Homer Bigart

Homer William Bigart (October 25, 1907 – April 16, 1991) was an American reporter who worked for the New York Herald Tribune from 1929 to 1955 and for The New York Times from 1955 to his retirement in 1972. He was considered a "reporter's reporter"[1] and an "enduring role model."[2] He won two Pulitzer Prizes as a war correspondent, as well as most of the other major journalism awards.[2][3][4]

Early life and education

Bigart was born in Hawley, Pennsylvania to Homer S. Bigart, a woolens manufacturer, and Anna Schardt Bigart. To author Karen Rothmeyer, he confided near the end of his life:

I decided that I would become an architect because it sounded so prestigious and so easy. Especially easy. I went to what was then Carnegie Tech in Pittsburgh and quickly discovered that if you were going to be an architect you at least had to learn how to draw. But I couldn't even do that. The only passing grade I got was in English, so I decided that about the only thing I could do was to become a newspaperman."[5]

He transferred to the New York University School of Journalism in 1929.

Journalism career

He got a part-time job as a night copy boy at the Herald Tribune, then dropped out of school to work full-time at the newspaper.[2] Despite a stutter[6] and a painfully slow typing speed, he was promoted to general assignment reporter after four years.[2]

World War II

In 1942, with World War II raging, Bigart was asked to become a war correspondent.[2] He stated that, although he never liked the war, when he was assigned to London:

[T]hose first few months were about the happiest ones I think I've ever spent in journalism. I liked the people and I liked the city. There was sort of a lull in the air raid war so you had the excitement of being in a war area without any real danger.[5]

He and seven other reporters flew bombing missions over Germany as part of "The Writing 69th". On one such mission to Wilhelmshaven in March 1943, the B-17 bomber formation in which he and reporters Walter Cronkite and Gladwin Hill were flying suffered heavy losses to enemy fighters.[7] He also covered the fighting in North Africa, Italy, and southern France. When Germany surrendered, he went to the Pacific and was one of the first reporters to enter Hiroshima after the atomic bombing.[2][6]

For the latter work, he won the Pulitzer Prize for Telegraphic Reporting - International (a predecessor of the International Reporting Pulitzer), citing "his distinguished reporting during the year 1945 from the Pacific war theatre."[3]

Korean War

That was only the first of several wars Bigart was to cover. Next up was the Korean War where he clashed with fellow Herald Tribune reporter Marguerite Higgins. Recalled Bigart:

When I came out I thought I was the premier war correspondent and I thought that she, being the Tokyo correspondent, ought to be back in Tokyo. But she didn't see things that way. She was a very brave person, foolishly brave. As a result, I felt as though I had to go out and get shot at occasionally myself. So I resented that.[5]

Nonetheless, Bigart, Higgins and four others—two from the Chicago Daily News and two from the Associated Press—shared the 1951 Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting.[4] Once again, he was in the thick of things; a July 10, 1950 dispatch described being caught between North Korean tanks and an American artillery barrage.[7] Newsweek called him "the best war correspondent of an embattled generation."[2]

He left the Herald Tribune in 1955, a decade before its demise, for The New York Times. He covered the trial of Nazi Adolf Eichmann in 1961.[6]

Vietnam War

In 1962, Bigart was sent to South Vietnam, where he stayed for six months. He soon realized that the war was a mistake, stating "I never thought we'd be stupid enough to send ground troops over there in the first place, after the experience in Korea".[6] He made enemies by bucking the pressure to report optimistically. He was expelled from South Vietnam by President Ngo Dinh Diem for persistently criticizing him, his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu, and sister-in-law Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu.

