Holocaust Memorial Day or Holocaust Remembrance Day refers to various countries' designated annual day of commemoration honoring the victims, survivors and rescuers of the Holocaust during the Nazi regime
|United Nations||27 January||International Holocaust Remembrance Day||It was designated by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 60/7 on 1 November 2005 during the 42nd plenary session |
|Israel (and many Jewish communities in other countries)||27 Nisan (April/May)||Yom HaShoah (Holocaust Day), or Yom HaZikaron laShoah ve-laGvura (the Holocaust and Heroism Remembrance Day)||Both an Israeli day of remembrance and a day of remembrance observed by many Jewish communities in the United States and elsewhere in the world.|
|European Union||27 January||International Holocaust Remembrance Day||Since 1950 |
|Austria||May 5||"Gedenktag gegen Gewalt und Rassismus im Gedenken an die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus" (Memorial Day against Violence and Racism in Memory on the Victims of National Socialism)||The day that the concentration camp Mauthausen was liberated in 1945. German: Gedenktag gegen Gewalt und Rassismus im Gedenken an die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus|
|Bulgaria||March 10||Holocaust Remembrance Day and the "Day of the Salvation of the Bulgarian Jews and of the Victims of the Holocaust and of the Crimes against Humanity"||The day of the revocation of the plan to expel the country's Jewish population, officially designated in 2003.|
|Czech Republic||27 January||Memorial Day for the Victims of the Holocaust and Prevention of Crimes against Humanity||Czech: Den památky obětí holocaustu a předcházení zločinu proti lidskosti|
|France||16 July||Anniversary of the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup||French: Anniversaire de la rafle du Vélodrome d'hiver. Remembrance marking the mass arrest of 13,152 Jews in Paris on this date in 1942 and their extermination at Auschwitz.|
|Germany||27 January||Memorial Day for the Victims of National Socialism||German: Tag des Gedenkens an die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus|
|Greece||27 January||National Holocaust Memorial Day||Greek: Εθνική Ημέρα Μνήμης Ολοκαυτώματος (Ethniki Imera Mnimis Olokaftomatos), since 2004.|
|Italy||27 January||Memorial Day||Italian: Giorno della Memoria|
|Netherlands||4 May||Dodenherdenking (Remembrance of the Dead)||There is a separate Auschwitzherdenking (liberation of Auschwitz memorial) every last Sunday of January|
|Poland||19 April||Holocaust Remembrance Day||Anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising |
|Romania||9 October||National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust||Romanian: Ziua Naţională de Comemorare a Holocaustului|
|Serbia||22 April||Dan sećanja na žrtve holokausta (Holocaust Remembrance Day)|
|Slovakia||9 September||Holocaust Victims and Racial Hatred Day||On 9 September 1941, Slovakia passed anti-Jewish laws based on the Nuremberg laws |
|Sweden||27 January||'Förintelsens minnesdag' (Holocaust Remembrance Day)||Has been commemorated as a national remembrance day every year since 1999.|
|United Kingdom||27 January||Holocaust Memorial Day|
|United States||8-day period, from the Sunday before Yom Hashoah to the Sunday after Yom Hashoah||Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust (DRVH)||Established by Congress in 1979 as the period for remembrance programs and ceremonies.|
|Alberta, Manitoba and Nova Scotia, Canada||27 Nisan (April/May)||The Canadian provinces of Alberta, Manitoba and Nova Scotia enacted legislation to recognize Holocaust Memorial Day in 2000.||Note. Other provinces of Canada have made the same enactment so the Canadian entry needs a full updating|
As of 2004, twelve countries observed January 27, the day of the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp, including Germany, Britain, France, Italy and Scandinavian countries. In 2004 Israel designated this date as a mark of the struggle against anti-Semitism.
As of 2004, eleven countries in Europe had chosen dates related to local histories.
The Holocaust had a deep effect on society in both Europe and the rest of the world.
The after effects are still evident today in children and adults whose ancestors faced this horrible scene.Genocide Remembrance Day
Genocide Remembrance Day may refer to:
Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day (24 April)
Bengali Genocide Remembrance Day (25 March)
Cambodian Genocide Remembrance Day (20 May)
International Day of Reflection on the 1994 Rwanda Genocide
Kwibuka, marking the start of the annual official mourning period for the Rwandan Genocide (7 April)
Pontian Greek Genocide Remembrance Day (May 19)
United Nations International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of this Crime (9 December)
Holodomor Memorial Day (4th Saturday of November)History of the Jews in Békés (Hungary)
The history of the Jews in Békés, a county in Hungary, has lasted more than two centuries.Holocaust Memorial Day (UK)
Holocaust Memorial Day (HMD, 27 January) is a national commemoration day in the United Kingdom dedicated to the remembrance of those who suffered in The Holocaust, under Nazi Persecution, and in subsequent genocides in Cambodia, Rwanda, Bosnia, and Darfur. It was first held in January 2001 and has been on the same date every year since. The chosen date is the anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz concentration camp by the Soviet Union in 1945, the date also chosen for the International Holocaust Remembrance Day and some other national Holocaust Memorial Days.
In addition to the national event, there are numerous smaller memorial events around the country organised by many different organisations, groups and individuals.
Since 2005, Holocaust Memorial Day has been supported by the Holocaust Memorial Day Trust, a charity set up and funded by the UK Government.
