Home Children

Home Children was the child migration scheme founded by Annie MacPherson in 1869, under which more than 100,000 children were sent from the United Kingdom to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Australia apologised for its involvement in the scheme. In February 2010 UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown made a formal apology to the families of children who suffered. On 16 November 2009, Canadian Immigration Minister Jason Kenney stated that Canada would not apologise to child migrants.[1]

Barnardo boy ploughing C 1900
Boy ploughing at Dr. Barnardo's Industrial Farm, Russell, Manitoba, 1900. In 2010, the photo was reproduced on a Canadian postage stamp commemorating Home Children emigration.


The practice of sending poor or orphaned children to English and later British settler colonies, to help alleviate the shortage of labour, began in 1618, with the rounding-up and transportation of one hundred English vagrant children to the Virginia Colony.[2] In the 18th century, labour shortages in the overseas colonies also encouraged the transportation of children for work in the Americas, and large numbers of children were forced to migrate, most of them from Scotland. This practice continued until it was exposed in 1757, following a civil action against Aberdeen merchants and magistrates for their involvement in the trade.[3]

The Children's Friend Society was founded in London in 1830 as "The Society for the Suppression of Juvenile Vagrancy through the reformation and emigration of children". In 1832, the first group of children was sent to the Cape Colony in South Africa and the Swan River Colony in Australia, and in August 1833, 230 children were shipped to Toronto and New Brunswick in Canada.[3]

The main pioneers of child migration in the nineteenth century were the Scottish Evangelical Christian Annie MacPherson, her sister Louisa Birt, and Londoner Maria Rye. Whilst working with poor children in London in the late 1860s, MacPherson was appalled by the child slavery of the matchbox industry and resolved to devote her life to these children. In 1870 she bought a large workshop and turned it into the "Home of Industry", where poor children could work and be fed and educated.[4] She later became convinced that the real solution for these children lay in emigration to a country of opportunity and started an emigration fund. In the first year of the fund's operation, 500 children, trained in the London homes, were shipped to Canada.[4] MacPherson opened distribution homes in Canada in the towns of Belleville and Galt in Ontario and persuaded her sister, Louisa, to open a third home in the village of Knowlton, seventy miles from Montreal. This was the beginning of a massive operation which sought to find homes and careers for 14,000 of Britain's needy children.[4]

Maria Rye also worked amongst the poor in London and had arrived in Ontario with 68 children (50 of whom were from Liverpool) some months earlier than MacPherson, with the blessing of the Archbishop of Canterbury and The Times newspaper.[6] Rye, who had been placing women emigrants in Canada since 1867, opened her home at Niagara-on-the-Lake in 1869, and by the turn of the century had settled some 5,000 children, mostly girls, in Ontario.[6]

The emigration schemes were not without their critics, and there were many rumours of ill-treatment of the children by their employers and of profiteering by the organisers of the schemes, particularly Maria Rye.[7] In 1874 The London Board of Governors decided to send a representative, named Andrew Doyle, to Canada to visit the homes and the children to see how they were faring.[7] Doyle's report praised the women and their staff, especially MacPherson, saying that they were inspired by the highest motives, but condemned almost everything else about the enterprise.[8] He said that the attitude of the women in grouping together children from the workhouses, who he said were mostly of good reputation, with street children, whom he considered mostly thieves, was naive and had caused nothing but trouble in Canada.[8] He was also critical of the checks made on the children after they were placed with settlers, which in Rye's case were mostly non-existent, and said that:

Because of Miss Rye's carelessness and Miss MacPherson's limited resources, thousands of British children, already in painful circumstances, were cast adrift to be overworked or mistreated by the settlers of early Canada who were generally honest but often hard taskmasters.[9]

The House of Commons of Canada subsequently set up a select committee to examine Doyle's findings and there was much controversy generated by his report in Britain, but the schemes continued with some changes[10] and were copied in other countries of the British Empire.[11]