Civil rights movement

The New York Times dispatched Bigart to cover some of the most significant events of the struggle of southern blacks for civil rights. He followed the 101st Airborne Division into Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957, in response to Governor Orval Faubus's refusal to comply with federal court orders to desegregate the City's public schools.[8] He covered the demonstrations in St. Augustine, Florida that led directly to the passage of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964. His dispatch's blunt description of civil rights opponents in Philadelphia, Mississippi as "peckerwoods' and "rednecks," following the disappearance of civil rights activists Mickey Schwerner, James Cheney, and Andrew Goodman, set Bigart apart from other Times reporters.[9]

Personal life

Bigart retired in 1973 and died in 1991 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, of cancer.[2]

He divorced his first wife, Alice Veit, and his second wife Alice Weel died of cancer in 1969. Alice Weel Bigart was the first woman to write full-time for a US network news program, when she joined CBS Douglas Edwards and the News in 1948, and later became producer of 60 Minutes).[10][11] Hélène Montgomery-Moore, the widow of Major Cecil Montgomery-Moore, DFC, funded the Mrs. Cecil Montgomery-Moore Scholarship for journalism, in memory of Alice Weel Bigart.

He was survived by his third wife, Else Holmelund Minarik, a writer of children's books.

Books

  • Forward Positions: The war correspondence of Homer Bigart, ed. Betsy Wade (University of Arkansas Press, 1992); ISBN 1557282579[12]

References

  1. ^ "Homer Bigart". PBS. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Richard Severo (April 17, 1991). "Homer Bigart, Acclaimed Reporter, Dies". The New York Times.
  3. ^ a b "1946 Winners". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
  4. ^ a b "1951 Winners". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
  5. ^ a b c Karen Rothmeyer (November 1991). "The Quiet Exit". American Journalism Review. Retrieved 2011-02-18.
  6. ^ a b c d "Homer Bigart; Journalist Won 2 Pulitzers for War Coverage". Los Angeles Times. April 18, 1991.
  7. ^ a b Malcolm W. Browne (April 11, 1993). "The Fighting Words of Homer Bigart: A War Correspondent Is Never a Cheerleader (book review)". The New York Times.
  8. ^ Gene Roberts & Hank Klibanoff, "The Race Beat," p. 184 (Random House 2008).
  9. ^ Roberts & Klibanoff, pp. 361-62.
  10. ^ Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism: Journalism School Scholarships Archived 2014-09-03 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Hard News: Women in Broadcast Journalism. Page 48-49. By David H. Hosley and Gayle K. Yamada. Praeger (November 3, 1987). ISBN 978-0-313-25477-2
  12. ^ "Forward positions: the war correspondence of Homer Bigart". Library of Congress Catalog Record. Retrieved October 31, 2013.

External links

1946 Pulitzer Prize

The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1946.

1951 Pulitzer Prize

The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1951.

Cecil Montgomery-Moore

Major Cecil Montgomery-Moore DFC (1 July 1899 – 8 December 1970) was an American-born Bermudian First World War fighter pilot, and commander of the Bermuda Volunteer Engineers and the Bermuda Flying School during the Second World War.

Else Holmelund Minarik

Else Holmelund Minarik (September 13, 1920 – July 12, 2012) was an American author of more than 40 children's books. She was most commonly associated with her Little Bear series of children's books, which were adapted for television. Minarik was also the author of another well-known book, No Fighting, No Biting!

François Sully

Note: The "François Sully" credited in The Foreman Went to France (1942) was British character actor Francis L. Sullivan.François Sully (1927-1971) was a French journalist and photographer best known for his work during the Vietnam War. Sully was one of the earliest journalists to cover the Vietnam War and spent 24 years in Indochina. At the time of his death in a command helicopter crash near the Cambodian border, he was viewed as the dean of the Saigon press corps.

Sully was born in 1927 or 1928 in France and fought against the Nazis in the French Resistance as a teenager and was wounded on his seventeenth birthday in Paris. After the liberation of Paris he enlisted in the French Army, fought the Nazis in Germany and then volunteered for the French Expeditionary Forces, arriving in Saigon when the Japanese surrendered in 1945. Discharged in Saigon, Sully tried his hand as a tea planter and rancher before turning to journalism. In 1947 he joined Sud-Est Asiatique, a now defunct French magazine, working for them until 1953. He was assigned to cover the battle of Dien Bien Phu by Time-Life. He escaped from behind the Viet Minh lines. In 1959 he joined United Press International (UPI). He wrote articles for Time magazine and his photographs were carried by Black Star until he joined Newsweek in early 1961.

