Home appliance

Home appliances, also known as domestic appliances, are electrical machines which helps in household functions,[1] such as cooking, cleaning or food preservation.

Home appliances can be divided into three classifications, which includes, small appliances, major appliances, or white goods[2] and consumer electronics, or brown goods in the United Kingdom.[3]

The division is noticeable in the maintenance and repair of these kinds of products too. Brown goods usually require high technical knowledge and skills (which get more complex with time, such as going from a soldering iron to a hot-air soldering station), while white goods may need more practical skills and force to manipulate the devices and heavy tools required to repair them.

Home appliance
Breville
Numerous home appliances may be used in kitchens
IndustryFood and Beverages, Health Care
ApplicationKitchens and laundry rooms
WheelsIn some cases
ExamplesRefrigerator, toaster, kettle, microwave, blender

Definition

Given a broad usage, the domestic application attached to "home appliance" is tied to the definition of appliance as "an instrument or device designed for a particular use or function".[4] More specifically, Collins English Dictionary defines "home appliance" as: "devices or machines, usually electrical, that are in your home and which you use to do jobs such as cleaning or cooking."[5] The broad usage, afforded to the definition allows for nearly any device intended for domestic use to be a home appliance, including consumer electronics as well as stoves,[6] refrigerators, toasters[6] and air conditioners.

History

Toaster, Universal, Model E947, c. 1915, Landers, Frary and Clark, New Britain, Connecticut, Wolfsonian-FIU Museum
Early 20th century electric toaster

While many appliances have existed for centuries, the self-contained electric or gas powered appliances are a uniquely American innovation that emerged in the twentieth century. The development of these appliances is tied to the disappearance of full-time domestic servants and the desire to reduce the time-consuming activities in pursuit of more recreational time. In the early 1900s, electric and gas appliances included washing machines, water heaters, refrigerators and sewing machines. The invention of Earl Richardson's small electric clothes iron in 1903 gave a small initial boost to the home appliance industry. In the Post–World War II economic expansion, the domestic use of dishwashers, and clothes dryers were part of a shift for convenience. Increasing discretionary income was reflected by a rise in miscellaneous home appliances.[7][8]

In America during the 1980s, the industry shipped $1.5 billion worth of goods each year and employed over 14,000 workers, with revenues doubling between 1982 and 1990 to $3.3 billion. Throughout this period companies merged and acquired one another to reduce research and production costs and eliminate competitors, resulting in anti-trust legislation.

The United States Department of Energy reviews compliance with the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987, which required manufacturers to reduce the energy consumption of the appliances by 25% every five years.[7]

In the 1990s, the appliance industry was very consolidated, with over 90% of the products being sold by just five companies. For example, in 1991, dishwasher manufacturing market share was split between General Electric with 40% market share, Whirlpool with 31% market share, Electrolux with 20% market share, Maytag with 7% market share and Thermador with just 2% of market share.[7]

Major appliances

Wascator
Swedish washing machine, 1950s

Major appliances, also known as white goods, comprise major household appliances and may include: air conditioners,[9] dishwashers,[9] clothes dryers, drying cabinets, freezers, refrigerators,[9] kitchen stoves, water heaters,[9] washing machines,[9] trash compactors, microwave ovens, and induction cookers. White goods were typically painted or enameled white, and many of them still are.[10]

Small appliances

Small appliances are typically small household electrical machines, also very useful and easily carried and installed. Yet another category is used in the kitchen, including: juicers, electric mixers,[11][11] meat grinders, coffee grinders, deep fryers,[11] herb grinders, food processors,[11][12] electric kettles, waffle irons, coffee makers, blenders[12] and dough blenders, rice cookers,[6] toasters and exhaust hoods.

Entertainment and information appliances such as: home electronics,[9] TV sets,[6] CD, VCRs and DVD players,[6] camcorders, still cameras, clocks, alarm clocks, computers, video game consoles, HiFi and home cinema, telephones and answering machines are classified as "brown goods". Some such appliances were traditionally finished with genuine or imitation wood, hence the name. This has become rare but the name has stuck, even for goods that are unlikely ever to have had a wooden case (e.g. camcorders).