In 1909, South African-born Kingsley Fairbridge founded the "Society for the Furtherance of Child Emigration to the Colonies" which was later incorporated as the Child Emigration Society. The purpose of the society, which later became the Fairbridge Foundation, was to educate orphaned and neglected children and train them in farming practices at farm schools located throughout the British Empire. Fairbridge emigrated to Australia in 1912, where his ideas received support and encouragement.[12] According to the British House of Commons Child Migrant's Trust Report, "it is estimated that some 150,000 children were dispatched over a period of 350 years—the earliest recorded child migrants left Britain for the Virginia Colony in 1618, and the process did not finally end until the late 1960s." It was widely believed by contemporaries that all of these children were orphans, but it is now known that most had living parents, some of whom had no idea of the fate of their children after they were left in care homes, and some led to believe that their children had been adopted somewhere in Britain.[13]

Child emigration was largely suspended for economic reasons during the Great Depression of the 1930s, but was not completely terminated until the 1970s.[13][14]

In 2014–2015 the Northern Ireland Historical Institutional Abuse Inquiry considered cases of children forcibly sent to Australia. They found that about 130 young children in the care of voluntary or state institutions were sent to Australia in what was described as the Child Migrant Programme in the period covered by the Inquiry, from 1922 to 1995, but mostly shortly after the Second World War.[15]

As they were compulsorily shipped out of Britain, many of the children were deceived into believing their parents were dead, and that a more abundant life awaited them.[16] Some were exploited as cheap agricultural labour, or denied proper shelter and education, and it was common for Home Children to run away, sometimes finding a caring family or better working conditions[17]

Exposure and apologies

In 1987 British social worker Margaret Humphreys carried out an investigation leading to the exposure of the child migration scheme and the establishment of the Child Migrants Trust, with the aim of reuniting parents and children. Full details of the scheme only emerged as late as 1998 during a parliamentary inquiry in Britain, which found that many migrant children were subjected to systematic abuse in religious schools in Australia, New Zealand and other countries.[18]

In 1994 Humphreys published a book concerning her research entitled Empty Cradles. In 2010, this book detailing Humphreys' work, political obstacles, and threats on her life along with the crimes and abuse done to thousands of children by government and religious officials was depicted in the film Oranges and Sunshine.


In Australia,"Child Migrant" children are part of a larger group known as the Forgotten Australians – a term the Australian Senate has used to describe the estimated 500,000 children who were brought up in orphanages, children's homes, institutions or foster care in Australia up until the early 1990s.[19] "Child Migrants" refers specifically to the 7000 children who migrated to Australia under assisted child migration schemes. Child migrants were adopted or brought up in children's homes, institutions, orphanages or foster care. Many of these children experienced neglect and abuse while in institutional care.[20]

At the urging of the "Care Leavers Australia Network", in August 2001, the Senate Community Affairs References Committee published "Lost Innocents: Righting the Record – Report on child migration," and followed this in August 2004 with the "Forgotten Australians" report. Both reports concluded with a number of recommendations, one of which was a call for a national apology. Prime Minister of Australia, Kevin Rudd apologised on behalf of the government of Australia on 16 November 2009.[21] As of 2009, there were an estimated 7,000 "Child Migrants" currently residing in Australia. The Australian government had contacted about 400 British child migrants for advice on how the apology should be delivered. Australia's Roman Catholic Church had publicly apologised in 2001 to British and Maltese child migrants who suffered abuse including rape, whippings and slave labour in religious institutions.[18] A £1 million travel fund was set up by the British Government for former child migrants to visit their families in the UK. The Australian Government later supplemented this fund.


Home Children house and plaque, Stratford, Ontario
A federal plaque marks Home Children immigration, a National Historic Event, near a house involved in the program, in Stratford, Ontario

The federal government designated the "Immigration of Home Children" a National Historic Event, in 1999. A plaque from the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board commemorating the event stands in Stratford, Ontario. The Ontario Heritage Trust erected a provincial historical plaque to the Home Children the year before, in Ottawa.

