Hollywood

Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California, notable as the home of the U.S. film industry including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry and the people associated with it.

Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903.[2][3] It was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter a prominent film industry emerged, eventually becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world.[4][5]

Hollywood
Hollywood as seen from the Hollywood Sign
Hollywood as seen from the Hollywood Sign
Map of the Hollywood neighborhood of Los Angeles as delineated by the Los Angeles Times
Map of the Hollywood neighborhood of Los Angeles
as delineated by the Los Angeles Times
Hollywood is located in Los Angeles
Hollywood
Hollywood
Location within Central Los Angeles
Coordinates: 34°6′0″N 118°20′0″W / 34.10000°N 118.33333°W
Country United States
State California
City Los Angeles
Elevation108 m (354 ft)
Area code323
Primary AirportLos Angeles International Airport
LAX (Major/International)
Secondary AirportHollywood Burbank Airport-
BUR (Regional) Van Nuys Airport-
VNY (Regional) Long Beach Airport-
LGB (Regional)
U.S. Routes US 101
State Routes SR 2
Rapid TransitLAMetroLogo.svg LACMTA Circle Red Line.svg

History

Early history and development

In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera (Nopal field), named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished. The area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains immediately to the north.

According to the diary of H. J. Whitley, also known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood. The man got out of the wagon and bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning 'hauling wood.' H. J. Whitley had an epiphany and decided to name his new town Hollywood.[6] "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had already started over 100 towns across the western United States.[7][8]

Hollywood Grand View Track Map2
Original 480 acre map of H. J. Whitley property developed by his company, Los Angeles Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Highland Avenue runs through the center of the property. The square at the lower right hand corner is the Whitley Estate and was not part of the Grand View development.

Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres (190 ha) E.C. Hurd ranch. They agreed on a price and shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, and Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area.

Glen-Holly-Hotel-1890
Glen-Holly Hotel, first hotel in Hollywood, at the corner of what is now called Yucca Street. It was built in the 1890s.

Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon (now Lake Hollywood) and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's.[9][10] She recommended the same name to her husband, Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887. It wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year.

By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper, hotel, and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles (16 km) east through the vineyards, barley fields, and citrus groves. A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood.

Hollywood&Highland-1907
The intersection of Hollywood and Highland, 1907
Advertisement for Hollywood, California, land sales, 1908
Newspaper advertisement for Hollywood land sales, 1908
HJWhitley Hollywood Hotel ca 1904
HJ Whitley is the man standing on the left wearing a bowler hat. The building at the left is the Hollywood Hotel on the corner of Highland Ave. and Hollywood Blvd.

The Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley who was a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having finally acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, which, still a dusty, unpaved road, was regularly graded and graveled. The hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years.[11]

Whitley's company developed and sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract.[12] Whitley did much to promote the area. He paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass. The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue.[13][14] His 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him.

Incorporation and merger

Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve wine or liquor before or after meals.[15]

In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L.A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were also changed.[16]

Motion picture industry

NestorStudios-Hollywood-1913
Nestor Studio, Hollywood's first movie studio, 1912

By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production near or in Los Angeles.[17] In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, and filmmakers were often sued to stop their productions. To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easy to evade, because the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals–which covered most of Southern California–was known to rule against patent claims.[18] Also, the weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States.[19] The mountains, plains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios.[20]

Hollywood-Studios-1922
Hollywood movie studios, 1922

Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood. His 17-minute short film In Old California (1910) was filmed for the Biograph Company.[21][22][23] Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction.[24] The first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911.[25] The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, and the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard.[26][27]

The first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard (the corner of Gower), in October 1911.[28] Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros., RKO, and Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation.[19] By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became fully vertically integrated, as production, distribution and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year.[20]

Hollywood became known as Tinseltown[29] and the "dream factory"[20] because of the glittering image of the movie industry. Hollywood has since become a major center for film study in the United States.

Development

Hollywood boulevard from kodak theatre
Hollywood Boulevard as seen from the Dolby Theatre, prior to 2006
Capitol Records Building LA
Capitol Records Tower, 1991

In 1923, a large sign, reading HOLLYWOODLAND, was built in the Hollywood Hills. Its purpose was to advertise a housing development. In 1949, the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce entered a contract with the City of Los Angeles to repair and rebuild the sign. The agreement stipulated that "LAND" be removed to spell "HOLLYWOOD" so the sign would now refer to the district, rather than the housing development.[30]

During the early 1950s, the Hollywood Freeway was constructed through the northeast corner of Hollywood.

