Home video is pre-recorded video media that is either sold, rented or streamed for home entertainment. It is a type of home media. The term originates from the VHS/Betamax era, when the predominant medium was videotape, but has carried over into optical disc formats like DVD and Blu-ray and, since the 2000s, into methods of digital distribution such as Netflix, Hulu, and Amazon Video.
The home video business distributes films, telemovies and television series in the form of videos in various formats to the public. These are either bought or rented and then watched privately from the comfort of consumers' homes. Most theatrically released films are now released on digital media, both optical (DVD and Blu-ray) and download-based, replacing the largely obsolete VHS (Video Home System) medium. The VCD format remains popular in Asia, although DVDs are gradually gaining popularity.
Prior to the arrival of home video as a popular medium, most feature films were essentially inaccessible to the public after their original theatrical runs were over. Some very popular films were given occasional theatrical re-releases in urban revival houses and the screening rooms of a handful of archives and museums, and beginning in the 1950s, most could be expected to turn up on television eventually. During this era, it was also the norm that television programs could only be viewed at the time of broadcast. Viewers were accustomed to the fact that there was no normal way to record TV shows at home and watch them whenever desired.
It was possible to purchase a 16 mm or 8 mm film projector and rent or buy home-use prints of some cartoons, short comedies and brief "highlights" reels edited from feature films. In the case of the 16 mm format, most of these were available with an optical soundtrack, and even some entire feature films in 16 mm could be rented or bought. 8 mm films almost never ran longer than ten minutes and only a few were available with a magnetic soundtrack late in the life of the format. The Super 8 film format, introduced in 1965, was marketed for making home movies but it also boosted the popularity of show-at-home films. Eventually, longer, edited-down versions of feature films were issued, increasingly with a magnetic soundtrack and in color. But, these were quite expensive and served only a small niche market of very dedicated or affluent film lovers.
The Betamax and VHS home videocassette formats were introduced in 1975 and 1976 respectively, taking several years and reducing in cost before they started to become a widespread household fixture. Film studios and video distributors assumed that consumers would not want to buy prerecorded videocassettes, just rent them. They also felt that virtually all of the sales would be to video rental stores, setting prices appropriate to this as a business model. Eventually it was realized that many people did want to build their own video libraries as well as rent if the price was right, and found that a title which had sold a few hundred copies at $99 might sell tens or even hundreds of thousands of copies at $19.99 or $9.99.
The first company to duplicate and distribute home video was Magnetic Video in 1977. Magnetic Video was established in 1968 as an audio and video duplication service for professional audio and television corporations in Farmington Hills, Michigan, United States, although Avco's 1972 Cartrivision system preceded Magnetic Vision's expansion into home video by a few years.
Until the mid-1980s feature film theatrical releases such as The Wizard of Oz, Citizen Kane and Casablanca were the mainstay of video marketing and helmed by large studios like Universal, 20th Century Fox and Disney. At that time, not many consumers owned a VCR, and those who did tended to rent rather than buy videos. Toward the end of that decade, a rise of smaller companies began creating special interest videos, also known as "non-theatrical programming" and "alternative programming," and "selling-through" to the consumer.
"Home video is an exciting new area of opportunity for adventuresome publishers willing to produce new programs. Today's limitations within the video marketplace may be gone tomorrow. More people are finding innovative ways to create visually stimulating entertainment and information for the video tape player... Like contemporary book publishing, you can produce and distribute yourself to very narrow markets or seek broad-based distributors for mass-oriented appeal"
Special Interest Video is a huge and steadily increasing venue for products exposing new and old subjects through the medium of camera and tape. It is a new form of publishing, a specialty line of products for vertical "readership" and an exploding territory of subjects, audiences and new uses. Six years ago, dog handling videos, back pain videos and cooking videos were suppositions on a drawing board. Three years ago these took life. Now, along with golf and skiing tapes these S.I. videos are beginning to claim a market share. The wild part of this new video publishing adventure is the wide diversity of support with which each product comes to the market. New technology has changed the territory.
A time period is usually allowed to elapse between the end of theatrical release and the home video release to encourage movie theater patronage and discourage piracy. Home video release dates usually follow five or six months after the theatrical release, although recently more films have been arriving on video after three or four months. Christmas and other holiday-related movies were generally not released on home video until the following year when that holiday was celebrated again, but this practice ended starting with 2015 movies.
Many television programs are now also available in complete seasons on DVD. It has become popular practice for discontinued TV shows to be released to DVD one season at a time every few months and active shows to be released on DVD after the end of each season. Prior to the television DVDs, most television shows were only viewable in syndication, or on limited 'best of' VHS releases of selected episodes. These copyrighted movies and programs generally have legal restrictions on them preventing them from, among other things, being shown in public venues, shown to other people for money or copied for other than fair use purposes (although such ability is limited by some jurisdictions and media formats: see below).
After the passage of the Video Recordings (Labelling) Act of 1985 in the United Kingdom, videotapes and other video recordings without a certification symbol from the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) on their covers - or on the tapes themselves - were no longer allowed to be sold or displayed by rental shops. These tapes are called "Pre-Certs" (e.g., Pre-certification tapes). Recently these tapes have generated a cult following, due to their collectability.