After the apology by the Australian government, in 2009 the Canadian Immigration Minister, Jason Kenney, said that there was no need for Canada to apologize:

The issue has not been on the radar screen here, unlike Australia where there's been a long-standing interest. The reality is that, here in Canada, we are taking measures to recognise that sad period, but there is, I think, limited public interest in official government apologies for everything that's ever been unfortunate or [a] tragic event in our history.[1]

The federal government proclaimed 2010 the "Year of the British Home Child"[22] and on September 1, 2010, Canada Post released a commemorative stamp to honour those who were sent to Canada.[22] In the province of Ontario, the British Home Child Day Act, 2011, makes September 28 each year 'British Home Child Day' to "...recognize and honour the contributions of the British home children who established roots in Ontario".[23]

United Kingdom

Apology issued by Prime Minister Gordon Brown on Wednesday, 23 February 2010

On Wednesday, 23 February 2010, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Gordon Brown issued an official apology for the "shameful" child resettlement programme, he announced a £6 million fund designed to compensate the families affected by the "misguided" programme.[24]


See also



  1. ^ a b Anon (16 November 2009). "Canadians not interested in 'home children' apology: Minister". TheStar.com. Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  2. ^ "A child migration timeline". The Goldonian. Goldonian Web. Retrieved 2009-04-07.
  3. ^ a b Anon. "Child Emigration". Maritime Archives and Library. Liverpool UK: National Museums Liverpool. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  4. ^ a b c "Annie Macpherson was a philanthropist who is accepted as the pioneer of child emigration to Canada". British Home Children Descendants website. Canada: British Home Children Descendants. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
  5. ^ Anon (18 April 1891). "Child emigration to Canada". The Star. St Peter Port, England.
  6. ^ a b Bagnell 2001, p. 33
  7. ^ a b Bagnell 2001, p. 36
  8. ^ a b Bagnell 2001, p. 41
  9. ^ Bagnell 2001, p. 44
  10. ^ Bagnell 2001, p. 50
  11. ^ "Annie MacPherson was a philanthropist who is accepted as the pioneer of child emigration to Canada". British Home Children Descendants website. Canada: British Home Children Descendants. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
  12. ^ Anon (22 November 2003). "English Orphan Transports: Fairbridge Foundation". Historical Boys Clothing. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
  13. ^ a b "Ordeal of Australia's child migrants". BBC News. 15 November 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  14. ^ "Boys moved after migration stop". BBC News. 1 February 2010.
  15. ^ Historical Institutional Abuse Inquiry, Module 2 – Child Migrant Programme
  16. ^ "UK child migrants apology planned". BBC News. 15 November 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  17. ^ Stewart, Patrick. "The Home Children" (PDF). pier21.ca. Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  18. ^ a b "Australian church apologies to child migrants". BBC News. 22 March 2001. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  19. ^ Anon. "Adoption & Forgotten Australians". Research Guides. State Library of Victoria. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  20. ^ Anon. "Adoption & Forgotten Australians – Child migrants". Research Guides. State Library of Victoria. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  21. ^ Rodgers, Emma: Australia says sorry for 'great evil', Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 16 November 2009.
  22. ^ a b Canada Post, Details/en détail, vol. 19, no. 3 (July to September 2010), p. 18.
  23. ^ "British Home Child Day Act, 2011". E-laws, British Home Child Day Act, 2011, S.O. 2011, c. 14.
  24. ^ Bowcott, Owen (24 February 2010). "Brown apologises for Britain's 'shameful' child migrant policy". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media Ltd. Retrieved 26 February 2010.


  • Bagnell, Kenneth (2001). The little immigrants: the orphans who came to Canada. Dundurn Group. ISBN 1-55002-370-5.

