Home Office

The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order. As such it is responsible for policing in England and Wales, fire and rescue services in England, and visas and immigration and the Security Service (MI5). It is also in charge of government policy on security-related issues such as drugs, counter-terrorism and ID cards. It was formerly responsible for Her Majesty's Prison Service and the National Probation Service, but these have been transferred to the Ministry of Justice. The Cabinet minister responsible for the department is the Home Secretary.

The remit of the Home Office was substantially reduced in 2007 when, after Home Secretary John Reid had declared the Home Office "not fit for purpose", the Prime Minister Tony Blair separated a new Ministry of Justice from the reduced Home Office. Its culpability in the Windrush scandal involving the illegal deportation and harassment of legal British residents is an example of a more recent failure.[2]

The Home Office continues to be known, especially in official papers and when referred to in Parliament, as the Home Department.[3]

Home Office
Welsh: Y Swyddfa Gartref
Home Office
Marsham Street

2 Marsham Street, the headquarters of the Home Office
Department overview
Formed27 March 1782
JurisdictionUnited Kingdom (but in respect of most policing and justice matters: England and Wales only)
Headquarters2 Marsham Street, London, SW1P 4DF
Annual budget£8.9 billion (current) and £500 million (capital) in 2011–12 [1]
Minister responsible
Department executive
Home Office Immigration Enforcement vehicle north Finchley
A Home Office Immigration Enforcement vehicle in north London.


The Home Office is headed by the Home Secretary, a Cabinet minister supported by the department's senior civil servant, the Permanent Secretary.

As of October 2014, the Home Office comprises the following organisations:[4]

Non-ministerial government departments



Non-departmental public bodies


In October 2012, a number of functions of the National Policing Improvement Agency were transferred to the Home Office ahead of the future abolition of the agency.[5]

These included:



The Home Office Ministers are as follows:[6]

Minister Rank Portfolio
The Rt Hon. Sajid Javid MP Secretary of State Overall responsibility for the work of the department; including security and terrorism; legislative programme; expenditure issues.
The Rt Hon. Caroline Nokes Minister of State for Immigration Immigration and border policy; foreign national offenders; resettlement policy; implementation of the Immigration Act 2016; UK Visas and Immigration; immigration enforcement; Border Force; Her Majesty’s Passport Office; Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration; Home Office immigration transparency data; net migration statistics. Attends Cabinet.
The Rt Hon. Ben Wallace MP Minister of State for Security and Economic Crime Implementing the strategic defence and security review; counter-terrorism; investigatory powers; communications data legislation; communications capabilities development; security industry engagement; single infrastructure policing; aviation security; firearms; chemical biological radiological nuclear defence (CBRNE) and science and technology programme management; small and medium enterprises; serious and organised crime strategy; criminal finance and asset recovery; cyber crime and security; National Crime Agency oversight; UK anti-corruption policy; better regulation; animal testing.
The Rt Hon. Nick Hurd MP Minister of State for Policing and the Fire Services Police finance and resourcing; police reform and governance; police representative groups; police pay and pensions; police workforce; Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC); Policing and Crime Bill; police integrity and transparency; emergency services collaboration; crime statistics; national fire policy; Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser; national resilience and fire programmes; localism and reform; workforce pay; pensions and industrial relations; extradition; mutual legal assistance; EU criminal justice; Interpol; foreign criminality.
The Baroness Williams of Trafford Minister of State for Countering Extremism All Home Office business in the House of Lords; countering extremism; hate crime; integration; devolution; data strategy; identity and biometrics; Better Regulation; animals in science.
Victoria Atkins MP Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Crime, Safeguarding, and Vulnerability Disclosure and Barring Service; drugs; alcohol; countering extremism; hate crime; crime prevention; anti-social behaviour; gangs, youth crime and youth violence; knife crime; wildlife crime; child sexual exploitation and abuse; online child sexual exploitation; mental health; modern slavery; honour-based violence; female genital mutilation (FGM); violence against women and girls; missing people and children; sexual violence; prostitution and lap dancing; domestic violence.