In March 1962, Sully was to be expelled from South Vietnam by President Ngo Dinh Diem, egged on by Madame Nhu, as his reporting was deemed "helpful to the enemy". Unofficially, Diem intended the expulsion to serve as a warning to all journalists reporting the failings of his U.S.-assisted war against the Viet Cong. The other journalist on the expulsion list was Homer Bigart of the New York Times. Diem backed down after the U.S. Mission explained that expulsion would only worsen an already bad relationship with the press. Five months later, however, in August 1962, Sully was sent packing after some seventeen years in Indochina. The Newsweek issue of August 20, 1962 carried a long article by Sully "Viet Nam: The Unpleasant Truth". His expulsion became a major political affair between Saigon and Washington. Sully departed Saigon on September 9, with most of the press corps at the airfield in a show of solidarity. After his expulsion Sully proceeded to Harvard where he put in a year at the Nieman Foundation and worked in bordering countries to Vietnam. He returned to the Newsweek bureau in Saigon after the November 1963 Coup and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem.

During his work as Newsweek's Saigon Bureau Chief, Sully also wrote for a number of other newsmagazines including The Nation and The New Republic. In 1967 and 1968, Sully wrote articles for McGraw-Hill's business-reporting service World News which distributed them to Business Week, Medical World News, Engineering News Record, and other publications. In addition to writing news stories and taking photographs, Sully wrote Age of the Guerrilla: The New Warfare (New York: Parent's Magazine Press, 1968; reprinted by Avon, 1970) and compiled and edited We the Vietnamese: Voices from Vietnam (New York: Praeger, 1971).

Sully was the insider's insider amongst the press corps in Vietnam. His sources were numerous inside the Viet Minh and Viet Cong, inside the Palace in Saigon and at grassroots levels in every province in the North and South. He spoke several languages and was fluent in French, English, Vietnamese and Lao.

Sully died in February 1971. He was aboard a command helicopter as it turned west towards Cambodia. The helicopter of General Do Cao Tri ('Patton of the Parrots Beak') had lifted off from Tay Ninh airstrip and was heading towards a firebase just across the

Vietnam-Cambodia border. As the helicopter was nearing its destination it burst in flames. Sully alone leaped from the burning craft and plunged seventy five feet to the ground. All others died in the crash. Sully died from injuries suffered in the fall at Long Binh hospital. Sully was buried in Mac Dinh Chi Cemetery in Saigon. He left his insurance policy of 18 million piasters to Vietnamese orphans.

Hal Boyle

Harold Vincent "Hal" Boyle (July 24, 1911 – April 1, 1974) was a prolific, Pulitzer-prize-winning journalist for the Associated Press. During 30 years with the AP Boyle wrote 7,680 columns. He is best known for his work as a war correspondent during World War II. He was consistently closer to the front lines in the European and Pacific theatres of operation than other correspondents. His column became a staple in over 700 newspapers. He is also the namesake of a prize given annually to reporters by the Oversees Press Club of America, for the best newspaper or wire service reporting from abroad.

Hard Hat Riot

The Hard Hat Riot occurred on May 8, 1970, in New York City. It started around noon when about 200 construction workers mobilized by the New York State AFL-CIO attacked some 1,000 college and high school students and others who were protesting the May 4 Kent State shootings, the Vietnam War, and the April 30 announcement by President Richard Nixon of the U.S. invasion of Cambodia. The Hard Hat Riot, breaking out first near the intersection of Wall Street and Broad Street in Lower Manhattan, soon spilled into New York City Hall, and lasted approximately two hours. More than 70 people, including four policemen, were injured on what became known as "Bloody Friday". Six people were arrested.