Further reading

  • Oschefski, Lori "Bleating of the Lambs - Canada's British Home Children" 2015 Rose Printing ISBN 978-0-9947828-0-9
  • Boucher, Ellen. Empire's Children: Child Emigration, Welfare, and the Decline of the British World, 1869-1967 (2016) ISBN 1316620301.
  • Coldrey, Barry. "'A charity which has outlived its usefulness': the last phase of Catholic child migration, 1947–56." History of Education 25.4 (1996): 373-386. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0046760960250406
  • Doyle-Wood, Stan [2011]. A Trace of Genocide: https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/31737/1/Doyle-Wood_Stanley_S_201109_PhD_thesis.pdf
  • Hickson, Flo (1998). Flo, child migrant from Liverpool. Plowright Press. ISBN 0-9516960-3-3.
  • Joyce, Sandra (2015). Trees and Rocks, Rocks and Trees – the Story of a British Home Boy. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Welldone Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9877640-4-1.
  • Joyce, Sandra (2011). The Street Arab – The Story of a British Home Child. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Welldone Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9877640-0-3.
  • Joyce, Sandra (2014). Belonging. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Welldone Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9877640-2-7.
  • Parker, R. A. (Roy Alfred) (2010). Uprooted : the shipment of poor children to Canada, 1867-191. Bristol, UK ; Portland, OR: Policy Press. ISBN 1-84742-668-9.
  • Sherington, Geoffrey. "Contrasting narratives in the history of twentieth-century British child migration to Australia: An interpretive essay." History Australia 9.2 (2012): 27-47.
  • Swain, Shurlee and Margot Hillel, eds. Child, Nation, Race and Empire: Child Rescue Discourse, England, Canada and Australia, 1850–1915 (2010). review

External links


1869 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1869 in the United Kingdom.

Adoption and Safe Families Act

The Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA, Public Law 105-89) was signed into law by President Bill Clinton on November 19, 1997, after having been approved by the United States Congress earlier in the month.

Annie MacPherson

Annie Parlane MacPherson (1833 – November 27, 1904) was a Scottish evangelical Quaker and founder of the Home Children scheme, sending poor and orphaned children to Canada and other colonies to serve as slave child labour.She was born in Campsie, by Milton, Stirlingshire, and educated in Glasgow and at the Home and Colonial Training College in Gray's Inn Road, London.

After her father died she moved to Cambridge, but soon after returned to London. Touched by the poverty in the East End of London in 1868 she opened the Home of Industry at 60 Commercial Road in Spitalfield.In the 1870s, she organised that Home children were sent to Canada from her home in London, and also had arrangements with Barnardo's Homes of Dr. Barnardo in London, Quarriers homes in Scotland, and Smyly homes in Dublin, Ireland similar to arrangements with English and Scottish homes.

In Canada she had set up a number of Homes, Marchmont, Galt in Ontario and in Knowlton Quebec The Doyle Report of 1875 into the emigration of children from these homes cast a shadow over the process of exporting children although it acknowledged the benevolent motives of MacPherson and others.Her sister Louisa MacPherson married Charles Henry Birt, and helped her sister in her mission.

In 1873 she established a home in Liverpool called The Sheltering Home.

MacPherson died in 1904.

Arthur, Ontario

Arthur (population 2,450) is a community located just north of Highway 6 and Wellington Road 109 in the township of Wellington North, Ontario, Canada. Formerly an independent village, Arthur was amalgamated into Wellington North on January 1, 1999.


Barnardo's is a British charity founded by Thomas John Barnardo in 1866, to care for vulnerable children and young people. As of 2013, it raised and spent around £200 million each year running around 900 local services, aimed at helping these same groups. It is the UK's largest children's charity, in terms of charitable expenditure. Its headquarters are in Barkingside in the London Borough of Redbridge.

Barney Miller

Barney Miller is an American sitcom set in a New York City Police Department police station on East 6th St in Greenwich Village. The series was broadcast from January 23, 1975, to May 20, 1982, on ABC. It was created by Danny Arnold and Theodore J. Flicker. Noam Pitlik directed the majority of the episodes.


Canadians (French: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian.

Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic, religious, and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and then the much larger British colonization, different waves (or peaks) of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French, British, and more recent immigrant customs, languages, and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, and thus a Canadian identity. Canada has also been strongly influenced by its linguistic, geographic, and economic neighbour—the United States.

Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew gradually over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, and full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law closely mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development.