The Department outlined its aims for this Parliament in its Business Plan, which was published in May 2011 and superseded its Structural Reform Plan.[7] The plan said the department will:

1. Empower the public to hold the police to account for their role in cutting crime
  • Introduce directly elected Police and Crime Commissioners and make police actions to tackle crime and anti-social behaviour more transparent
2. Free up the police to fight crime more effectively and efficiently
  • Cut police bureaucracy, end unnecessary central interference and overhaul police powers in order to cut crime, reduce costs and improve police value for money. Simplify national institutional structures and establish a National Crime Agency to strengthen the fight against organised crime (and replace the Serious Organised Crime Agency)
3. Create a more integrated criminal justice system
  • Help the police and other public services work together across the criminal justice system
4. Secure our borders and reduce immigration
  • Deliver an improved migration system that commands public confidence and serves our economic interests. Limit non-EU economic migrants, and introduce new measures to reduce inflow and minimise abuse of all migration routes, for example the student route. Process asylum applications more quickly, and end the detention of children for immigration purposes
5. Protect people's freedoms and civil liberties
  • Reverse state interference to ensure there is not disproportionate intrusion into people‟s lives
6. Protect our citizens from terrorism
  • Keep people safe through the Government‟s approach to counter-terrorism
7. Build a fairer and more equal society (through the Government Equalities Office)
  • Help create a fair and flexible labour market. Change culture and attitudes. Empower individuals and communities. Improve equality structures, frontline services and support; and help Government Departments and others to consider equality as a matter of course

The Home Office publishes progress against the plan on the 10 Downing Street website.[8]


On 27 March 1782, the Home Office was formed by renaming the existing Southern Department, with all existing staff transferring. On the same day, the Northern Department was renamed the Foreign Office.

To match the new names, there was a transferring of responsibilities between the two Departments of State. All domestic responsibilities were moved to the Home Office, and all foreign matters became the concern of the Foreign Office.

Most subsequently created domestic departments (excluding, for instance, those dealing with education) have been formed by splitting responsibilities away from the Home Office.

The initial responsibilities were:

Responsibilities were subsequently changed over the years that followed:[9]

The Home Office retains a variety of functions that have not found a home elsewhere, and sit oddly with the main law-and-order focus of the department, such as regulation of British Summer Time.

Anonymous attack

On 7 April 2012, hacktivist group Anonymous temporarily took down the UK Home Office website. The group took responsibility for the attack, which was part of ongoing Anonymous activity in protest against the deportation of hackers as part of Operation TrialAtHome. One Anonymous source claimed in their tweet it was also launched in retaliation for "draconian surveillance proposals".[11]

Union action

On 18 July 2012, the Public and Commercial Services Union announced that thousands of Home Office employees would go on strike over jobs, pay and other issues.[12] However, the PCSU called off the strike before it was planned it claimed the department had, subsequent to the threat of actions, announced 1,100 new border jobs.[13]

HomeOffice QueenAnnesGate
The former Home Office building at 50 Queen Anne's Gate, London
Lunar House 86
Lunar House in Croydon, which holds the headquarters of UK Visas and Immigration


Until 1978, the Home Office had its offices in the what is now the Foreign and Commonwealth Office Main Building on King Charles Street, off Whitehall. From 1978 to 2004, the Home Office was located at 50 Queen Anne's Gate, a Brutalist office block in Westminster designed by Sir Basil Spence, close to St. James's Park tube station. Many functions, however, were devolved to offices in other parts of London and the country, notably the headquarters of the Immigration and Nationality Directorate in Croydon.

In 2005, the Home Office moved to a new main office designed by Sir Terry Farrell at 2 Marsham Street, Westminster, SW1P 4DF, on the site of the demolished Marsham Towers building of the Department of the Environment.[14]

For external shots of its fictional Home Office, the TV series Spooks uses an aerial shot of the Government Offices Great George Street instead, serving as stand-in to match the distinctly less modern appearance of the fictitious accommodation interiors the series uses.[15]


To meet the UK's 5-year science and technology strategy,[16] the Home Office sponsors research in police sciences including:

  • Biometrics – including face and voice recognition
  • Cell type analysis – to determine the origin of cells (e.g. hair, skin)
  • Chemistry – new techniques to recover latent fingerprints
  • DNA – identifying offender characteristics from DNA
  • Improved Profiling – of illicit drugs to help identify their source
  • Raman Spectroscopy – to provide more sensitive drugs and explosives detectors (e.g. roadside drug detection)
  • Terahertz imaging methods and technologies – e.g. image analysis and new cameras, to detect crime, enhance images and support anti-terrorism


Most front-line law and order policy areas, such as policing and criminal justice, are devolved in Scotland and Northern Ireland but the following reserved and excepted matters are handled by Westminster.