銅鑼灣店小家電部

The small appliance department at a store

Life spans

See Life spans of home appliances

Networking of home appliances

There is a trend of networking home appliances together, and combining their controls and key functions.[13] For instance, energy distribution could be managed more evenly so that when a washing machine is on, an oven can go into a delayed start mode, or vice versa. Or, a washing machine and clothes dryer could share information about load characteristics (gentle/normal, light/full), and synchronize their finish times so the wet laundry does not have to wait before being put in the dryer.

Additionally, some manufacturers of home appliances are quickly beginning to place hardware that enables Internet connectivity in home appliances to allow for remote control, automation, communication with other home appliances, and more functionality enabling connected cooking.[13][14][15][16] Internet-connected home appliances were especially prevalent during recent Consumer Electronic Show events.[17]

Recycling

Low9AppliancePiles2 (1)
New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: mounds of trashed appliances with a few smashed automobiles mixed in, waiting to be scrapped

Appliance recycling consists of dismantling waste home appliances and scrapping their parts for reuse. The main types of appliances that are recycled are T.V.s, refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, and computers. It involves disassembly, removal of hazardous components and destruction of the equipment to recover materials, generally by shredding, sorting and grading.[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ "appliance (definition)". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  2. ^ "white goods". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  3. ^ "brown goods". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  4. ^ "Appliance". Merriam Webster. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  5. ^ "Definition of household appliances". Collins Dictionary. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d e Bulletin, Manila (9 November 2014). "Tips to ensure safety of home appliances". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  7. ^ a b c Encyclopedia of American Industries Volume 1. Gale Research. 1994.
  8. ^ William George (2003). Antique Electric Waffle Irons 1900-1960: A History of the Appliance Industry in 20th Century America. Trafford Publishing. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-55395-632-7.
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Efficient Appliances Save Energy -- and Money". Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  10. ^ "White Goods". www.icfdc.com. Data monitor, Static.scrib. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  11. ^ a b c d Jubis, Vanessa (23 December 2012). "Unclutter Your Life: Clearing the Kitchen Counter of Unnecessary Small Appliances". Huffington Post. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  12. ^ a b "Best Small Appliances - Small Appliance Reviews". Consumer Reports. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  13. ^ a b Michelle, Bangert (1 September 2014). "Getting Smarter All the Time: The Appliance Landscape Continues to Evolve with the Rise of Internet-Connected Devices". Appliance Design. BNP Media. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015 – via HighBeam. (Subscription required (help)).
  14. ^ Essers, Loek. "Home appliance makers connect with open source 'Internet of things' project". Computerworld. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  15. ^ Baguley, Richard; McDonald, Colin. "Appliance Science: The Internet of Toasters (and other things)". CNET. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  16. ^ Hitchcox, Alan (February 2015). "The Internet of uncertainty". Hydraulics & Pneumatics. 68 (2): 8.
  17. ^ "Appliances of the Future Will Be Able to 'Talk' over Internet". The Mercury. 15 January 2015. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015 – via HighBeam. (Subscription required (help)).
  18. ^ Buekens, A.; Yang, J. (2014). "Recycling of WEEE plastics: A review". The Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 16 (3): 415–434. doi:10.1007/s10163-014-0241-2.

Further reading

External links

BSH Hausgeräte

BSH Hausgeräte GmbH (or BSH Home Appliances) is the largest manufacturer of home appliances in Europe and one of the leading companies in the sector worldwide. The group stemmed from a joint venture set up in 1967 between Robert Bosch GmbH (Stuttgart) and Siemens AG (Munich) and posted annual sales of 13.8 billion euros in the year 2017. Today, BSH operates some 40 factories worldwide. Together with a global network of sales and customer service firms, the BSH conglomerate today is made up of about 80 companies in 50 countries, with a total workforce of more than 61,800 people. In September 2014, Robert Bosch GmbH agreed to purchase Siemens' 50% stake in the joint venture for 3 billion euros.The BSH product range includes large home appliances for cooking, dish-washing, laundry (washing and drying), refrigeration and freezing, as well as a multitude of small appliances, such as fully automatic espresso machines, floor care and hot water appliances (consumer products).

Beko

Beko (sometimes stylized as beko) is a Turkish domestic appliance and consumer electronics brand of Arçelik A.Ş. controlled by Koç Holding.

Cuisinart

Cuisinart is an American home appliance brand owned by Conair Corporation. The company was started in 1971 by Carl Sontheimer to bring an electric food processor to the US market. The "Food Processor" was the first model, introduced at a food show in Chicago in 1973. Cuisinart became the property of Conair Corporation in 1989.