Hawley, Pennsylvania

Hawley is a borough on the Lackawaxen River in Wayne County, Pennsylvania. The borough's population was 1,211 at the time of the 2010 United States Census.

James McGlincy

James "Jim" Francis McGlincy (August 21, 1917 – February 9, 1988) was an American journalist. From 1940 to 1949 he worked as a war correspondent for the United Press, covering World War II in Europe and later joining a press corps led by Tex McCrary that toured Asia after the surrender in Europe. In 1945, he was among the first Americans to enter Hiroshima after the atomic bombing.

John Lindsay

John Vliet Lindsay (; November 24, 1921 – December 19, 2000) was an American politician, lawyer, and broadcaster. During his political career, Lindsay was a U.S. congressman, mayor of New York City, candidate for U.S. president, and regular guest host of Good Morning America. He served as a member of the United States House of Representatives from January 1959 to December 1965 and as mayor of New York City from January 1966 to December 1973. He switched from the Republican to the Democratic Party in 1971, and launched a brief and unsuccessful bid for the 1972 Democratic presidential nomination as well as the 1980 Democratic nomination for Senator from New York. He died from Parkinson's disease and pneumonia in Hilton Head Island, South Carolina on December 19, 2000.

List of UPI reporters

This is a list of notable reporters who worked for United Press International during their careers:

Carl W. Ackerman, 1913-1914 Albany, NY and Washington, D.C. bureau reporter, 1915-1917 Berlin Correspondent

Howard Arenstein, 1978 Jerusalem bureau chief 1981 editor on UPI's foreign desk in New York and Washington.

James Baar, editor in the UPI Washington Bureau

Arnaud de Borchgrave, 1947 -1951 Brussels bureau chief, 1998 president of UPI, 2001 editor-at-large of UPI based in Washington DC

Joe Bob Briggs

David Brinkley

Lucien Carr

Pye Chamberlayne

John Chambers, son of Whittaker Chambers (UPI Radio, 1960s)Audio recap of 87th Congress (1962)

Audio recap on Presidential Election (1964)

Funeral Services for Adlai Stevenson (1965)

Civil Rights Movement in 1965 (1965)

Preview 1966 (1966)

"From the People" with Hubert Humphrey (text) (February 1968)

Audio on LBJ's signing of Civil Rights Act of 1968 (April 11, 1968)

Text of eyewitness account of RFK assassination (1968)

Charles Collingwood

Walter Cronkite, 1939-1950, covered World War II for UP.

William Boyd Dickinson

Bill Downs

Marc S. Ellenbogen

James M. Flinchum

Sylvana Foa

Oscar Fraley

Thomas Friedman

Joseph L. Galloway

Seymour Hersh

John Hoerr

Richard C. Hottelet

Michael Keon, covered the Chinese Civil War in the late 1940s

David Kirby

Eli Lake

Larry LeSueur

Eric Lyman

Eugene Lyons

Carlos Mendo

Webb Miller

Randy Minkoff

M. R. Akhtar Mukul

Ron Nessen

Richard S. Newcombe

Dan Olmsted

Bill Rosinski

Milton Richman

Eric Sevareid

Steve Sailer

Harrison Salisbury

Mac Sebree

Neil Sheehan

William Shirer

Howard K. Smith

Merriman Smith

Jeff Stein

Barry Sussman

Roger Tatarian

Helen Thomas

Morris DeHaven Tracy

Martin Walker

Kate Webb

Steve Wilstein

Lester Ziffren

List of World War II war correspondents (1942–43)

This is a partial list of war correspondents who reported from North Africa or Italy in 1942-43, during World War II. Some of the names are taken from the war journal of Eric Lloyd Williams, a correspondent for Reuters and the South African Press Association during the war, and from a radio broadcast he made in 1944.