Every year since 2004, the film festival Il Cinema Ritrovato holds the DVD Awards, where they award the highest quality DVDs (and later Blu-rays) released by home media companies around the world.
|Year||Best DVD (later The Peter von Bagh Award)||Company||Best Blu-ray||Company|
|2004||"Pier Paolo Pasolini - Les Années 60"||Carlotta Films||N/A|
|2007||"Ernst Lubitsch Collection"||Transit Film-Murnau Stiftung||N/A|
The Threepenny Opera
The Criterion Collection
|2009||"Joris Ivens Wereldcineast"||European Foundation Joris Ivens||N/A|
|2010||"By Brakhage: An Anthology, Volume Two"||The Criterion Collection||La Rosa di Bagdad [Mention]||Cinecittà Luce|
|2011||"Segundo de Chomón 1903 – 1912"||Filmoteca de Catalunya and Cameo Media s.l.||"America Lost and Found: The BBS Story" [Mention]||The Criterion Collection|
|2012||"The Complete Humphrey Jennings Volume 2: Fires Were Started"||British Film Institute||"A Hollis Frampton Odyssey"||The Criterion Collection|
|2013||Gli ultimi||La Cineteca del Friuli||Lonesome||The Criterion Collection|
|2014||"Džim Švantė (Sol' Svanetii) & Gvozd' v sapoge"||Edition Filmmuseum||Underground||British Film Institute|
|2015||"The House of Mystery (La Maison du mystère)"||Flicker Alley, LLC
The Blackhawk Films Collection
|"The Connection: Project Shirley, Volume One"
"Portrait of Jason: Project Shirley, Volume Two"
"Ornette: Made in America: Project Shirley, Volume 3"
|Milestone Film & Video|
|2016||"Frederick Wiseman Intégrale Vol. 1"||Blaq Out||N/A|
|2017||The Salvation Hunters||Edition Filmmuseum||N/A|
|2018||"Arne Sucksdorff: Samlade Verk"||Studio S Entertainment||N/A|
Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment LLC (formerly Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, Inc., doing business as 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment) is the home video distribution arm of the 20th Century Fox film studio.
Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment was founded in 1995 as the distribution outlet for FoxVideo, CBS/Fox, Fox Kids Video, CBS Video, Fox Interactive, and Magnet Interactive.They serve as a UK distributor for Pathé movies and their film library for home media releases. Fox also distributed Yari Film Group DVD titles in North America.
TCFHE also distributes Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and United Artists titles after MGM ended their home video agreement with Sony Pictures Home Entertainment (Fox's worldwide distribution deal with MGM was to expire in September 2011, but was renewed and extended on April 13, 2011; the deal was then due to expire in 2016, but was again renewed and extended. The deal is now due to expire in June 2020). They also distribute titles from Relativity Media, EuropaCorp U.S.A., Annapurna Pictures and Entertainment One.Fox's best selling DVD titles are currently the various season box sets of The Simpsons. They also once served as the U.S. distributor for television and/or film products released by BBC Video until those North American distribution rights expired in 2000 and have since then been transferred to Warner Home Video. They also distributed HIT Entertainment releases in 2006 until 2008 when video distribution moved to Lionsgate Home Entertainment, then Universal Pictures Home Entertainment, as well as distributing DreamWorks Animation films from 2013 to 2017.
In late 2006, the company began releasing its titles on Blu-ray.Following the Acquisition of 21st Century Fox by The Walt Disney Company, TCFHE now become a label for Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment.A
A (named , plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is similar to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. The uppercase version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lowercase version can be written in two forms: the double-storey a and single-storey ɑ. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is also found in italic type.
In English grammar, "a", and its variant "an", is an indefinite article.Sony Pictures Home Entertainment
Sony Pictures Home Entertainment (abbreviated as SPHE) is the home video distribution division of Sony Pictures Entertainment, a subsidiary of Japanese conglomerate Sony Corporation.The Criterion Collection
The Criterion Collection, Inc. (or simply Criterion) is an American home video distribution company which focuses on licensing "important classic and contemporary films" and selling them to film aficionados. Criterion is noted for helping to standardize a number of new ideas, such as the letterbox format for widescreen films, adding bonus features, commentary tracks, doing film restoration, and releasing special editions for home video.Universal Pictures Home Entertainment
Universal Pictures Home Entertainment (formerly Universal Studios Home Entertainment, Universal Studios Home Video, MCA/Universal Home Video, MCA Home Video, MCA Videodisc Inc. and MCA Videocassette Inc.) is the home video distribution division of American film studio Universal Pictures, owned by the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of NBCUniversal, which is owned by Comcast.Viacom Media Networks
Viacom Media Networks, formerly known as MTV Networks, is an American mass media division of Viacom that oversees the operations of many of its television channels and Internet brands. Its sister international division is Viacom International Media Networks.Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment
Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment (incorporated as Buena Vista Home Entertainment, Inc. since 1997, and formerly known as Walt Disney Telecommunications & Non-Theatrical Company from 1980 to 1987 and eventually Buena Vista Home Video until 1997) is the home video distribution division of The Walt Disney Company. Disney began distributing videos under its own label in 1980 under the name Walt Disney Home Entertainment.Warner Home Video
Warner Home Video is the home video distribution division of Warner Bros., a subsidiary of WarnerMedia. It was founded in 1978 as WCI Home Video (for Warner Communications, Inc.). The company launched in the United States with twenty films on Betamax and VHS videocassettes in late 1979. The company later expanded its line to include additional titles throughout 1979 and 1980.Warner Home Video is a business unit of Warner Bros. Home Entertainment, along with Warner Bros. Digital and Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment.
|Home video ripping|