Electrolux

Electrolux AB (commonly known as Electrolux, Swedish: [ɛ²lɛkːtrʊˌlɵks]) is a Swedish multinational home appliance manufacturer, headquartered in Stockholm. It is consistently ranked the world's second largest appliance maker by units sold after Whirlpool.Electrolux products sell under a variety of brand names (including its own), and are primarily major appliances and vacuum cleaners intended for consumer use. The company also makes appliances for professional use. Electrolux has a primary listing on the Stockholm Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the OMX Stockholm 30 index.

Frigidaire

Frigidaire is the US consumer and commercial home appliances brand subsidiary of European parent company Electrolux. Frigidaire was founded as the Guardian Frigerator Company in Fort Wayne, Indiana, and developed the first self-contained refrigerator (invented by Nathaniel B. Wales and Alfred Mellowes) in 1916. In 1918, William C. Durant, a founder of General Motors, personally invested in the company and in 1919, it adopted the name Frigidaire. The brand was so well known in the refrigeration field in the early-to-mid-1900s that many Americans called any refrigerator (of whatever brand) a Frigidaire. The name Frigidaire or its antecedent Frigerator may be the origin of the widely used English word fridge, although more likely simply an abbreviation of refrigerator which is a word known to have been used as early as 1611.From 1919 to 1979, the company was owned by General Motors. During that period, it was first a subsidiary of Delco-Light and was later an independent division based in Dayton, Ohio. The division also manufactured the compressors for GM's cars that were equipped with air conditioning.

Frigidaire was sold to the White Sewing Machine Company in 1979, which in 1986 was purchased by Electrolux, its current parent.

While the company was owned by General Motors, its logo featured the phrase "Product of General Motors", and later renamed to "Home Environment Division of General Motors".

The company claims firsts including:

Electric self-contained refrigerator (September, 1918 in Detroit)

Home food freezer

Room air conditioner

30" electric range

Coordinated colors for home appliances

Gaggenau Hausgeräte

Gaggenau Hausgeräte (en: Gaggenau Home Appliances) is a German manufacturer of high-end home appliances. The company won at the 2008 IF Design Awards in every category in which it had nominations.

Gree Electric

Gree Electric Appliances Inc. of Zhuhai is a Chinese major appliance manufacturer headquartered in Zhuhai, Guangdong province. It is the world's largest residential air-conditioner manufacturer. The Company offers two types of air conditioner: household air conditioners and commercial air conditioners. The Company also provides electric fans, water dispensers, heaters, rice cookers, air purifiers, water kettles, humidifiers and induction cookers, among others. The Company distributes its products within China’s domestic market and to overseas markets under the brand name of Gree.

Hotpoint

The Hotpoint Electric Heating Company (generally known simply as Hotpoint) is an American and European brand of domestic appliances. Ownership of the brand is split between the American company Whirlpool, which has European rights, and Chinese company Haier, which has North American rights since its purchase of GE Appliances.

Indesit Company

Indesit Company (; Italian pronunciation: [ˈindezit]) is an Italian company based in Fabriano, Ancona province. It is one of the leading European manufacturers and distributors of major domestic appliances (washing machines, dryers, dishwashers, fridges, freezers, cookers, hoods, ovens and hobs). It claims to be the undisputed leader in major markets such as Italy, the UK and Russia. Founded in 1975 and listed on the Milan stock exchange since 1987, the Group posted sales of €2.7 billion in 2013. It has eight industrial areas (in Italy, Poland, the UK, Russia and Turkey) and 16,000 employees. The Group’s main brands are Indesit, Hotpoint and Scholtès.

LG Electronics

LG Electronics Inc. (Hangul: LG 전자; RR: LG Jeonja) is a South Korean multinational electronics company headquartered in Yeouido-dong, Seoul, South Korea, and is part of LG Corporation, employing 82,000 people working in 119 local subsidiaries worldwide. With 2014 global sales of USD 55.91 billion (KRW 59.04 trillion), LG comprises four business units: Home Entertainment, Mobile Communications, Home Appliances & Air Solutions, and Vehicle Components, with Starion India as its main production vendor for refrigeration and washing machines in the Indian sub-continent. The CEO of LG Electronics is Koo Bon-joon, who assumed the role of vice chairman of LG Electronics on 1 October 2010.