The Capitol Records Building on Vine Street, just north of Hollywood Boulevard, was built in 1956, and the Hollywood Walk of Fame was created in 1958 as a tribute to artists and other significant contributors to the entertainment industry. The official opening was on February 8, 1960.[31][32][33]

The Hollywood Boulevard Commercial and Entertainment District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.

In June 1999, the Hollywood extension of the Los Angeles County Metro Rail Red Line subway opened from Downtown Los Angeles to the San Fernando Valley, with stops along Hollywood Boulevard at Western Avenue (Hollywood/Western Metro station), Vine Street (Hollywood/Vine Metro station), and Highland Avenue (Hollywood/Highland Metro station).

The Dolby Theatre, which opened in 2001 as the Kodak Theatre at the Hollywood & Highland Center mall, is the home of the Oscars. The mall is located where the historic Hollywood Hotel once stood.

Revitalization

After years of serious decline in the 1980s, many Hollywood landmarks were threatened with demolition.[34] Columbia Square, at the northwest corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower Street, is part of the ongoing rebirth of Hollywood. The Art Deco-style studio complex completed in 1938, which was once the Hollywood headquarters for CBS, became home to a new generation of broadcasters when cable television networks MTV, Comedy Central, BET and Spike TV consolidated their offices here in 2014 as part of a $420-million office, residential and retail complex.[35] Since 2000, Hollywood has been increasingly gentrified due to revitalization by private enterprise and public planners.[36][37][38]

Secession movement

In 2002, some Hollywood voters began a campaign for the area to secede from Los Angeles and become a separate municipality. In June of that year, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors placed secession referendums for both Hollywood and the San Fernando Valley on the ballot. To pass, they required the approval of a majority of voters in the proposed new municipality as well as a majority of voters in all of Los Angeles. In the November election, both measures failed by wide margins in the citywide vote.[39]

Geography

According to the Mapping L.A. project of the Los Angeles Times, Hollywood is flanked by Hollywood Hills to the north, Los Feliz to the northeast, East Hollywood or Virgil Village to the east, Larchmont and Hancock Park to the south, Fairfax to the southwest, West Hollywood to the west and Hollywood Hills West to the northwest.[40]

Street limits of the Hollywood neighborhood are: north, Hollywood Boulevard from La Brea Avenue to the east boundary of Wattles Garden Park and Franklin Avenue between Bonita and Western avenues; east, Western Avenue; south, Melrose Avenue, and west, La Brea Avenue or the West Hollywood city line.[41][42]

In 1918, H. J. Whitley commissioned architect A. S. Barnes to design Whitley Heights as a Mediterranean-style village on the hills above Hollywood Boulevard, and it became the first celebrity community.[43][44][45]

Other areas within Hollywood are Franklin Village, Little Armenia, Spaulding Square, Thai Town,[41] and Yucca Corridor.[46][47]

Climate

Adjacent neighborhoods

Relation of Hollywood to nearby communities:[40][42]

The Hollywood Sign on Mount Lee is not actually in Hollywood but is instead to the north in the Hollywood Hills.[41]

Demographics

The 2000 U.S. census counted 77,818 residents in the 3.51-square-mile (9.1 km2) Hollywood neighborhood—an average of 22,193 people per square mile (8,569 per km2), the seventh-densest neighborhood in all of Los Angeles County. In 2008 the city estimated that the population had increased to 85,489. The median age for residents was 31, about the city's average.[41]

Hollywood was said to be "highly diverse" when compared to the city at large. The ethnic breakdown in 2000 was: Latino or Hispanic, 42.2%, Non-Hispanic Whites, 41%; Asian, 7.1%; blacks, 5.2%, and others, 4.5%.[41] Mexico (21.3%) and Guatemala (13%) were the most common places of birth for the 53.8% of the residents who were born abroad, a figure that was considered high for the city as a whole.[41]

The median household income in 2008 dollars was $33,694, considered low for Los Angeles. The average household size of 2.1 people was also lower than the city norm. Renters occupied 92.4% of the housing units, and home- or apartment owners the rest.[41]

The percentages of never-married men (55.1%), never-married women (39.8%) and widows (9.6%) were among the county's highest. There were 2,640 families headed by single parents, about average for Los Angeles.[41]