James Aldridge, The New York Times

Bruce Anderson, South African Broadcasting Corporation

Graham (G. E.) Beamish, New Zealand correspondent

Jack Belden, LIFE

Paul Bewsher, Daily Mail

Homer Bigart, New York Herald Tribune

Eric Bigio, Daily Express

Hal Boyle, Associated Press

Sam Brewer, Chicago Tribune

Christopher Buckley, The Daily Telegraph

Norman Clark, News Chronicle

Alexander Clifford, Daily Mail

Edward Harry Crockett, Associated Press

Walter Cronkite, United Press

Daniel De Luce, Associated Press

Richard Dimbleby, BBC

David Divine, The Sunday Times

Robert Dunnett, BBC

William ("Willy") Forrest, News Chronicle (wounded in the head)

Frank Gervasi, Collier’s Weekly

Frank Gillard, BBC

Hank Gorrell, United Press

Les Green, South African Broadcasting Corporation

Harold Guard, United Press

Matthew Halton, Toronto Star, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

Guy Harriot, Sydney Morning Herald

Bruce Hewitt, New Zealand Press Association

Russell Hill, New York Herald Tribune

Geoffrey Hoare, The Times

Clare Hollingworth, Daily Express, Chicago Daily News

Alaric Jacob, Daily Express

Denis Johnston, BBC

Philip Jordan, News Chronicle

Ed Kennedy, Associated Press

George Lait, International News Service

Ronald Legge, The Daily Telegraph

Alexander Gault MacGowan, The Sun (New York)

Denis Martin, Daily Herald

Frank Martin, Associated Press

Richard McMillan, United Press

Bill Mauldin, Cartoonist, Stars and Stripes

Drew Middleton, The New York Times

Ronald Monson, Daily Express and Australian newspapers

Alan Moorehead, Daily Express

Chester Morrison, CBS

Leonard Mosley, Allied Newspapers

William Munday, Australian newspapers

Gerald Norman, The Times

John (Tex) O'Reilly, New York Herald Tribune

Ernie Pyle, Scripps-Howard Newspapers

Quentin Reynolds, Collier’s Weekly

Frederick Salisbury, Daily Herald

Nestor Solodovnik, TASS News Agency

Norman Soong, Chinese press

Edmund Stevens, Christian Science Monitor

Bill Stoneman, Chicago Daily News

John Sutherland, South African Press Association

Jack Thompson, Chicago Tribune

George Tucker, Associated Press

Wynford Vaughan-Thomas, BBC

Ralph Walling, Reuters

Alan Whicker, British Army's Film and Photo Unit

Don Whitehead, Associated Press

Eric Lloyd Williams, Reuters/South African Press Association

Chester Wilmott, BBC and ABC

Harry Zinder, TIME

List of stutterers

Stuttering (alalia syllabaris), also known as stammering (alalia literalis or anarthria literalis), is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases, and involuntary silent pauses or blocks during which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds. The exact etiology of stuttering is unknown; both genetics and neurophysiology are thought to contribute. There are many treatments and speech-language pathology techniques available that may help increase fluency in some stutterers to the point where an untrained ear cannot identify a problem; however, there is essentially no cure for the disorder at present.People who stutter include British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, orator Demosthenes, King George VI, actor James Earl Jones, and country singer Mel Tillis. Churchill, whose stutter was particularly apparent to 1920s writers, was one of the 30% of stutterers who have an associated speech disorder—a lisp in his case—yet led his nation through World War II. Demosthenes stammered and was inarticulate as a youth, yet, through dedicated practice, using methods such as placing pebbles in his mouth, became a great orator of Ancient Greece. King George VI hired speech therapist Lionel Logue to enable him to speak to his Empire, and Logue effectively helped him accomplish this goal. This training and its results are the focus of the 2010 film The King's Speech. James Earl Jones has stated he was mute for many years of his youth yet he became an actor noted for the power of his voice. Mel Tillis stutters when talking but not when singing. Many people had their speech impediment only as a child and have overcome their condition.

