Home Secretary

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office. It is a British Cabinet level position.

The Home Secretary is responsible for the internal affairs of England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the United Kingdom. The remit of the Home Office also includes policing in England and Wales and matters of national security, as the Security Service (MI5) is directly accountable to the Home Secretary.[1] Formerly, the Home Secretary was the minister responsible for prisons and probation in England and Wales; however in 2007 those responsibilities were transferred to the newly created Ministry of Justice under the Lord Chancellor. A high profile position, it is widely recognised as one of the most prestigious and important roles in the British Cabinet.

The position of Home Secretary has been held by Sajid Javid since 30 April 2018.[2]

Secretary of State for the Home Department
Royal Arms of the United Kingdom (Crown & Garter)
Sajid Javid full portrait
Incumbent
Sajid Javid

since 30 April 2018
Home Office
StyleHome Secretary
(informal)
The Right Honourable
(within the UK and the Commonwealth)
Member ofCabinet
Privy Council
National Security Council
Reports toPrime Minister of the United Kingdom
SeatWestminster
AppointerThe Monarch
on advice of the Prime Minister
Term lengthAt Her Majesty's pleasure
Formation27 March 1782
First holderEarl of Shelburne
DeputyMinister of State for Immigration
Websitewww.gov.uk

List of Home Secretaries

Secretary of State for the Home Department[1]
Portrait Name[3]
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Ministry Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne by JL Mosnier crop The Right Honourable
William Petty
2nd Earl of Shelburne
KGPC

(1737–1805)
27 March
1782
10 July
1782
Whig Rockingham II George III
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg
(1760–1820)
[1782 1]
[4]
Viscount Sydney by Gilbert Stuart The Right Honourable
Thomas Townsend

MP for Whitchurch
(1733–1800)
10 July
1782
2 April
1783
Whig Shelburne
(WhigTory)
[4]
Nathaniel Dance Lord North cropped cropped The Right Honourable
Frederick North
Lord North
KG

MP for Banbury
(1732–1792)
2 April
1783
19 December
1783
Tory Fox–North [4]
1stMarquessOfBuckingham The Right Honourable
George Nugent-Temple-Grenville
3rd Earl Temple
PC

(1753–1813)
19 December
1783
23 December
1783
Tory Pitt I [5]
Viscount Sydney by Gilbert Stuart The Right Honourable
Thomas Townsend
1st Baron Sydney
PC

(1733–1800)
23 December
1783
5 June
1789
Whig [4]
1st Baron Grenville-cropped The Right Honourable
William Grenville
1st Baron Grenville
PCPC (Ire)

MP for Buckinghamshire[1782 2]
(1759–1834)
5 June
1789
8 June
1791
Tory [4]
1stViscountMelville2 The Right Honourable
Henry Dundas

MP for Edinburgh
(1742–1811)
8 June
1791
11 July
1794
Tory [4]
3rd Duke of Portland 1804 cropped His Grace
William Cavendish-Bentinck
3rd Duke of Portland
KGPCFRS

(1738–1809)
11 July
1794
30 July
1801
Tory [4]
Addington
2ndEarlOfChichester The Right Honourable
Thomas Pelham
4th Baron Pelham of Stanmer
PCPC (Ire)FRS

(1756–1826)
30 July
1801
17 August
1803
Whig [4]
CP Yorke by George Romney The Right Honourable
Charles Philip Yorke
FRSFSA

MP for Cambridgeshire
(1764–1834)
17 August
1803
12 May
1804
Tory [4]
Earl jenkinson The Right Honourable
Robert Jenkinson
2nd Baron Hawkesbury
PCFRS

(1770–1828)
12 May
1804
5 February
1806
Tory Pitt II [4]
George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer The Right Honourable
George Spencer
2nd Earl Spencer
KGPCDLFRSFSA

(1758–1834)
5 February
1806
25 March
1807
Whig All the Talents
(WhigTory)
[4]
Earl jenkinson The Right Honourable
Robert Jenkinson
2nd Earl of Liverpool
PCFRS

(1770–1828)
25 March
1807
1 November
1809
Tory Portland II [4]
No image The Right Honourable
Richard Ryder

MP for Tiverton
(1766–1832)
1 November
1809
8 June
1812
Tory Perceval [4]
Henry Addington by Beechey The Right Honourable
Henry Addington
1st Viscount Sidmouth
PC

(1757–1844)
11 June
1812
17 January
1822
Tory Liverpool [4]
George IV
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
(1820–1830)
Robert Peel by RR Scanlan detail The Right Honourable
Robert Peel
FRS

MP for Oxford University
(1788–1850)
17 January
1822
10 April
1827
Tory [4]
No image The Right Honourable
William Sturges Bourne

MP for Ashburton
(1769–1845)
30 April
1827
16 July
1827
Tory Canning
(CanningiteWhig)
[4]
Lord Henry Petty The Most Honourable
Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice
3rd Marquess of Lansdowne
PCFRS

(1780–1863)
16 July
1827
22 January
1828
Whig [4]
Goderich
Robert Peel by RR Scanlan detail The Right Honourable
Sir Robert Peel
BtFRS

MP for 3 constituencies respectively
(1788–1850)
26 January
1828
22 November
1830
Tory Wellington–Peel [4]
William IV
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
(1830–1837)
2nd V Melbourne The Right Honourable
William Lamb
2nd Viscount Melbourne
PC