In 2000, there were 2,828 military veterans, or 4.5%, a low rate for the city as a whole.[41] These were the ten neighborhoods or cities in Los Angeles County with the highest population densities, according to the 2000 census, with the population per square mile:[49]

  1. Koreatown, Los Angeles, 42,611
  2. Westlake, Los Angeles, 38,214
  3. East Hollywood, Los Angeles, 31,095
  4. Pico-Union, Los Angeles, 25,352
  5. Maywood, California, 23,638
  6. Harvard Heights, Los Angeles, 23,473
  7. Hollywood, Los Angeles, 22,193
  8. Walnut Park, California, 22,028
  9. Palms, Los Angeles, 21,870
  10. Adams-Normandie, Los Angeles, 21,848

Radio and television

Aleja Gwiazd w Hollywood 84
Walk of Fame

KNX was the last radio station to broadcast from Hollywood before it left CBS Columbia Square for a studio in the Miracle Mile in 2005.[50]

On January 22, 1947, the first commercial television station west of the Mississippi River, KTLA, began operating in Hollywood. In December of that year, The Public Prosecutor became the first network television series to be filmed in Hollywood.Television stations KTLA and KCET, both on Sunset Boulevard, are the last broadcasters (television or radio) with Hollywood addresses, but KCET has since sold its studios on Sunset and plans to move to another location. KNBC moved in 1962 from the former NBC Radio City Studios at the northeast corner of Sunset Boulevard and Vine Street to NBC Studios in Burbank. KTTV moved in 1996 from its former home at Metromedia Square on Sunset Boulevard to West Los Angeles, and KCOP left its home on La Brea Avenue to join KTTV on the Fox lot. KCBS-TV and KCAL-TV moved from their longtime home at CBS Columbia Square on Sunset Boulevard to a new facility at CBS Studio Center in Studio City.

Government

Hollywood, California, post office building, with palm trees, 2015
Hollywood Post Office building, 2015
LAFD Station - 27
Fire Station 27, 2010
HollywoodHighSchool
Hollywood High School, 2008

As a neighborhood within the Los Angeles city limits, Hollywood does not have its own municipal government. There was an official, appointed by the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, who served as an honorary "Mayor of Hollywood" for ceremonial purposes only. Johnny Grant held this position from 1980 until his death on January 9, 2008.[51]

Emergency service

The Los Angeles Police Department is responsible for police services. The Hollywood police station is at 1358 N. Wilcox Ave.

Los Angeles Fire Department operates four fire stations – Station 27, 41, 52, and 82 – in the area.

The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Hollywood-Wilshire Health Center in Hollywood.[52]

Post office

The United States Postal Service operates the Hollywood Post Office,[53] the Hollywood Pavilion Post Office,[54] and the Sunset Post Office.[55]

Neighborhood councils

Hollywood is included within the Hollywood United Neighborhood Council (HUNC)[56] Hollywood Hills West Neighborhood Council[57][58] and the Hollywood Studio District Neighborhood Council.[59][60] Neighborhood Councils cast advisory votes on such issues as zoning, planning, and other community issues. The council members are voted in by stakeholders, generally defined as anyone living, working, owning property, or belonging to an organization within the boundaries of the council.[61]

Education

Hollywood residents aged 25 and older holding a four-year degree amounted to 28% of the population in 2000, about the same as in the county at large.[41]

Schools

Public schools are operated by the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD).

Schools in Hollywood include:

  • Temple Israel of Hollywood Day School, private, 7300 Hollywood Boulevard
  • Gardner Street Elementary School, LAUSD, 7450 Hawthorne Avenue
  • Selma Avenue Elementary School, LAUSD, 6611 Selma Avenue
  • Grant Elementary School, 1530 North Wilton Place
  • Young Hollywood, private elementary, 1547 North McCadden Place
  • Hollywood High School, LAUSD, 1521 North Highland Avenue[62]
  • Hollywood Community Adult School, LAUSD, 1521 North Highland Avenue
  • Blessed Sacrament School, private elementary, 6641 Sunset Boulevard
  • Helen Bernstein High School, LAUSD, 1309 North Wilton Place
  • Richard A. Alonzo Community Day School, LAUSD, 5755 Fountain Avenue
  • Beverly Hills RC School, private elementary, 6550 Fountain Avenue
  • Hollywood Schoolhouse, private elementary, 1233 North McCadden Place
  • Joseph LeConte Middle School, LAUSD, 1316 North Bronson Avenue
  • Hollywood Primary Center, LAUSD elementary, 1115 Tamarind Avenue
  • Santa Monica Boulevard Community Charter School, 1022 North Van Ness Avenue
  • Vine Street Elementary School, LAUSD, 955 North Vine Street
  • Hubert Howe Bancroft Middle School, LAUSD, 929 North Las Palmas Avenue
  • Larchmont Charter School, elementary, 815 North El Centro Avenue
  • Cheder Menachem, private elementary, 1606 South La Cienega Boulevard