Reserved matters:'[17]

The Scottish Government Justice and Communities Directorates are responsible for devolved justice and home affairs policy.

Northern Ireland

Excepted matters:[18]

The following matters were not transferred at the devolution of policing and justice on 12 April 2010 and remain reserved:[19]

The Home Office's main counterparts in Northern Ireland are:

The Department of Justice is accountable to the Northern Ireland Executive whereas the Northern Ireland Office is a UK Government department.


Under the Welsh devolution settlement, specific policy areas are transferred to the National Assembly for Wales rather than reserved to Westminster.


In March 2019 it was reported that in two unrelated cases the Home Office denied asylum to converted Christians by misrepresenting certain Bible quotes. In one case it quoted selected excerpts from the Bible to imply that Christianity is not more peaceful than Islam, the religion the asylum-seeker converted from.[21] In another incident an Iranian Christian application for asylum was rejected because her faith was judged as "half-hearted" as she did not believe that Jesus could protect her from the Iranian regime.[22] As outrage grew on social media, the Home Office distanced itself from the decision, though it confirmed the letter was authentic.[23] The home secretary admitted that it was "totally unacceptable" for his department to quote the Bible to question an Iranian Christian convert's asylum application and ordered an urgent investigation into what had happened.[24]

The treatment of Christian asylum seekers chimes with other incidents in the past, like the refusal to grant visas to the Archbishop of Mosul to attend the consecration of the UK’s first Syriac Orthodox Cathedral.[25] In a 2017 study, the Christian Barnabas Fund found that only 0.2% of all Syrian refugees accepted by the UK were Christians, although Christians accounted for approximately 10% of Syria's prewar population.[26]

In 2019, the Home Office admitted to multiple breaches of data protection regulations in the handling of its Windrush compensation scheme. The department sent emails to Windrush migrants which revealed the email address of other Windrush migrants to whom the email was sent. The data breach concerned five different emails, each of which was sent to 100 recipients.[27] In April 2019, the Home Office admitted to revealing 240 personal email addresses of EU citizens applying for settled status in the UK. The email addresses of applicants were incorrectly sent to other applicants to the scheme.[28] In response to these incidents, the Home Office pledged to launch an independent review of its data protection compliance.[29]

In 2019, the Court of Appeal issued a judgement which criticized the Home Office's handling of immigration cases. The judges stated that the "general approach [by the home secretary, Sajid Javid] in all earnings discrepancy cases [has been] legally flawed". The judgement relates to the Home Office's interpretation of Section 322(5) of the Immigration Rules.[30]

See also


  1. ^ Budget 2011 (PDF). London: HM Treasury. 2011. p. 48. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  2. ^ "Windrush scandal: MPs say Home Office complacent over failings". BBC News. 6 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  3. ^ Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons, Westminster (9 June 2008). "Hansard – Oral Questions to the Home Department – 9 June 2008". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-19.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ "Departments, agencies and public bodies - GOV.UK". Gov.uk. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  5. ^ "Where have NPIA products and services moved to?". National Policing Improvement Agency. 2012. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  6. ^ "Our ministers". GOV.UK. Home Office. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  7. ^ "Business Plan". Home Office. Home Office. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  8. ^ "Business Plan:Home Office". Home Office. 10 Downing Street. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  9. ^ "Changes to Home Office responsibilities". Casbah.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
  10. ^ Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, Volumes 23-24, Longmans, Green, 1950, page 197
  11. ^ "Anonymous takes down the UK Home Office website". Rt.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  12. ^ "Home Office staff vote to strike over jobs and pay". BBC News. 2012-07-18. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ New Home Office building Archived 26 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "History of 1 Horse Guards Road - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  16. ^ "Police Science and Technology Strategy: 2004 – 2009" (PDF). Homeoffice.gov.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
  17. ^ "Scotland Act 1998, Schedule 5, Part I". Opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
  18. ^ "Northern Ireland Act 1998, Schedule 2". Opsi.gov.uk. 4 November 1950. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
  19. ^ Northern Ireland Assembly Information Office. "''Policing and Justice'' motion, Northern ireland Assembly, 12 April 2010". Niassembly.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 16 December 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
  20. ^ "About the NIO". Nio.gov.uk. 12 April 2010. Archived from the original on 17 September 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
  21. ^ "Home Office refuses Christian convert asylum by quoting Bible passages that 'prove Christianity is not peaceful'". independent.co.uk. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  22. ^ "'Illiterate' Home Office quotes Jesus in asylum rejection letter". 27 March 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  23. ^ "Rejecting Asylum Claim, U.K. Quotes Bible to Say Christianity Is Not 'Peaceful'". nytimes.com. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  24. ^ "Home Secretary orders urgent investigation into asylum rejection letter which criticised Bible". 2 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  25. ^ "Britain bans heroic bishops: Persecuted Christian leaders from war zones refused entry". 4 December 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  26. ^ "UK government discriminates against Christian refugees from Syria". Barnabas Fund. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  27. ^ "Windrush: Home Office admits data breach in compensation scheme". BBC News. 8 April 2019.
  28. ^ "Brexit: Home Office sorry for EU citizen data breach". BBC News. 11 April 2019.
  29. ^ "Home Office to launch independent review of data protection compliance". Civil Service World. 12 April 2019.
  30. ^ "Court castigates Home Office over misuse of immigration law". The Guardian. 16 April 2019.