(1779–1848)
22 November
1830
16 July
1834
Whig Grey [4]
Bessborough4 The Right Honourable
John Ponsonby
1st Baron Duncannon
PC

(1781–1847)
19 July
1834
15 November
1834
Whig Melbourne I [4]
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington by John Jackson cropped Field MarshalHis Grace
Arthur Wellesley
1st Duke of Wellington
KGGCBGCHPC

(1769–1852)
15 November
1834
15 December
1834
Tory Wellington Caretaker [4]
HenryGoulburn The Right Honourable
Henry Goulburn
FRS

MP for Cambridge University
(1784–1856)
15 December
1834
18 April
1835
Conservative Peel I [4]
Lord john russell The Right Honourable
Lord John Russell

MP for Stroud
(1792–1878)
18 April
1835
30 August
1839
Whig Melbourne II [5]
Victoria
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1837–1901)
Constantine Henry Phipps, 1st Marquess of Normanby by John Jackson The Most Honourable
Constantine Phipps
1st Marquess of Normanby
GCHPC

(1797–1863)
30 August
1839
30 August
1841
Whig [5]
Sir James Graham 2nd Bart First Lord Admiralty The Right Honourable
Sir James Graham
Bt

MP for Dorchester
(1792–1861)
6 September
1841
30 June
1846
Conservative Peel II [5]
Sir George Grey, 2nd Bt The Right Honourable
Sir George Grey
Bt

8 July
1846
23 February
1852
Whig Russell I [5]
Spencer Horatio Walpole The Right Honourable
Spencer Horatio Walpole
QC

MP for Midhurst
(1806–1898)
27 February
1852
19 December
1852
Conservative Who? Who? [5]
Lord Palmerston 1855 The Right Honourable
Henry John Temple
3rd Viscount Palmerston
GCBPCFRS

MP for Tiverton
(1784–1865)
28 December
1852
6 February
1855
Whig Aberdeen
(PeeliteWhig)
[5]
Sir George Grey, 2nd Bt The Right Honourable
Sir George Grey
Bt

MP for Morpeth
(1799–1882)
8 February
1855
26 February
1858
Whig Palmerston I [5]
Spencer Horatio Walpole The Right Honourable
Spencer Horatio Walpole
QC

MP for Cambridge University
(1806–1898)
26 February
1858
3 March
1859
Conservative Derby–Disraeli II [5]
Thomas Henry Sutton Sotheron Estcourt Grant The Right Honourable
Thomas Henry Sutton Sotheron-Estcourt
DLJP

MP for North Wiltshire
(1801–1876)
3 March
1859
18 June
1859
Conservative [5]
Sir George Cornewall Lewis, 2nd Bt The Right Honourable
Sir George Cornewall Lewis
Bt

MP for Radnor
(1806–1863)
18 June
1859
25 July
1861
Liberal Palmerston II [5]
Sir George Grey, 2nd Bt The Right Honourable
Sir George Grey
Bt

MP for Morpeth
(1799–1882)
25 July
1861
28 June
1866
Liberal [5]
Russell II
Spencer Horatio Walpole The Right Honourable
Spencer Horatio Walpole
QC

MP for Cambridge University
(1806–1898)
6 July
1866
17 May
1867
Conservative Derby–Disraeli III [5]
1st Earl of Cranbrook The Right Honourable
Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy

MP for Oxford University
(1814–1906)
17 May
1867
3 December
1868
Conservative [5]
Henry Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare NPG The Right Honourable
Henry Bruce
JPDL

(1815–1895)
9 December
1868
9 August
1873
Liberal Gladstone I [5]
Robert Lowe, 1st Viscount Sherbrooke by George Frederic Watts The Right Honourable
Robert Lowe

MP for London University
(1811–1892)
9 August
1873
20 February
1874
Liberal [5]
Portrait of Richard Assheton Cross, 1st Viscount Cross The Right Honourable
R. A. Cross
GCBFRSDL

MP for South West Lancashire
(1823–1914)
21 February
1874
23 April
1880
Conservative Disraeli II [5]
Sir William Harcourt The Right Honourable
Sir William Harcourt
QC

MP for Derby
(1827–1904)
28 April
1880
23 June
1885
Liberal Gladstone II [5]
Portrait of Richard Assheton Cross, 1st Viscount Cross The Right Honourable
R. A. Cross
GCBFRSDL

MP for Newton
(1823–1914)
24 June
1885
1 February
1886
Conservative Salisbury I [5]
Hugh Childers, Lock & Whitfield woodburytype, 1876-83 crop The Right Honourable
Hugh Childers

MP for Edinburgh South
(1827–1896)
6 February
1886
25 July
1886
Liberal Gladstone III [5]
Henrymatthews The Right Honourable
Henry Matthews
QC

MP for Birmingham East
(1826–1913)
3 August
1886
15 August
1892
Conservative Salisbury II [5]
Portrait of Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith The Right Honourable
H. H. Asquith
QC

MP for East Fife
(1852–1928)
18 August
1892
25 June
1895
Liberal Gladstone IV [5]
Rosebery
Matthew White Ridley sketch The Right Honourable
Sir Matthew White Ridley
BtDL

MP for Blackpool
(1842–1904)
29 June
1895
12 November
1900
Conservative Salisbury
(III & IV)

(Con.Lib.U.)
[5]
Charles Thomson Ritchie headshot The Right Honourable
Charles Ritchie

MP for Croydon
(1838–1906)
12 November
1900
11 August
1902
Conservative [5]
Edward VII
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1901–1910)
Balfour
Akers-Douglas crop The Right Honourable
Aretas Akers-Douglas
JPDL