Child abduction

Child abduction or child theft is the unauthorized removal of a minor (a child under the age of legal adulthood) from the custody of the child's natural parents or legally appointed guardians.

The term child abduction conflates two legal and social categories which differ by their perpetrating contexts: abduction by members of the child's family or abduction by strangers:

Parental child abduction: unauthorized custody of a child by a family relative (usually one or both parents) without parental agreement and contrary to family law ruling, which may have removed the child from the care, access and contact of the other parent and family side. Occurring around parental separation or divorce, such parental or familial child abduction may include parental alienation, a form of child abuse seeking to disconnect a child from targeted parent and denigrated side of family.

Abduction or kidnapping by strangers (from outside the family, natural or legal guardians) who steal a child for criminal purposes which may include:

extortion, to elicit a ransom from the guardians for the child's return

illegal adoption, a stranger steals a child with the intent to rear the child as their own or to sell to a prospective adoptive parent

human trafficking, a stranger steals a child with the intent to exploit the child themselves or by trade in a list of possible abuses including slavery, forced labor, sexual abuse, or even illegal organ trading

murderNeonatal "infant abduction" and prenatal fetal abduction are the earliest ages of child abduction as defined by a viable child through the age of majority. In addition, "embryo theft" and even "oocyte misappropriation" in reproductive medical settings have been legalistically construed as child abduction.

Claude Nunney

Claude Joseph Patrick Nunney (24 December 1892 – 18 September 1918) was a Canadian soldier. Nunney was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Born in Hastings in East Sussex, he was sent to Canada as a home child.

Nunney was one of the seven Canadians to be awarded the Victoria Cross for their actions on one single day, 2 September 1918, for actions across the 30 km long Drocourt-Quéant Line near Arras, France. The other six were Bellenden Hutcheson, Arthur George Knight, William Henry Metcalf, Cyrus Wesley Peck, Walter Leigh Rayfield and John Francis Young.

Dear Canada

Dear Canada is a series of historical novels marketed at kids first published in 2001 and continuing to the present. The books are published by Scholastic Canada Ltd. They are similar to the Dear America series, with each book written in the form of the diary of a fictional young woman living during an important event in Canadian history. The series covers both familiar and little-known topics such as Home Children, North West Resistance, and the 1837 Rebellion.

Dengue fever

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. This may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash. Recovery generally takes two to seven days. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs.Dengue is spread by several species of mosquito of the Aedes type, principally A. aegypti. The virus has five types; infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others. Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications. A number of tests are available to confirm the diagnosis including detecting antibodies to the virus or its RNA.A vaccine for dengue fever has been approved and is commercially available in a number of countries. Other methods of prevention are by reducing mosquito habitat and limiting exposure to bites. This may be done by getting rid of or covering standing water and wearing clothing that covers much of the body. Treatment of acute dengue is supportive and includes giving fluid either by mouth or intravenously for mild or moderate disease. For more severe cases blood transfusion may be required. About half a million people require admission to hospital a year. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is recommended instead of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for fever reduction and pain relief in dengue due to an increased risk of bleeding from NSAID use.Dengue has become a global problem since the Second World War and is common in more than 110 countries. Each year between 50 and 528 million people are infected and approximately 10,000 to 20,000 die. The earliest descriptions of an outbreak date from 1779. Its viral cause and spread were understood by the early 20th century. Apart from eliminating the mosquitoes, work is ongoing for medication targeted directly at the virus. It is classified as a neglected tropical disease.