National Renaissance Party (United States)

The National Renaissance Party (NRP) was an American neo-fascist group founded in 1949 by James Hartung Madole. It was frequently in the headlines during the 1960s and 1970s for its involvement in violent protests and riots in New York City. After Madole's death in 1979 the party faded and had completely disappeared by 1981.

New York Herald Tribune

The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper published between 1924 and 1966. It was created in 1924 when the New York Tribune acquired the New York Herald. It was widely regarded as a "writer's newspaper" and competed with The New York Times in the daily morning market. The paper won at least nine Pulitzer Prizes during its lifetime.A "Republican paper, a Protestant paper and a paper more representative of the suburbs than the ethnic mix of the city", the Tribune generally did not match the comprehensiveness of The New York Times' coverage, but its national, international and business coverage was generally viewed as among the best in the industry, as was its overall style. At one time or another, the paper was home to such writers as Dorothy Thompson, Red Smith, Roger Kahn, Richard Watts, Jr., Homer Bigart, Walter Kerr, Walter Lippmann, St. Clair McKelway, Judith Crist, Dick Schaap, Tom Wolfe, John Steinbeck, and Jimmy Breslin. Editorially, the newspaper was the voice for eastern Republicans, later referred to as Rockefeller Republicans, and espoused a pro-business, internationalist viewpoint.

The paper, first owned by the Reid family, struggled financially for most of its life and rarely generated enough profit for growth or capital improvements; the Reids subsidized the Herald Tribune through the paper's early years. However, it enjoyed prosperity during World War II and by the end of the conflict had pulled close to the Times in ad revenue. A series of disastrous business decisions, combined with aggressive competition from the Times and poor leadership from the Reid family, left the Herald Tribune far behind its rival.

In 1958, the Reids sold the Herald Tribune to John Hay Whitney, a multimillionaire Wall Street investor who was serving as ambassador to the United Kingdom at the time. Under his leadership, the Tribune experimented with new layouts and new approaches to reporting the news, and made important contributions to the body of New Journalism that developed in the 1960s. The paper steadily revived under Whitney, but a 114-day newspaper strike stopped the Herald Tribune's gains and ushered in four years of strife with labor unions, particularly the local chapter of the International Typographical Union. Faced with mounting losses, Whitney attempted to merge the Herald Tribune with the New York World-Telegram and the New York Journal-American in the spring of 1966; the proposed merger led to another lengthy strike, and on August 15, 1966, Whitney announced the closure of the Herald Tribune. Combined with investments in the World Journal Tribune, Whitney spent $39.5 million (equivalent to $304,835,696 in 2018 dollars) in his attempts to keep the newspaper alive.After the New York Herald Tribune closed, the Times and The Washington Post, joined by Whitney, entered an agreement to operate the International Herald Tribune, the paper's former Paris publication. The International Herald Tribune was renamed the International New York Times in 2013 and is now named The New York Times International Edition. New York magazine, created as the Herald Tribune's Sunday magazine in 1963, was revived by editor Clay Felker in 1968, and continues to publish today.

Paul Manning (journalist)

Paul Manning (died 1995) was an American broadcast journalist. He worked closely with Edward R. Murrow during World War II as a correspondent for CBS Radio, and with the Mutual Broadcasting System later on in the war.

Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting

This Pulitzer Prize has been awarded since 1942 for a distinguished example of reporting on international affairs, including United Nations correspondence. In its first six years (1942–1947), it was called the Pulitzer Prize for Telegraphic Reporting - International.

RAF Bovingdon

Royal Air Force Bovingdon or more simply RAF Bovingdon is a former Royal Air Force station located near the village of Bovingdon, 2.5 miles (4.0 km) south of Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire and 2.5 miles (4.0 km) southeast of Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England.

During the Second World War, the airfield was used by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) Eighth Air Force. It was assigned USAAF designation Station 112, station code "BV", later changed to "BZ".

The Writing 69th

The Writing 69th was a group of eight American journalists who trained to fly and flew on bomber missions over Germany with the U.S. Eighth Air Force during World War II.

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