MP for St Augustine's
(1851–1926)
11 August
1902
5 December
1905
Conservative [5]
Herbert John Gladstone The Right Honourable
Herbert Gladstone
JP

MP for Leeds West
(1854–1930)
11 December
1905
19 February
1910
Liberal Campbell-Bannerman [5]
Asquith
(I–III)
Churchill 1904 Q 42037 The Right Honourable
Winston Churchill

MP for Dundee
(1874–1965)
19 February
1910
24 October
1911
Liberal [5]
George V
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1910–1936)
Reginald McKenna photo The Right Honourable
Reginald McKenna

MP for North Monmouthshire
(1863–1943)
24 October
1911
27 May
1915
Liberal [5]
Portrait of John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon The Right Honourable
Sir John Simon

MP for Walthamstow
(1873–1954)
27 May
1915
12 January
1916
Liberal Asquith Coalition
(Lib.Con.–et al.)
[5]
Herbert Samuel The Right Honourable
Herbert Samuel

MP for Cleveland
(1870–1963)
12 January
1916
7 December
1916
Liberal [5]
George Cave 1911 The Right Honourable
George Cave
1st Viscount Cave
PC

MP for Kingston[1782 5]
(1856–1928)
11 December
1916
14 January
1919
Conservative Lloyd George
(I & II)
[5]
Edward Shortt The Right Honourable
Edward Shortt
KC

MP for Newcastle upon Tyne West
(1862–1935)
14 January
1919
23 October
1922
Liberal [5]
William Bridgeman The Right Honourable
William Bridgeman
JPDL

MP for Oswestry
(1864–1935)
25 October
1922
22 January
1924
Conservative Law [5]
Baldwin I
1910 Arthur Henderson The Right Honourable
Arthur Henderson

MP for Burnley[1782 6]
(1863–1935)
23 January
1924
4 November
1924
Labour MacDonald I [5]
1st Viscount Brentford 1923 The Right Honourable
Sir William Joynson-Hicks
BtPC (NI)DL

MP for Twickenham
(1865–1932)
7 November
1924
5 June
1929
Conservative Baldwin II [5]
J R Clynes The Right Honourable
John Robert Clynes

MP for Manchester Platting
(1869–1949)
8 June
1929
26 August
1931
Labour MacDonald II [5]
Herbert Samuel The Right Honourable
Herbert Samuel
GCBGBE

MP for Darwen
(1870–1963)
26 August
1931
1 October
1932
Liberal National I
(N.Lab.Con.–et al.)
[5]
National II
Sir John Gilmour The Right Honourable
Sir John Gilmour
BtDSOTDJPDL

MP for Glasgow Pollok
(1876–1940)
1 October
1932
7 June
1935
Unionist [5]
Portrait of John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon The Right Honourable
Sir John Simon
GCSIGCVOOBE

MP for Spen Valley
(1873–1954)
7 June
1935
28 May
1937
Liberal National National III
(Con.N.Lab.–et al.)
[5]
Edward VIII
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1936)
George VI
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1936–1952)
Sir Samuel Hoare GGBain The Right Honourable
Sir Samuel Hoare
BtGCSIGBECMGJP

MP for Chelsea
(1880–1959)
28 May
1937
3 September
1939
Conservative National IV [5]
John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley 1947 The Right Honourable
Sir John Anderson
GCBGCSIGCIEPC (Ire)

MP for Combined Scottish Universities
(1882–1958)
4 September
1939
4 October
1940
Independent
(National)
Chamberlain War [5]
Churchill War
(All parties)
Herbert Morrison 1947 The Right Honourable
Herbert Morrison

MP for Hackney South
(1888–1965)
4 October
1940
23 May
1945
Labour [5]
Donaldsomervell The Right Honourable
Sir Donald Somervell
KC

MP for Crewe
(1889–1960)
25 May
1945
26 July
1945
Conservative Churchill Caretaker
(Con.Lib.N.)
[5]
James Chuter Ede (minister van Binnenlandse Zaken (Home Secretary)), Bestanddeelnr 900-7223 The Right Honourable
James Chuter Ede
JPDL

MP for South Shields
(1882–1965)
3 August
1945
26 October
1951
Labour Attlee
(I & II)
[5]
David Maxwell Fyfe The Right Honourable
Sir David Maxwell Fyfe
GCVOQC

MP for Liverpool West Derby
(1900–1967)
27 October
1951
19 October
1954
Conservative Churchill III [5]
Elizabeth II
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
(1952–present)
Gwilym Lloyd George 1922 The Right Honourable
Gwilym Lloyd George
TD

MP for Newcastle upon Tyne North
(1894–1967)
19 October
1954
14 January
1957
National Liberal
&
Conservative
[5]
Eden
The Right Honourable
Richard Austen Butler
CH

MP for Saffron Walden
(1902–1982)
14 January
1957
13 July
1962
Conservative Macmillan
(I & II)
[5]
No image The Right Honourable
Henry Brooke

MP for Hampstead
(1903–1984)
14 July
1962
16 October
1964
Conservative [5]
Douglas-Home
No image The Right Honourable
Sir Frank Soskice
QC

MP for Newport
(1902–1979)
18 October
1964
23 December
1965
Labour Wilson
(I & II)
[5]
Roy Jenkins 1977b The Right Honourable
Roy Jenkins