Public libraries

The Will and Ariel Durant Branch, John C. Fremont Branch, and the Frances Howard Goldwyn – Hollywood Regional Branch of the Los Angeles Public Library are in Hollywood.

Grauman's Chinese Theatre, by Carol Highsmith fixed & straightened
The Chinese Theatre before 2007
Crossroads of the World
Crossroads of the World
Dolby Theatre v2
The Dolby Theatre

Notable places

Special events

  • The Academy Awards are held in late February/early March (since 2004) of each year, honoring the preceding year in film. Prior to 2004, they were held in late March/early April. Since 2002, the Oscars have been held at their new home at the Dolby (formerly Kodak) Theater at Hollywood Boulevard and Highland Avenue.
  • The annual Hollywood Christmas Parade: The 2006 parade on Nov 26 was the 75th edition of the Christmas Parade. The parade goes down Hollywood Boulevard and is broadcast in the Los Angeles area on KTLA, and around the United States on Tribune-owned stations and the WGN superstation.[63]
  • The Hollywood Half Marathon takes place in April (since 2012) of each year, to raise funds and awareness for local youth homeless shelters. The event includes a Half Marathon, 10K, 5K, and Kids Fun Run along Hollywood Blvd.

See also

  • Portal-puzzle.svg Hollywood portal

References

  1. ^ "Hollywood". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  2. ^ "Los Angeles Herald, Volume XXXI, Number 45". By the California Digital Newspaper Collection (November 15, 1903). Retrieved February 22, 2014.
  3. ^ "Hollywood Was Once an Alcohol-Free Community". By Rachel Nuwer of smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
  4. ^ Annual Report of the Controller of the City of Los Angeles, California. ByOffice of Controller Los Angeles, CA (1914). Retrieved February 22, 2014.
  5. ^ Report of the Auditor of the City of Los Angeles California of the Financial Affairs of the Corporation in Its Capacity as a City for the Fiscal Year. By Auditor's Office of Los Angeles, CA (1913). Retrieved February 22, 2014.
  6. ^ "Holy Moly How Did Hollywood Get Its name".
  7. ^ "Margaret Virginia Whitley Diary (1886)".
  8. ^ Margaret Leslie Davis, [1] (1993), p. 92.
  9. ^ The Father of Hollywood by Gaelyn Whitley Keith The Father of Hollywood (2010) pg. 127
  10. ^ The Quarterly, pg 93–94
  11. ^ Father of Hollywood Dies Hollywood Daily Citizen (1931)
  12. ^ Los Angeles from the mountains to the sea: with selected biography ..., Volume 3 By John Steven McGroarty 1921 pg. 815
  13. ^ Cahuenga Valley Sentinel (May 7, 1904).
  14. ^ Hollywood Citizen (Spring Addition March 4, 1914).
  15. ^ [2] "Hollywood Becomes a Prohibition Town," Los Angeles Times, December 29, 1903, page A-3
  16. ^ Hollywood California | Hollywood History and Information Archived 2011-02-15 at the Wayback Machine. Abouthollywood.com (November 16, 2010). Retrieved on December 11, 2011.
  17. ^ Jacobs, Lewis. The Rise of the American Film Harcourt Brace, New York, 1930; p. 85
  18. ^ "History of Hollywood, California". Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  19. ^ a b Mintz, S., and S. McNeil. "Hollywood as History." Digital History. N.p., 2013. Web. May 20, 2014.
  20. ^ a b c Hayward, Susan. "Hollywood" in Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts (Third Edition). Routledge, 2006. p. 205
  21. ^ Philip French (February 28, 2010). "How 100 years of Hollywood have charted the history of America". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved May 24, 2010.
  22. ^ RASMUSSEN, CECILIA (August 1, 1999). "L.A. Then and Now: Film Pioneer Griffith Rode History to Fame". Los Angeles Times. p. 3.
  23. ^ Dyson, Jonathan (March 4, 2000). "How the West was won Time lapse". The Independent. London (UK). p. 54.
  24. ^ Friedrich, Otto (1986). City of Nets: A Portrait of Hollywood in the 1940s. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-520-20949-4.
  25. ^ "Without This Man, Hollywood May Not Exist". YouTube. January 22, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  26. ^ The Father of Hollywood by Gaelyn Whitley Keith (August 31, 2010) thefatherofhollywood.com
  27. ^ "First Hollywood movie filmed on Whitley Estate on October 26, 1911". Cinema Treasures. July 7, 2010.