The theme for Holocaust Memorial Day 2019 was "Torn From Home"Holocaust studies
Holocaust studies (less often, Holocaust research) is a scholarly discipline that encompasses the historical research and study of the Holocaust. Institutions dedicated to Holocaust research investigate the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary aspects of Holocaust methodology, demography, sociology, and psychology. It also covers the study of Nazi Germany, World War II, Jewish history, religion, Christian-Jewish relations, Holocaust theology, ethics, social responsibility, and genocide on a global scale.Exploring trauma, memories, and testimonies of the experiences of Holocaust survivors, human rights, international relations, Jewish life, Judaism, and Jewish identity in the post-Holocaust world are also covered in this type of research.International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance
The International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) is an intergovernmental organization founded in 1998 which unites governments and experts to strengthen, advance and promote Holocaust education, research and remembrance worldwide and to uphold the commitments of the Declaration of the Stockholm International Forum on the Holocaust. The IHRA has 31 member countries, two liaison countries and nine observer countries.The organization was founded by former Swedish Prime Minister Göran Persson in 1998. From 26–28 January 2000 the Stockholm International Forum on the Holocaust was held, bringing together high-ranking political leaders and officials from more than forty countries to meet with civic and religious leaders, survivors, educators, and historians. Nobel Prize laureate Elie Wiesel served as the Forum's honorary Chairman and Professor Yehuda Bauer was the senior Academic Advisor to the forum.The IHRA carries out internal projects, seeks to influence public-policy making on Holocaust-related issues and develops research focusing on lesser known aspects of the Holocaust.
Until January 2013, the organization was known as the Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research.In 2018, Italy holds the IHRA chairmanship and it will be followed by Luxembourg (2019). In 2017 the chairmanship was held by Switzerland.IHRA adopted the Working Definition of Antisemitism at a plenary session in 2016. On 1 June 2017, the European Parliament voted to adopt a resolution calling on European Union member states and their institutions to adopt and apply the definition. The non-legally binding working definition includes illustrative examples of antisemitism to guide the IHRA in its work. These examples include classical antisemitic tropes, Holocaust denial and attempts to apply a double standard to the State of Israel. Although internationally recognised by many groups, the working definition of antisemitism has been criticised by some as too broad, and conflating anti-Zionism with antisemitism.International Romani Day
The International Romani Day (April 8) is a day to celebrate Romani culture and raise awareness of the issues facing Romani people.January 27
January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 338 days remain until the end of the year (339 in leap years).Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim (ימים טובים, "Good Days", or singular יום טוב Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew [English: ]), are holidays observed in Judaism and by Jews throughout the Hebrew calendar. They include religious, cultural and national elements, derived from three sources: Biblical mitzvot ("commandments"); rabbinic mandates; Jewish history and the history of the State of Israel.
Jewish holidays occur on the same dates every year in the Hebrew calendar, but the dates vary in the Gregorian. This is because the Hebrew calendar is a lunisolar calendar (i.e., based on the cycles of both the sun and moon), whereas the Gregorian is a solar calendar.List of Gregorian Jewish-related and Israeli holidays
January 1: Public Domain Day (International, applies in Israel)
January 1: Novy God Day (Russian-Jewish community)
March 6: European Day of the Righteous
April 25-28: Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb (public holiday in Israel, Druze minority)
May 9: Victory Day (9 May) (Public holiday in Israel)
July 17: International Firgun Day
August 23: European Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism
First Sunday in September: Federal Day of Thanksgiving, Repentance and Prayer (Germany, interfaith observance)
September 9: Day of the Victims of Holocaust and of Racial Violence (Slovakia)
November 4: Yitzhak Rabin Memorial (Israel, unofficial, but widely commemorated)
Movable in November: Mitzvah Day International (2018 date: November 18)
November 30: Day to Mark the Departure and Expulsion of Jews from the Arab Countries and Iran (Israel)
December 4: Eid il-Burbara (Israel/Palestinian territories , not an official holiday)
December 24: Nittel Nacht
December 31: Novy God Eve (Russian-Jewish community)Memorialization
Memorialization generally refers to the process of preserving memories of people or events. It can be a form of address or petition, or a ceremony of remembrance or commemoration.National memory
National memory is a form of collective memory defined by shared experiences and culture. It is an integral part to national identity.
It represents one specific form of cultural memory, which makes an essential contribution to national group cohesion. Historically national communities have drawn upon commemorative ceremonies and monuments, myths and rituals, glorified individuals, objects, and events in their own history to produce a common narrative.According to Lorraine Ryan, national memory is based on the public's reception of national historic narratives and the ability of people to affirm the legitimacy of these narratives.The Holocaust Experience
The Holocaust Experience is a 2003 documentary by Oeke Hoogendijk that takes a serious, slightly critical, look at Holocaust museums around the globe. The film asks where the line between remembering the genocide and exploiting the dead lies and if it's already been crossed.Tisha B'Av
Tisha B'Av (Hebrew: תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב IPA: [tiʃʕa bəˈʔav] (listen), lit. "the ninth of Av") is an annual fast day in Judaism, on which a number of disasters in Jewish history occurred, primarily the destruction of both Solomon's Temple by the Neo-Babylonian Empire and the Second Temple by the Roman Empire in Jerusalem.
Tisha B'Av is regarded as the saddest day in the Jewish calendar and it is thus believed to be a day which is destined for tragedy. Tisha B'Av falls in July or August in the Gregorian calendar.
The observance of the day includes five prohibitions, most notable of which is a 25-hour fast. The Book of Lamentations, which mourns the destruction of Jerusalem is read in the synagogue, followed by the recitation of kinnot, liturgical dirges that lament the loss of the Temples and Jerusalem. As the day has become associated with remembrance of other major calamities which have befallen the Jewish people, some kinnot also recall events such as the murder of the Ten Martyrs by the Romans, massacres in numerous medieval Jewish communities during the Crusades, and the Holocaust.