MP for Birmingham Stechford
(1920–2003)
23 December
1965
30 November
1967
Labour [5]
James Callaghan The Right Honourable
James Callaghan

MP for Cardiff South East
(1912–2005)
30 November
1967
19 June
1970
Labour [5]
Reginald Maudling The Right Honourable
Reginald Maudling

MP for Barnet
(1917–1979)
20 June
1970
18 July
1972
Conservative Heath [5]
Robert Carr2 The Right Honourable
Robert Carr

MP for Carshalton
(1916–2012)
18 July
1972
4 March
1974
Conservative [5]
Roy Jenkins 1977b The Right Honourable
Roy Jenkins

MP for Birmingham Stechford
(1920–2003)
5 March
1974
10 September
1976
Labour Wilson
(III & IV)
[5]
Callaghan
Merlyn Rees appearing on "After Dark", 16 July 1988 The Right Honourable
Merlyn Rees

MP for Leeds South
(1920–2006)
10 September
1976
4 May
1979
Labour [5]
No image The Right Honourable
William Whitelaw
CHMCDL

MP for Penrith and The Border
(1918–1999)
4 May
1979
11 June
1983
Conservative Thatcher I [5]
Lord Brittan 2011 The Right Honourable
Leon Brittan
QC

MP for Richmond (Yorks)
(1939–2015)
11 June
1983
2 September
1985
Conservative Thatcher II [5]
Lord Hurd (cropped) The Right Honourable
Douglas Hurd
CBE

MP for Witney
(born 1930)
2 September
1985
26 October
1989
Conservative [5]
Thatcher III
No image The Right Honourable
David Waddington
QCDL

MP for Ribble Valley
(1929–2017)
26 October
1989
28 November
1990
Conservative [5]
Official portrait of Lord Baker of Dorking crop 2 The Right Honourable
Kenneth Baker

MP for Mole Valley
(born 1934)
28 November
1990
10 April
1992
Conservative Major I [5]
Official portrait of Mr Kenneth Clarke crop 2 The Right Honourable
Kenneth Clarke
QC

MP for Rushcliffe
(born 1940)
10 April
1992
27 May
1993
Conservative Major II [5]
Official portrait of Lord Howard of Lympne crop 2 The Right Honourable
Michael Howard
QC

MP for Folkestone and Hythe
(born 1941)
27 May
1993
2 May
1997
Conservative [5]
Jack Straw 2 The Right Honourable
Jack Straw

MP for Blackburn
(born 1946)
2 May
1997
8 June
2001
Labour Blair
(I–III)
[5]
David Blunkett -8April2010 The Right Honourable
David Blunkett

MP for Sheffield Brightside
(born 1947)
8 June
2001
15 December
2004
Labour [5]
CharlesClarke2014 The Right Honourable
Charles Clarke

MP for Norwich South
(born 1950)
15 December
2004
5 May
2006
Labour [5]
JohnReidHeadshot The Right Honourable
John Reid

MP for Airdrie and Shotts
(born 1947)
5 May
2006
27 June
2007
Labour [6]
Smith, Jacqui (crop) The Right Honourable
Jacqui Smith

MP for Redditch
(born 1962)
28 June
2007
5 June
2009
Labour Brown [7]
Alan Johnson MP The Right Honourable
Alan Johnson

MP for Hull West and Hessle
(born 1950)
5 June
2009
11 May
2010
Labour [8]
Theresa May 2015 (cropped) The Right Honourable
Theresa May

MP for Maidenhead
(born 1956)
12 May
2010
13 July
2016
Conservative Cameron–Clegg
(Con.L.D.)
[9]
Cameron II
Official portrait of Amber Rudd crop 2 The Right Honourable
Amber Rudd

MP for Hastings and Rye
(born 1963)
13 July
2016
29 April
2018
Conservative May I [10]
May II
Official portrait of Sajid Javid MP The Right Honourable
Sajid Javid

MP for Bromsgrove
(born 1969)
30 April
2018
Incumbent Conservative [11]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Secretary of State for the Home Department". gov.uk. Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  2. ^ "Sajid Javid replaces Amber Rudd as home secretary". BBC News. 30 April 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  3. ^ Including honorifics and constituencies for elected MPs.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Gibson 2008.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm "Home Secretary". Hansard. Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  6. ^ "Clarke is fired in Cabinet purge". BBC News. 5 May 2006. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  7. ^ "First female boss for Home Office". BBC News. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  8. ^ "Hutton quits in cabinet reshuffle". BBC News. 5 June 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  9. ^ "Cameron coalition: Theresa May made home secretary". BBC News. 12 May 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  10. ^ "Theresa May shakes up government with new-look cabinet". BBC News. 14 July 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  11. ^ "Sajid Javid announced as new Home Secretary after Amber Rudd's resignation". Sky News. Retrieved 30 April 2018.

References

  1. ^ The Prince of Wales served as Prince Regent from 5 February 1811.
  2. ^ Elevated to the Peerage of Great Britain in 1790.
  3. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the 1847 general election.
  4. ^ Lost seat in the 1868 general election and elected to a new constituency in the Renfrewshire by-election.
  5. ^ Elevated to the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1918.
  6. ^ Elected on 28 February 1924 in the Burnley by-election.