Don Cherry

Donald Stewart Cherry (born February 5, 1934) is a Canadian ice hockey commentator. He is a sports writer, as well as a retired professional hockey player and NHL coach. Cherry co-hosts the "Coach's Corner" intermission segment (with Ron MacLean) on the long-running Canadian sports program Hockey Night in Canada which airs on Sportsnet, City and CBC. He has also worked for ESPN in the United States as a commentator during the latter stages of the Stanley Cup playoffs. Nicknamed Grapes, he is a Canadian icon known for his outspoken manner and opinions, flamboyant dress, and staunch Canadian nationalism. By the 2017–18 NHL season, Cherry and MacLean have hosted Coach's Corner for 33 seasons.Cherry played one game with the Boston Bruins, and later coached the team for five seasons after concluding a successful playing career in the American Hockey League. He is also well known as an author, syndicated radio commentator for the Sportsnet Radio Network, creator of the Rock'em Sock'em Hockey video series, and celebrity endorser. Cherry was voted the seventh greatest Canadian on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's television special, The Greatest Canadian. In March 2010, his life was dramatized in a two-part Canadian Broadcasting Corporation made-for-television movie, Keep Your Head Up, Kid: The Don Cherry Story, based on a script written by his son, Timothy Cherry. In March 2012, CBC aired a sequel, The Wrath of Grapes: The Don Cherry Story II.

Indentured servitude

An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time. The contract often lets the employer sell the labor of an indenturee to a third party. Indenturees usually enter into an indenture for a specific payment or other benefit, or to meet a legal obligation, such as debt bondage. On completion of the contract, indentured servants were given their freedom, and occasionally plots of land. In many countries, systems of indentured labor have now been outlawed, and are banned by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a form of slavery.

Margaret Humphreys

Margaret Humphreys, CBE, OAM (born 1944) is a British social worker and author from Nottingham, England. In 1987, she investigated and brought to public attention the British government programme of Home Children. This involved forcibly relocating poor British children to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the former Rhodesia and other parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, often without their parents' knowledge. Children were often told their parents had died, and parents were told their children had been placed for adoption elsewhere in the UK. According to Humphreys, up to 150,000 children are believed to have been resettled under the scheme, some as young as three, about 7,000 of whom were sent to Australia.Saving money was one of the motives behind this policy. The children were allegedly deported because it was cheaper to care for them overseas. It cost an estimated £5 per day to keep a child on welfare in a British institution, but only 10% of that, ten shillings, in an Australian one.

Mixteca Region

The Mixteca Region is a region in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, part of the broader La Mixteca area which covers parts of the states of Puebla, Guerrero and Oaxaca.

The region includes the districts of Juxtlahuaca, Silacayoapam, Huajuapan, Coixtlahuaca, Teposcolula, Tlaxiaco and Nochixtlán. The largest cities are Huajuapan and Tlaxiaco.

According to the 1990 census the region had 556,256 people over the age of five, of which 227,680 spoke Mixteco.


Historically, an orphanage was a residential institution, or group home, devoted to the care of orphans and other children who were separated from their biological families. Examples of what would cause a child to be placed in orphanages are when the biological parents were deceased, the biological family was abusive to the child, there was substance abuse or mental illness in the biological home that was detrimental to the child, or the parents had to leave to work elsewhere and were unable or unwilling to take the child. The role of legal responsibility for the support of children whose parent(s) have died or are otherwise unable to provide care differs internationally.

The use of government-run orphanages has been phased out in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and in the European Union member-states during the latter half of the 20th century but continue to operate in many other regions internationally. While the term "orphanage" is no longer typically used in the United States, nearly every US state continues to operate residential group homes for children in need of a safe place to live and in which to be supported in their educational and life-skills pursuits. Homes like the Milton Hershey School in Pennsylvania, Mooseheart in Illinois and the Crossnore School and Children's Home in North Carolina continue to provide care and support for children in need. While a place like the Milton Hershey School houses nearly 2,000 children, each child lives in a small group-home environment with "house parents" who often live many years in that home. Children who grow up in these residential homes have higher rates of high school and college graduation than those who spend equivalent numbers of years in the US Foster Care system, wherein only 44 to 66 percent of children graduate from high school.Research from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) is often cited as demonstrating that residential institutions negatively impact the wellbeing of children. The BEIP selected orphanages in Bucharest, Romania that raised abandoned children in socially and emotionally deprived environments in order to study the changes in development of infants and children after they had been placed with specially trained foster families in the local community. This powerful study demonstrated how the lack of loving attention typically provided to children by their parents or caregivers is pivotal for optimal human development, specifically of the brain; adequate nutrition is not enough. Further research of children who were adopted from institutions in Eastern European countries to the US demonstrated that for every 3.5 months that an infant spent in the institution, they lagged behind their peers in growth by 1 month. Further, a meta-analysis of research on the IQs of children in orphanages found lower IQs among the children in many institutions, but this result was not found in the low-income country setting.Worldwide, residential institutions like orphanages can often be detrimental to the psychological development of affected children. In countries where orphanages are no longer in use, the long-term care of unwarded children by the state has been transitioned to a domestic environment, with an emphasis on replicating a family home. Many of these countries, such as the United States, utilize a system of monetary stipends paid to foster parents to incentivize and subsidize the care of state wards in private homes. A distinction must be made between foster care and adoption, as adoption would remove the child from the care of the state and transfer the legal responsibility for that child's care to the adoptive parent completely and irrevocably, whereas in the case of foster care, the child would remain a ward of the state with the foster parent acting only as caregiver.