Since 2008, LG Electronics remains the world's second-largest television manufacturer.

Medion

Medion AG is a German consumer electronics company owned by Lenovo. The company operates in Europe, the United States, and the Asia-Pacific region. The company's main products are computers and notebooks, but also smartphones, tablet computers, digital cameras, TVs, refrigerators, toasters, and fitness equipment.

Midea Group

Midea Group (Chinese: 美的集团; pinyin: Měidì Jítuán;SZSE: 000333) is a Chinese electrical appliance manufacturer, headquartered in Beijiao, Shunde, Foshan, Guangdong and listed on Shenzhen Stock Exchange. As of 2018, the firm employs approximately 135,000 people in China and overseas with 200 subsidiaries and over 60 overseas branches. Midea Group is listed on Shenzhen Stock Exchange since 2013. It has been listed on the Fortune Global 500 since July 2016. Midea produces wide ranges of lighting, water appliances, floor care, small kitchen appliances, laundry, large cooking appliances, and refrigeration appliances. It also has a long history in producing home and commercial solutions in air conditioning and heating (HVAC). In the summer of 2016, Midea made a highly publicized move to acquire German robotics company KUKA. It is the world's largest producer of robots and appliances.

Neff GmbH

NEFF GmbH is a German manufacturer of high-end kitchen appliances headquartered in Munich, Germany. The company was founded by Carl Andreas Neff in 1877 and has been a wholly owned subsidiary of BSH Hausgeräte GmbH since 1982.

Robert Bosch GmbH

Robert Bosch GmbH (; German: [bɔʃ] (listen)), or Bosch, is a large multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. The company was founded by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart in 1886. Bosch is 92% owned by Robert Bosch Stiftung.Bosch's core operating areas are spread across four business sectors; mobility solutions (hardware and software solutions), consumer goods (including household appliances and power tools), industrial technology (including drive and control) and energy and building technology.

Saeco

Saeco was also the name of a road bicycle racing team sponsored by the company.Philips Saeco S.p.A., or short Saeco, is an Italian manufacturer of manual, super-automatic and capsule espresso machines and other electrical goods with headquarters and factories in Bologna.

Tiger Corporation

Tiger Corporation (Japanese: タイガー魔法瓶株式会社, translit. Taigā Mahōbin Kabushiki Gaisha, lit. 'Tiger Vacuum Flask [Magic-jar] Corporation') is a Japanese multinational manufacturer and marketer of vacuum flasks and consumer electronics including electric kettles, hot water dispensers, electric water boilers and rice cookers. It has subsidiaries in China, Taiwan, and the United States.

Vestel

Vestel is a Turkish home and professional appliances manufacturing company consisting of 18 companies specialised in electronics, major appliances and information technology. Vestel's headquarters and production plant are located in Manisa, while the company's parent conglomerate is the Istanbul based Zorlu Holding.

Vestel, together with its subsidiary brands has a significant share in the European market of consumer electronics and home appliances, in particular TV sets. As of 2006, Vestel was the largest TV producer in Europe with more than 8 million units sold, accounting for a quarter of the European market. Vestel also has a subsidiary brand Vestfrost, used for white goods sold in the Nordic countries. In 2014, Vestel entered the smartphone market.

Zanussi

Zanussi (Italian: [ˈdzanus.si]) is an Italian producer of home appliances that was bought by Electrolux in 1984. Zanussi has been exporting products from Italy since 1946.

Zojirushi Corporation

The Zojirushi Corporation (象印マホービン株式会社, Zōjirushi Mahōbin Kabushiki-gaisha) is a Japanese multinational manufacturer and marketer of vacuum flasks, Beverage Dispensers, and consumer electronics including bread machines, electric kettles, hot water dispensers, electric water boilers and rice cookers. It has a branch in South Korea and subsidiary companies in Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, and the United States. Zojirushi is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange.The company was founded in 1918 as the Ichikawa Brothers Trading Company in Osaka and in 1948 was changed to Kyowa Manufacturing Co., Ltd. In 1961, its name was changed again to the Zojirushi Corporation and its corporate logo, including an elephant (Zōjirushi means "elephant mark"), was adopted.

Home appliancees
Types
See also

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