External links

Amber Rudd

Amber Augusta Rudd (born 1 August 1963) is a British politician serving as Secretary of State for Work and Pensions since 16 November 2018. A member of the Conservative Party, she served as Home Secretary from July 2016 to April 2018. Rudd was first elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Hastings and Rye in 2010. She identifies herself as a one-nation conservative, and has been associated with both economically liberal and socially liberal policies. Rudd was born in Marylebone and studied History at the University of Edinburgh School of History, Classics and Archaeology. She was first elected to the House of Commons for Hastings and Rye, in East Sussex in 2010 after defeating incumbent Labour MP Michael Foster. Rudd served in the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change from 2015 to 2016 in the Cameron Government, where she spearheaded the need for renewable energy resources and climate change mitigation. She previously served as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, deputising for Ed Davey at the Department for Energy and Climate Change from 2014 to 2015.

She was appointed Home Secretary in the May Government on 13 July 2016, and given the additional role of Minister for Women and Equalities in January 2018. Rudd was the third female Home Secretary, the fifth woman to hold one of the Great Offices of State and the fastest-rising politician to a Great Office of State since the Second World War. Rudd resigned as Home Secretary in April 2018 in connection with the Windrush deportation scandal.On 16 November 2018, Rudd was appointed Secretary of State for Work and Pensions by Prime Minister Theresa May, succeeding Esther McVey.

Charles Clarke

Charles Rodway Clarke (born 21 September 1950) is an English Labour Party politician, who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Norwich South from 1997 until 2010, and served as Home Secretary from December 2004 until May 2006.

David Blunkett

David Blunkett, Baron Blunkett, (born 6 June 1947) is a former British politician, having represented the Sheffield Brightside and Hillsborough constituency for 28 years through to 7 May 2015 when he stepped down at the general election. Blind since birth, and coming from a poor family in one of Sheffield's most deprived districts, he rose to become Education and Employment Secretary, Home Secretary and Work and Pensions Secretary in Tony Blair's Cabinet following Labour's victory in the 1997 general election.

After the 2001 general election he was promoted to Home Secretary, a position he held until 2004, when he resigned following publicity about his personal life. After the 2005 general election, he was appointed Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, though he resigned from that role later that year following media coverage relating to external business interests in the period when he did not hold a cabinet post. The Cabinet Secretary Gus O'Donnell exonerated him entirely from any wrongdoing in his letter of 25 November 2005.On 20 June 2014, Blunkett announced to his constituency party that he would be standing down from the House of Commons at the next general election in May 2015. The editor of The Spectator magazine, Fraser Nelson, commented, "He was never under-briefed, and never showed any sign of his disability ... he was one of Labour's very best MPs – and one of the very few people in parliament whose life I would describe as inspirational." Responding to a question from Blunkett on 11 March 2015, Prime Minister David Cameron said: "As a new backbencher, I will never forget coming to this place in 2001 and, in the light of the appalling terrorist attacks that had taken place across the world, seeing the strong leadership he gave on the importance of keeping our country safe. He is a remarkable politician, a remarkable man."In May 2015 he accepted a professorship in Politics in Practice at the University of Sheffield (in 2014 he was invited to be a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences), and in June 2015 he agreed to become Chairman of the Board of the University of Law. In addition to his other work with charities, he was also chairman of the David Ross Multi Academy Charitable Trust from June 2015 to January 2017. He is currently the President of the Association for Citizenship Teaching (ACT).

In August 2015 he was awarded a peerage in the dissolution honours lists. He was created Baron Blunkett, of Brightside and Hillsborough in the City of Sheffield on 28 September 2015.

Department of Home, Prohibition and Excise (Tamil Nadu)

The Department of Home, Prohibition and Excise of state of Tamil Nadu is one of the Departments of Government of Tamil Nadu

Diane Abbott

Diane Julie Abbott (born 27 September 1953) is a British Labour Party politician who was appointed Shadow Home Secretary in October 2016. She was first elected as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Hackney North and Stoke Newington at the 1987 general election, when she became the first black woman to hold a seat in the House of Commons.

Born in Paddington, London, Abbott studied History at Newnham College, Cambridge University. She worked in the Civil Service and as a reporter for Thames Television and TV-am before becoming a press officer for the Greater London Council. Abbott was elected to Westminster City Council in 1982. She unsuccessfully stood in the 2010 Labour leadership election, and was later appointed as Shadow Minister for Public Health by Ed Miliband. She also unsuccessfully attempted to be the Labour candidate for the 2016 London mayoral election.

Abbott supported Jeremy Corbyn in his bid to become leader, and was appointed Shadow Secretary of State for International Development. After multiple resignations in the Shadow Cabinet, she was promoted to Shadow Health Secretary, and further promoted to Shadow Home Secretary after Andy Burnham left to contest the Manchester Mayoral election. Following a series of poor interviews in the run-up to the 2017 election, Abbott was temporarily replaced as Shadow Home Secretary by Lyn Brown. After the election, Abbott revealed that she suffered from type 2 diabetes, saying that it had affected her performance. With her condition back under control, she returned to her position.

Abbott is seen as being on the left of the Labour Party and has voted against the party on several occasions, voting against the Iraq War, the introduction of ID cards and the renewal of Britain's nuclear deterrent. She has appeared frequently in the media, featuring in Have I Got News for You, and other programmes.

She contributes to The Guardian and The Independent.

Home Office

The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order. As such it is responsible for the police, fire and rescue services, visas and immigration and the Security Service (MI5). It is also in charge of government policy on security-related issues such as drugs, counter-terrorism and ID cards. It was formerly responsible for Her Majesty's Prison Service and the National Probation Service, but these have been transferred to the Ministry of Justice. The Cabinet minister responsible for the department is the Home Secretary.