Most children who live in orphanages are not orphans; four out of five children in orphanages have at least one living parent and most having some extended family. Developing countries and their governments rely on kinship care to aid in the orphan crisis, because it is cheaper to financially help extended families in taking in an orphaned child then it is to institutionalize them. Additionally, developing nations are lacking in child welfare and their well-being because of lack of resources. Research that is being collected in the developing world shows that these countries focus purely on survival indicators instead of a combination of their survival and other positive indicators like a developed nation would do. This speaks to the way that many developed countries treat an orphan crisis, as the only focus is to obtain a way to insure their survival. In the developed nations orphans can expect to find not only a home but also these countries will try an ensure a secure future as well. Furthermore, orphans in developing nations are seen as a problem that needs to be solved, this also makes them vulnerable to exploitation or neglect. In Pakistan, alternative care for orphans often falls on to extended families and Pakistan society as the government feels puts the burden of caring for orphans on them. Although it is very common for Pakistan citizens to take in orphans because of their culture and religion only orphans whose parents have passed away are taken in. This neglects a population of children who need alternative care either due to abuse or parents who are unable to care for their child because of poverty, mental, or physical issues.A few large international charities continue to fund orphanages, but most are still commonly founded by smaller charities and religious groups. Especially in developing countries, orphanages may prey on vulnerable families at risk of breakdown and actively recruit children to ensure continued funding. Orphanages in developing countries are rarely run by the state. However, not all orphanages that are state-run are less corrupted; the Romanian orphanages, like those in Bucharest, were founded due to the soaring population numbers catalyzed by dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu, who banned abortion and birth control and incentivized procreation in order to increase the Romanian workforce.Today’s residential institutions for children, also described as congregate care, include group homes, residential child care communities, children's homes, refuges, rehabilitation centers, night shelters, and youth treatment centers.

Penal transportation

Penal transportation or transportation was the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination. While the prisoners may have been released once the sentence was served, they generally did not have the resources to get themselves back home.

England transported its convicts and political prisoners, as well as prisoners of war from Scotland and Ireland, to its overseas colonies in the Americas from the 1610s until early in the American Revolution in 1776, when transportation to America was temporarily suspended by the Criminal Law Act 1776 (16 Geo. 3 c.43). The practice was mandated in Scotland by an act of 1785, but was less used there than in England. Transportation on a large scale resumed with the departure of the First Fleet to Australia in 1787, and continued there until 1868.

France transported convicts to Devil's Island and New Caledonia from 1852 and the 1860s until 1953 and 1897, respectively.

Textile manufacturing

Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fiber into yarn, yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibers are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fiber, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide ranges of products. There remains a large industry that uses hand techniques to achieve the same results.

The Leaving of Liverpool (miniseries)

The Leaving of Liverpool is a 1992 television mini-series, an Australian–British co-production between the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) and British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The series was about the Home Children, the migration scheme which saw over 100,000 British children sent to Commonwealth realms such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada and South Africa.

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