minute adjustments, and because they dispense with the need for remote or delayed detonation, escape plans or rescue teams. They constituted only 4% of all terrorist attacks around the world over one period (between 1981 and 2006), but caused 32% of all terrorism-related deaths (14,599). Ninety percent of those attacks occurred in Afghanistan, Iraq, Israel, the Palestinian territories, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Overall, as of mid-2015 about three-quarters of all suicide attacks occurred in just three countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iraq.Suicide attacks have been described as a weapon of psychological warfare to instill fear in the target population, a strategy to eliminate or at least drastically diminish areas where the public feels safe, and the "fabric of trust that holds societies together", as well as demonstrate the lengths to which perpetrators will go to, to achieve their goals.The motivation of suicide attackers varies. Kamikaze acted under military orders and were motivated by obedience and nationalism. Before 2003, most attacks targeted forces occupying the attackers' homeland, according to analyst Robert Pape. Anthropologist Scott Atran states that since 2004 the overwhelming majority of bombers have been motivated by the ideology of Islamist martyrdom.

The Latin American Xchange

The Latin American Xchange (also frequently abbreviated to LAX) is a professional wrestling stable currently signed to Impact Wrestling.

The group achieved initial success as a stable consisting of Konnan, Hernandez and Homicide. Puerto Rican wrestler Apolo was a brief original member, who was later replaced by Machete. Later, upon the departure of Konnan from Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA), Homicide and Hernandez wrestled exclusively as a tag team. The original gimmick of LAX centered on its members being Hispanic, denouncing the perceived repression of ethnic minorities by the NWA Championship Committee and TNA Management, with LAX's response as a group of militant street thugs. After becoming fan favorites, the group continued to stand as proud street Latin Americans, but dropped its militant focus.

In 2017, LAX returned to Impact Wrestling, with founding members Konnan and Homicide were joined by Diamante, Ortiz and Santana. They were briefly joined by Low Ki, and King later assumed leadership when Konnan was absent and later King left LAX alongside Hernandez and Homicide to form The OGz.

Vehicular homicide

Vehicular homicide is a crime that involves the death of a person other than the driver as a result of either criminally negligent or murderous operation of a motor vehicle.

In cases of criminal negligence, the defendant is commonly charged with unintentional vehicular manslaughter.

Vehicular homicide is similar to the offense, in some countries, of "dangerous driving causing death."

The victim may be either a person not in the car with the offending motorist (such as a pedestrian, cyclist, or another motorist), or a passenger in the vehicle with the offender.

Violent crime

A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which an offender or perpetrator uses or threatens to use force upon a victim. This entails both crimes in which the violent act is the objective, such as murder or rape, as well as crimes in which violence is the means to an end. Violent crimes may, or may not, be committed with weapons. Depending on the jurisdiction, violent crimes may vary from homicide to harassment. Typically, violent criminals includes aircraft hijackers, bank robbers, muggers, burglars, terrorists, carjackers, rapists, kidnappers, torturers, active shooters, murderers, gangsters, drug cartels, and others.

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