The remit of the Home Office was substantially reduced in 2007 when, after Home Secretary John Reid had declared the Home Office "not fit for purpose", the Prime Minister Tony Blair separated a new Ministry of Justice from the reduced Home Office. Its culpability in the Windrush scandal involving the illegal deportation and harassment of legal British residents is an example of a more recent failure.

The Home Office continues to be known, especially in official papers and when referred to in Parliament, as the Home Department.

Home Secretary (India)

The Home Secretary (IAST: Gṛha Saciva) is the administrative head of the Ministry of Home Affairs. This post is held by senior IAS officer of the rank of Secretary to Government of India. The current Home Secretary is Rajiv Gauba.As a Secretary to Government of India, the Home Secretary ranks 23rd on Indian Order of Precedence.

Jacqui Smith

Jacqueline Jill Smith (born 3 November 1962) is a British Labour politician. She was the Member of Parliament for Redditch from 1997 until 2010, the first female Home Secretary and the third woman to hold one of the Great Offices of State, after Margaret Thatcher (Prime Minister) and Margaret Beckett (Foreign Secretary).

Smith was one of the MPs investigated by the Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards over a variety of inappropriate expense claims. Smith was never prosecuted, and was asked to pay back less than average after investigation by Sir Thomas Legg; but she was found to have "clearly" broken the rules on expenses and ordered to apologise.She ceased to be Home Secretary in a Cabinet reshuffle on 5 June 2009, and then lost her seat as Member of Parliament for Redditch in the 2010 general election.

James Callaghan

Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, (; 27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), often known as Jim Callaghan, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980.

So far the only holder of all four of the Great Offices of State, Callaghan served as Chancellor of the Exchequer (1964–1967), Home Secretary (1967–1970) and Foreign Secretary (1974–1976) prior to his appointment as Prime Minister. As Prime Minister, he had some successes, but is mainly remembered for the "Winter of Discontent" of 1978–79. During a very cold winter, his battle with trade unions led to immense strikes that seriously inconvenienced the public, leading to his defeat in the polls by Conservative leader Margaret Thatcher. Callaghan was the last Prime Minister born before the First World War.

Upon entering the House of Commons in 1945, he was on the left wing of the party. Callaghan steadily moved towards the right, but maintained his reputation as "The Keeper of the Cloth Cap"—that is, he was seen as dedicated to maintaining close ties between the Labour Party and the trade unions. Callaghan's period as Chancellor of the Exchequer coincided with a turbulent period for the British economy, during which he had to wrestle with a balance of payments deficit and speculative attacks on the pound sterling (its exchange rate to other currencies was almost fixed by the Bretton Woods system). On 18 November 1967, the government devalued the pound sterling. Callaghan became Home Secretary. He sent the British Army to support the police in Northern Ireland, after a request from the Northern Ireland Government.

After Labour was defeated at the 1970 general election, Callaghan played a key role in the Shadow Cabinet. He became Foreign Secretary in 1974, taking responsibility for renegotiating the terms of the UK's membership of the European Communities, and supporting a "Yes" vote in the 1975 referendum to remain in the EC. When Prime Minister Harold Wilson resigned in 1976, Callaghan defeated five other candidates to be elected as his replacement. Labour had already lost its narrow majority in the House of Commons by the time he became Prime Minister, and further by-election defeats and defections forced Callaghan to deal with minor parties such as the Liberal Party, particularly in the "Lib–Lab pact" from 1977 to 1978. Industrial disputes and widespread strikes in the 1978 "Winter of Discontent" made Callaghan's government unpopular, and the defeat of the referendum on devolution for Scotland led to the successful passage of a motion of no confidence on 28 March 1979. This was followed by a defeat at the ensuing general election.

Callaghan remained Labour Party leader until November 1980, in order to reform the process by which the party elected its leader, before returning to the backbenches where he remained until he was made a life peer as Baron Callaghan of Cardiff. He went on to live longer than any other British prime minister—92 years and 364 days.

Life imprisonment in England and Wales

In England and Wales, life imprisonment is a sentence which lasts until the death of the prisoner, although in most cases the prisoner will be eligible for parole (officially termed "early release") after a fixed period set by the judge. This period is known as the "minimum term" (previously known as the "tariff"). In some exceptionally grave cases, however, a judge may order that a life sentence should mean life by making a "whole life order."

Murder has carried a mandatory life sentence in England and Wales since capital punishment was suspended in 1965. There is currently no "first degree" or "second degree" murder definition. However, there were two degrees of murder between 1957 and 1965, one carrying the death penalty and one life imprisonment.Life imprisonment is only applicable to defendants aged 21 or over. Those aged between 18 and 20 are sentenced to custody for life. Those aged under 18 are sentenced to detention during Her Majesty's pleasure for murder, or detention for life for other crimes where life imprisonment is the sentence for adults. However people under 21 may not be sentenced to a whole life order, and so must become eligible for parole.

In addition to the sentences mentioned above, until 2012 there were two other kinds of life sentence, imprisonment for public protection (for those over 18) and detention for public protection (for those under 18). These were for defendants whose crimes were not serious enough to merit a normal life sentence, but who were considered a danger to the public and so should not be released until the Parole Board had decided that they no longer represented a risk. These sentences were abolished by the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012, although a number of prisoners remain imprisoned under the former legislation.