External links


2-Diphenylmethylpyrrolidine (Desoxy-D2PM), also known as 2-benzhydrylpyrrolidine, is a stimulant psychoactive drug. It is the 4-dehydroxylated structural analog of diphenylprolinol (D2PM), and is also similar in structure to desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), both of which act as norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs). Like D2PM and 2-DPMP, Desoxy-D2PM is sold as a designer drug and has been used in the manufacture of legal highs. It has been marketed under the names A3A New Generation, A3A Methano, and Green Powder, and has been reported to cause hallucinations, violent behavior, dilated pupils, tachycardia, and high blood pressure. Literature data suggest that it can produce the same psychotropic effects as other stimulants, but with a longer duration of action.Desoxy-D2PM has two enantiomers which are used industrially in their purified form as chiral derivatizing agents during chemical synthesis.As of 4 November 2010, the UK Home Office announced a ban on the importation of 2-diphenylmethylpyrrolidine, following a recommendation from the ACMD. It was due to become a class B drug on 28 March 2012, but the bill was scrapped, due to the presence of two steroids included in the bill that were later recommended to remain uncontrolled.It was made a class B drug and placed in Schedule I on 13 June 2012.

Alan West, Baron West of Spithead

Admiral Alan William John West, Baron West of Spithead, (born 21 April 1948) is a retired senior officer of the Royal Navy and formerly, from June 2007 to May 2010, a Labour Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the British Home Office with responsibility for security and a security advisor to Prime Minister Gordon Brown. Prior to his ministerial appointment, he was First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff from 2002 to 2006.

Biggby Coffee

BIGGBY® COFFEE (pronounced Big-Bee) is a privately owned coffee franchise business based in East Lansing, Michigan. There are roughly 230 locations across 8 states, each locally owned and operated. Bob Fish and Michael McFall are the co-CEO’s of BIGGBY® COFFEE. The headquarters location in East Lansing, Michigan, is referred to as the Home Office and houses around 60 employees.

Border Force

Border Force is a part of the Home Office, responsible for frontline border control operations at air, sea and rail ports in the United Kingdom. The force was part of the now defunct UK Border Agency from its establishment in 2008 until Home Secretary Theresa May demerged it in March 2012 after severe criticism of the senior management.Since 1 March 2012, Border Force has been a law-enforcement command within the Home Office, accountable directly to ministers. Border Force is responsible for immigration and customs at 140 rail, air and sea ports in the UK and western Europe, as well as thousands of smaller airstrips, ports and marinas. The work of the Border Force is monitored by the Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration.

Border Force officers are not police constables and the Border Force is not a police force. However, aside from powers listed below in relation to immigration and customs, section 2 of the Borders Act 2007 does allow designated members of the Border Force to detain anyone for any criminal offence or arrest warrant at a port if the Border Officer thinks they would be liable to arrest by a police constable. The power allows detention for 3 hours pending the arrival of a police constable. The power also applies to points of entry in Belgium and France where Border Officers work whereby the Border Officer will turn the detained person over to Belgian or French police officers as appropriate.

British Nigerian

British Nigerians are British people of Nigerian descent or Nigerians of British descent.

This article is about residents and citizens of Nigerian descent living in Britain. Many Nigerians and their British-born descendants in Britain live in South London. They are one of the larger immigrant groups in the country.

British nationality law

British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality. The law is complex due to the United Kingdom's historical status as an imperial power.