Michael Howard

Michael Howard, Baron Howard of Lympne, (born 7 July 1941) is a British politician who served as the Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition from November 2003 to December 2005. He previously held cabinet positions in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major, including Secretary of State for Employment, Secretary of State for the Environment and Home Secretary.

Howard was born in Swansea. He studied at Peterhouse, Cambridge, following which he joined the Young Conservatives. In 1964 he was called to the Bar and became a Queen's Counsel in 1982. He became a Member of Parliament (MP) in the 1983 General Election, representing the constituency of Folkestone and Hythe. This quickly led to promotion and Howard became Minister for Local Government in 1987. Under John Major, he served as Secretary of State for Employment (1990–1992), Secretary of State for the Environment (1992-1993) and Home Secretary (1993–1997).

Following the Conservative Party's defeat in the 1997 General Election, he unsuccessfully made a bid for the leadership of the Party, and subsequently held the posts of Shadow Foreign Secretary (1997–1999) and Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer (2001–2003). In November 2003, following the Conservative Party's vote of no confidence in Iain Duncan Smith, Howard was elected to the leadership unopposed.

In the 2005 General Election, the Conservatives gained 33 new seats in Westminster, including five from the Liberal Democrats, but this still gave them only 198 seats to Labour's 355. Following the election, Howard resigned as Leader and was succeeded by David Cameron. Howard did not contest his seat of Folkestone and Hythe in the 2010 General Election and entered the House of Lords as Baron Howard of Lympne. He has been supportive of the Eurosceptic pressure group Leave Means Leave.

Minister (government)

A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers. In some jurisdictions the head of government is also a minister and is designated the "prime minister", "premier", "chief minister", "Chancellor" or other title.

In Commonwealth realm jurisdictions which use the Westminster system of government, ministers are usually required to be members of one of the houses of Parliament or legislature, and are usually from the political party that controls a majority in the lower house of the legislature. In other jurisdictions — such as Belgium, Mexico, Netherlands, Philippines — the holder of a cabinet-level post or other government official is not permitted to be a member of the legislature. Depending on the administrative arrangements in each jurisdiction, ministers are usually heads of a government department and members of the government's ministry, cabinet and perhaps of a committee of cabinet. Some ministers may be more senior than others, and some may hold the title "assistant minister" or "deputy minister". Some jurisdictions, with a large number of ministers, may designate ministers to be either in the inner or outer ministry or cabinet.

In some jurisdictions — such as Hong Kong, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, and the United States — holders of an equivalent cabinet-level post are called secretaries (e.g., the Home Secretary in the United Kingdom, Secretary of State in the United States). Some holders of a cabinet-level post may have another title, such as "Attorney-General" or "Postmaster-General".

Ministry of Home Affairs (India)

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) or Home Ministry (IAST: Gṛha Maṃtralāyā) is a ministry of the Government of India. As the interior ministry of India, it is mainly responsible for the maintenance of internal security and domestic policy. The Home Ministry is headed by Union Minister of Home Affairs Rajnath Singh.

The Home Ministry is also the cadre controlling authority for the Indian Police Service (IPS), DANIPS and DANICS. Police-I Division of the ministry is the cadre controlling authority in respect of the Indian Police Service; whereas, the UT Division is the administrative division for DANIPS and DANICS and the All India Services officers posted and working in the Arunachal Pradesh-Goa-Mizoram-Union Territories (AGMUT) cadre.

Narinder Nath Vohra

Narinder Nath Vohra (born 5 May 1936), popularly referred as N. N. Vohra, is a retired 1959 batch Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of Punjab cadre who was the 12th governor of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. He was the first civilian governor of Jammu and Kashmir in eighteen years after Jagmohan.

As an IAS officer, Vohra has also served as Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister of India, Home Secretary of India, Defence Secretary of India and Defence Production Secretary of India.

From February 2003 until he became the governor of the state, Vohra had been the Government of India's interlocutor in Jammu and Kashmir. He was awarded India's second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan, for his contributors to the field civil service, in 2007.

Robert Peel

Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British statesman and Conservative Party politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30). He is regarded as the father of modern British policing and as one of the founders of the modern Conservative Party.

As the son of wealthy textile-manufacturer and politician he was the first prime minister from an industrial business background. He earned a double first in classics and mathematics from Christ Church, Oxford. He entered the House of Commons in 1809, where he became a rising star in the Conservative Party. Peel entered the Cabinet as Home Secretary (1822–1827), where he reformed and liberalised the criminal law and created the modern police force, leading to a new type of officer known in tribute to him as "bobbies" and "peelers". After a brief period out of office he returned as Home Secretary under his political mentor the Duke of Wellington (1828–1830), also serving as Leader of the House of Commons. Initially a supporter of continued legal discrimination against Catholics, Peel reversed himself and supported the repeal of the Test Act (1828) and the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, claiming that "though emancipation was a great danger, civil strife was a greater danger".After being in the Opposition 1830-34, he become Prime Minister in November 1834. Peel issued the Tamworth Manifesto (December 1834), laying down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based. His first ministry was a minority government, dependent on Whig support and with Peel serving as his own Chancellor of the Exchequer. After only four months, his government collapsed and he served as Leader of the Opposition during the second government (1835–1841). Peel became Prime Minister again after the 1841 general election. His second government ruled for five years. He cut tariffs to stimulate trade, replacing the lost revenue with a 3% income tax. He played a central role in making free trade a reality and set up a modern banking system. His government's major legislation included the Mines and Collieries Act 1842, the Income Tax Act 1842, the Factories Act 1844 and the Railway Regulation Act 1844. Peel's government was weakened by anti-Catholic sentiment following the controversial Maynooth Grant of 1845. After the outbreak of the Great Irish Potato Famine, his decision to join with Whigs and Radicals to repeal the Corn Laws led to his resignation as Prime Minister in 1846. Peel remained an influential MP and leader of the Peelite faction until his death in 1850.

Peel often started from a traditional Tory position in opposition to a measure, then reversed his stance and became the leader in supporting liberal legislation. This happened with the Test Act, Catholic Emancipation, the Reform Act, income tax and, most notably, the repeal of the Corn Laws. Historian A.J.P. Taylor says: "Peel was in the first rank of 19th century statesmen. He carried Catholic Emancipation; he repealed the Corn Laws; he created the modern Conservative Party on the ruins of the old Toryism."

Sajid Javid

Sajid Javid (; born 5 December 1969) is a British politician and a former managing director at Deutsche Bank. A member of the Conservative Party, he was appointed Home Secretary in April 2018. He has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Bromsgrove in Worcestershire since the general election of 2010.

Born in Rochdale, Lancashire, Javid studied Economics and Politics at the University of Exeter where he joined the Conservative Party. Working in banking, he rose quickly to become a managing director at Deutsche Bank. He was elected as the MP for Bromsgrove in 2010 and was promoted to Economic Secretary to the Treasury and later Financial Secretary to the Treasury.

He served in the Cabinet as Culture Secretary from 2014-15, Business Secretary and President of the Board of Trade from 2015-16 and Communities Secretary from 2016-18. He was appointed to his current role as Home Secretary in June 2018, following the resignation of Amber Rudd for misleading the Home Affairs Select Committee over targets for removal of illegal immigrants during the Windrush scandal. As Home Secretary, Javid took a more liberal approach to immigration than his predecessors, lifting the immigration cap for NHS doctors and nurses and softening the “hostile environment” policy.

Shadow Home Secretary

In British politics, the Shadow Home Secretary is the person within the shadow cabinet who 'shadows' the Home Secretary; this effectively means scrutinising government policy on home affairs including policing, national security, the criminal justice system, the prison service, and matters of citizenship. If the opposition party is elected to government, the Shadow Home Secretary often becomes the new Home Secretary though this is not always the case. The office has been held by Labour MP Diane Abbott since 6 October 2016.

Theresa May

Theresa Mary May (; née Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016. She served as Home Secretary from 2010 to 2016. May was first elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Maidenhead in 1997. Ideologically, she identifies herself as a one-nation conservative.May grew up in Oxfordshire and attended St Hugh's College, Oxford. She worked for the Bank of England, and from 1985 until 1997 at the Association for Payment Clearing Services, also serving as a councillor for Durnsford in Merton. After unsuccessful attempts to be elected to the House of Commons she was elected as the MP for Maidenhead in the 1997 general election. From 1999 to 2010, May held a number of roles in Shadow Cabinets. She was also Chairwoman of the Conservative Party from 2002 to 2003.

After the formation of a coalition government following the 2010 general election, May was appointed Home Secretary and Minister for Women and Equalities, giving up the latter role in 2012. Reappointed after the Conservative victory in the 2015 general election, she went on to become the longest-serving Home Secretary in over 60 years. During her tenure she pursued reform of the Police Federation, implemented a harder line on drugs policy including the banning of khat, oversaw the introduction of elected Police and Crime Commissioners, the deportation of Abu Qatada, the creation of the National Crime Agency and brought in additional restrictions on immigration.In July 2016, following the resignation of David Cameron, May was elected unopposed as Conservative Party Leader, becoming the second female Prime Minister after Margaret Thatcher. As Prime Minister, May began the process of withdrawing the UK from the European Union, triggering Article 50 in March 2017 then, the following month, announcing a snap general election in June, with the aim of strengthening her hand in Brexit negotiations. This resulted in a hung parliament, in which the number of Conservative seats fell from 330 to 317, despite the party winning their highest vote share since 1983, prompting her to broker a confidence and supply deal with the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) to support a minority government.

In December 2018, Conservative MPs had submitted letters of no confidence in May, triggering a vote of no confidence in her leadership. Before the vote, May said that she would not lead her party in the next general election scheduled in 2022 under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act. She won the motion. May carried out the Brexit negotiations with the European Union, adhering to the Chequers Agreement, which resulted in the Withdrawal Agreement between the UK and the EU. This agreement was defeated by Parliament on 15 January 2019 resulting in Opposition Leader Jeremy Corbyn tabling a motion of no confidence in her government. The following no confidence vote was defeated.

Yvette Cooper

Yvette Cooper (born 20 March 1969) is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Normanton, Pontefract and Castleford since 2010, having served as the MP for Pontefract and Castleford since 1997.

She served in the Cabinet between 2008 and 2010 under Prime Minister Gordon Brown as Chief Secretary to the Treasury and then as Secretary of State for Work and Pensions. After Labour lost the 2010 general election, Cooper was appointed as Shadow Foreign Secretary, then became Shadow Home Secretary in 2011.

On 13 May 2015, Cooper announced she would run to be Leader of the Labour Party in the leadership election following the resignation of Ed Miliband. Cooper came third with 17.0% of the vote in the first round. Cooper subsequently resigned as Shadow Home Secretary in September 2015. In October 2016, Cooper was elected chair of the Home Affairs Select Committee.

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