Cambridge University primates

Cambridge University primate experiments came to public attention in 2002 after the publication that year of material from a ten-month undercover investigation in 1998 by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV). The experiments were being conducted on

marmosets, and included the removal of parts of their brains intended to simulate the symptoms of stroke or Parkinson's disease. Some of the research was theoretical, aimed at advancing knowledge of the brain, while some of it was applied.BUAV said the investigation revealed examples of animal abuse indicating that animals were inadequately protected by the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. After a review by the government's chief inspector of animals ruled against BUAV's argument that the project licences should not have been granted, BUAV applied to the High Court for a judicial review. The review ruled against BUAV on three of the four grounds, but on the remaining ground it found the Home Office had underestimated the suffering of the marmosets by categorising the experiments as "moderate," rather than "substantial." The Home Office announced a review of its procedures for categorising animal suffering.

Consumer electronics

Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes. Consumer electronics include devices used for entertainment (flatscreen TVs, DVD players, video games, remote control cars, etc.), communications (telephones, cell phones, e-mail-capable laptops, etc.), and home-office activities (e.g., desktop computers, printers, paper shredders, etc.). In British English, they are often called brown goods by producers and sellers, to distinguish them from "white goods" which are meant for housekeeping tasks, such as washing machines and refrigerators, although nowadays, these would be considered brown goods, some of these being connected to the Internet. In the 2010s, this distinction is not always present in large big box consumer electronics stores, such as Best Buy, which sell both entertainment, communication, and home office devices and kitchen appliances such as refrigerators.

Radio broadcasting in the early 20th century brought the first major consumer product, the broadcast receiver. Later products included telephones, televisions and calculators, then audio and video recorders and players, game consoles, personal computers and MP3 players. In the 2010s, consumer electronics stores often sell GPS, automotive electronics (car stereos), video game consoles, electronic musical instruments (e.g., synthesizer keyboards), karaoke machines, digital cameras, and video players (VCRs in the 1980s and 1990s, followed by DVD players and Blu-ray disc players). Stores also sell smart appliances, digital cameras, camcorders, cell phones, and smartphones. Some of the newer products sold include virtual reality head-mounted display goggles, smart home devices that connect home devices to the Internet and wearable technology such as Fitbit digital exercise watches and the Apple Watch smart watch.

In the 2010s, most consumer electronics have become based on digital technologies, and have largely merged with the computer industry in what is increasingly referred to as the consumerization of information technology. Some consumer electronics stores, such as Best Buy, have also begun selling office and baby furniture. Consumer electronics stores may be "bricks and mortar" physical retail stores, online stores, where the consumer chooses items on a website and pays online (e.g., Amazon). or a combination of both models (e.g., Best Buy has both bricks and mortar stores and an e-commerce website for ordering its products). The CEA (Consumer Electronics Association) estimated the value of 2015 consumer electronics sales at US$220 billion.

Gordon Wasserman, Baron Wasserman

Gordon Joshua Wasserman, Baron Wasserman (born 26 July 1938) is a Canadian Conservative politician and member of the House of Lords who has been Government Adviser on Policing and Criminal Justice since 2011.

Home Secretary

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office. It is a British Cabinet level position.

The Home Secretary is responsible for the internal affairs of England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the United Kingdom. The remit of the Home Office also includes policing in England and Wales and matters of national security, as the Security Service (MI5) is directly accountable to the Home Secretary. Formerly, the Home Secretary was the minister responsible for prisons and probation in England and Wales; however in 2007 those responsibilities were transferred to the newly created Ministry of Justice under the Lord Chancellor. A high profile position, it is widely recognised as one of the most prestigious and important roles in the British Cabinet.

The position of Home Secretary has been held by Sajid Javid since 30 April 2018.

Jacqui Smith

Jacqueline Jill Smith (born 3 November 1962) is a British Labour politician. She was the Member of Parliament for Redditch from 1997 until 2010, the first female Home Secretary and the third woman to hold one of the Great Offices of State, after Margaret Thatcher (Prime Minister) and Margaret Beckett (Foreign Secretary).

Smith was one of the MPs investigated by the Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards over a variety of inappropriate expense claims. Smith was never prosecuted, and was asked to pay back less than average after investigation by Sir Thomas Legg; but she was found to have "clearly" broken the rules on expenses and ordered to apologise.She ceased to be Home Secretary in a Cabinet reshuffle on 5 June 2009, and then lost her seat as Member of Parliament for Redditch in the 2010 general election.

Metropolitan Police Service

The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), formerly and still commonly known as the Metropolitan Police and informally as the Met, is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in the Metropolitan Police District, which currently consists of the 32 London boroughs. The MPD does not include the "square mile" of the City of London which is policed by the much smaller City of London Police.

The Met also has significant national responsibilities, such as co-ordinating and leading on UK-wide national counter-terrorism matters and protecting the Royal Family, certain members of Her Majesty's Government and others as deemed appropriate. As the police force for the capital, the Met has significant unique responsibilities and challenges within its police area, such as protecting 164 foreign embassies and High Commissions, policing Heathrow Airport (the busiest airport in Europe), policing and protecting the Palace of Westminster, and dealing with significantly more protests and events than any other force in the country (3,500 such events in 2016).As of March 2018, the Met had 40,327 full-time personnel. This included 30,390 police officers, 8,027 police staff, 1,315 police community support officers and 595 designated officers. This number excludes the 2,246 special constables, who work voluntarily part-time (a minimum of 16 hours a month) and who have the same powers and uniform as their regular colleagues. This makes the Metropolitan Police, in terms of officer numbers, the largest police force in the United Kingdom by a significant margin, and one of the biggest in the world. In terms of its police area (primary geographic area of responsibility), leaving its national responsibilities aside, the Met has the eighth-smallest police area of the territorial police forces in the United Kingdom.

The overall operational leader of the force is the Commissioner, whose formal title is Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis. The Commissioner is answerable, responsible and accountable to the Queen, the Home Office and the Mayor of London, through the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime. The post of Commissioner was first held jointly by Sir Charles Rowan and Sir Richard Mayne. Cressida Dick was appointed Commissioner in April 2017.

A number of informal names and abbreviations are applied to the Metropolitan Police Service, the most common being the Met. In colloquial London (or Cockney slang), it is sometimes referred to as the Old Bill. The Met is also referred to as Scotland Yard after the location of its original headquarters in a road called Great Scotland Yard in Whitehall. The Met's current headquarters is New Scotland Yard, situated on the Victoria Embankment.

Michael Bates, Baron Bates

Michael Walton Bates, Baron Bates (born 26 May 1961) is a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom serving in the House of Lords since 2008 having previously represented the constituency of Langbaurgh in the House of Commons from 1992 to 1997.

From 2014 to 2015, he was Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Criminal Information at the Home Office. In May 2015 he was appointed Minister of State in the Home Office. In March 2016, he resigned as Minister of State in order to undertake a 2000-mile solo walk from Buenos Aires to Rio de Janeiro to raise awareness for the Olympic truce.He returned to government as a Minister of State in the Department for International Development in October 2016.

He offered his resignation on 31 January 2018 but it was not accepted by the Prime Minister and thus he remains incumbent in his position as Minister of State.

Mule spinners' cancer

Mule spinners' cancer or mule-spinners' cancer was a cancer, an epithelioma of the scrotum. It was first reported in 1887 in a cotton mule spinner. In 1926, a British Home Office committee strongly favoured the view that this form of cancer was caused by the prolonged action of mineral oils on the skin of the scrotum, and of these oils, shale oil was deemed to be the most carcinogenic. From 1911 to 1938, there were 500 deaths amongst cotton mule-spinners from cancer of the scrotum, but only three amongst wool mule spinners.

National Ballistics Intelligence Service

The National Ballistics Intelligence Service, or NABIS, is a British intelligence service dedicated to managing and providing detailed information regarding firearm-related criminality. The service aims to use its database to store ballistics information about police cases involving firearms, and consequently maintain it for future use and reference. The service operates four facilities to test and analyse firearms evidence to help link it with other cases. These are based in Birmingham, London and Manchester.The service was officially launched on 1 April 2008 and can be roughly compared to the Integrated Ballistics Identification System operating in the United States.

Four regional forensic hubs operate within four host forces/organisations: Greater Manchester Police (GMP), West Midlands Police (WMP), Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) and the Glasgow unit of SPA Forensic Services. The staff are around 40 in number.

Small office/home office

Small office/home office (or single office/home office; SOHO) refers to the category of business or cottage industry that involves from 1 to 10 workers.

In New Zealand, the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) defines a small office as 6 to 19 employees and a micro office as 1-5.

Tariq Ahmad, Baron Ahmad of Wimbledon

Tariq Mahmood Ahmad, baron Ahmad of Wimbledon (Urdu: طارق محمود احمد‎; born 3 April 1968), is a British businessman and a conservative life peer. Born in Lambeth, he was educated at Rutlish School, Merton Park, southwest London. He was appointed Minister of State for the Commonwealth and United Nations at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office on 13 June 2017.In 1991, he entered Natwest's Graduate Management programme, eventually working as Head of Marketing, Sponsorship and Branding and in 2000 went to work for AllianceBernstein. In 2004, he joined Sucden Financial, where he served on the Executive Committee and as Director of Marketing, Strategy and Research. He is an Associate of the Institute of Financial Services and a member of the Institute of Directors.He is a member of the Ahmadiyya and from 1999 to 2008 served as vice-president of AMYA, a British Muslim youth organization. From 2001 to 2006, he served as a governor of Wimbledon Park Primary school. He joined the Conservative Party in 1994. In 2002, he was elected a councillor in Wimbledon. He contested Croydon North for the Conservative party in 2005. From 2008 to 2010, he served as Vice-Chairman of the Conservative Party.On 13 January 2011, he was created a life peer, taking the title Baron Ahmad of Wimbledon, of Wimbledon in the London Borough of Merton, and formally joined the House of Lords on 17 January. In 2014, Ahmad was promoted to Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at DCLG. Following the 2015 election he was appointed to the same role at both the Home Office and the Department for Transport. After the 2015 General Election, he was appointed jointly as Minister for Skills and Aviation Security at the Department for Transport, and Minister for Countering Extremism at the Home Office. In 2016, he was appointed Minister for Aviation, International Trade and Europe at the Department for Transport in the First May ministry.

After the 2017 General Election, Ahmad was appointed Minister of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office with responsibilities to the Commonwealth, the United Nations, and the Prime Minister's Special Representative on Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflict.

Theresa May

Theresa Mary May (; née Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016. She served as Home Secretary from 2010 to 2016. May was first elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Maidenhead in 1997. Ideologically, she identifies herself as a one-nation conservative.May grew up in Oxfordshire and attended St Hugh's College, Oxford. After graduating in 1977, she worked for the Bank of England. She also served as a councillor for Durnsford in Merton. After unsuccessful attempts to be elected to the House of Commons she was elected as the MP for Maidenhead in the 1997 general election. From 1999 to 2010, May held a number of roles in Shadow Cabinets. She was also Chairwoman of the Conservative Party from 2002 to 2003.

When the coalition government was formed after the 2010 general election, May was appointed Home Secretary and Minister for Women and Equalities, but gave up the latter role in 2012. She continued to serve as home secretary after the Conservative victory in the 2015 general election, and became the longest-serving home secretary in over 60 years. During her tenure she pursued reform of the Police Federation, implemented a harder line on drugs policy including the banning of khat, oversaw the introduction of elected Police and Crime Commissioners, the deportation of Abu Qatada, and the creation of the National Crime Agency, and brought in additional restrictions on immigration. She is to date, the only woman to hold two of the great offices of state.

In July 2016, after David Cameron resigned, May was elected as Conservative Party Leader, becoming Britain's second female Prime Minister after Margaret Thatcher. As Prime Minister, May began the process of withdrawing the UK from the European Union, triggering Article 50 in March 2017. The following month, she announced a snap general election, with the aim of strengthening her hand in Brexit negotiations. This resulted in a hung parliament, in which the number of Conservative seats fell from 330 to 317, despite the party winning its highest vote share since 1983. The loss of an overall majority prompted her to enter a confidence and supply arrangement with the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) to support a minority government.

May survived a vote of no confidence from her own MPs in December 2018 and a Parliamentary vote of no confidence in January 2019. May has said that she will not lead her party in the next general election scheduled for 2022 under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act, but has not ruled out leading it into a snap election. May carried out the Brexit negotiations with the European Union, adhering to the Chequers Agreement, which resulted in the draft Withdrawal Agreement between the UK and the EU. This agreement was defeated by Parliament in January 2019, and negotiations continue to try and reach a deal. May’s revised deal was defeated in Parliament by 391 votes to 242. In March 2019, May committed to stepping down as Prime Minister if Parliament passed her Brexit deal, to make way for a new leader in the second phase of Brexit.

UK Visas and Immigration

UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI) is a division of the Home Office responsible for the United Kingdom's visa system. It was formed in 2013 from the section of the UK Border Agency that had administered the visa system.

Home Office
public bodies

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