  28. ^ Robertson (2001), p. 21. It later became the Hollywood Film Laboratory, now called the Hollywood Digital Laboratory.
  29. ^ "Tinseltown". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  30. ^ Slide, Anthony (February 25, 2014). The New Historical Dictionary of the American Film Industry. Routledge. p. 94. ISBN 9781135925543.
  31. ^ History of WOF Archived 2010-06-12 at the Wayback Machine hollywoodchamber.net; Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved May 31, 2010.
  32. ^ "Kramer First Name Put in Walk of Fame"(abstract). Los Angeles Times, March 29, 1960, p. 15. Full article: LA Times Archives Retrieved June 12, 2010.
  33. ^ Martin, Hugo (February 8, 2010). "Golden milestone for the Hollywood Walk of Fame". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  34. ^ Leavitt, B. Russell (June 6, 1982). "In California: A Fading Hollywood". Time Magazine. Retrieved January 14, 2014. (subscription may be required for this article)
  35. ^ Vincent, Roger (November 19, 2014). "Viacom signs 12-year lease at Columbia Square in Hollywood". Los Angeles Times.
  36. ^ Kotkin, Joel (Summer 2012). "Let L.A. be L.A." 22 (3). New York City: City Journal.
  37. ^ Lin II,, Rong-Gong; Zahniser, David; Xia, Rosanna (April 30, 2015). "Judge halts Millennium Hollywood skyscraper project". Los Angeles Times.
  38. ^ Vincent, Roger (January 30, 2014). "Vine Street resurgence continues with $285-million mixed-use project". Los Angeles Times.
  39. ^ Grand, Noah (November 5, 2002). "Valley, Hollywood secession measures fail". Daily Bruin. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  40. ^ a b ""Central L.A.," Mapping L.A., ''Los Angeles Times''". Projects.latimes.com. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j ""Hollywood," Mapping L.A., ''Los Angeles Times''". Projects.latimes.com. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  42. ^ a b The Thomas Guide, Los Angeles County 2006, page 593
  43. ^ "About". Whitley Heights. Archived from the original on August 18, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  44. ^ "Whitley Heights | Office of Historic Resources, City of Los Angeles". Preservation.lacity.org. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  45. ^ "About". Whitley Heights. Archived from the original on August 18, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  46. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 2015-12-21.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Yucca Corridor Coalition website
  47. ^ Monte Morin, "A Look Ahead: Activists Are Stepping Up Efforts on Their New Cause and Meeting Strong Business Opposition," Los Angeles Times, August 23, 1999, page 1
  48. ^ "Monthly Averages for Los Angeles (90028)". www.weather.com. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
  49. ^ "Population Density". Los Angeles Times. Mapping L.A. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  50. ^ Bob Pool, "Hollywood, Radio Finally Part Waves," Los Angeles Times, August 11, 2005
  51. ^ "Johnny Grant, honorary Hollywood mayor, dies". CNN. January 10, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  52. ^ "Hollywood-Wilshire Health Center." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
  53. ^ "Post Office Location – HOLLYWOOD Archived 2010-03-30 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
  54. ^ "Post Office Location – HOLLYWOOD PAVILION Archived 2010-02-27 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
  55. ^ "Post Office Location – SUNSET Archived 2010-03-11 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
  56. ^ "Hollywood United Neighborhood Council". Hollywoodunitednc.org. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  57. ^ "WELCOME | Hollywood Hills West". Hhwnc.org. December 10, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  58. ^ "Hollywood Hills West Neighborhood Council Bylaws - Area Boundaries". Hhwnc.org. February 15, 2012. Archived from the original on January 21, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  59. ^ Hollywood Studio District Neighborhood Council (January 1, 2014). "Hollywood Studio District Neighborhood Council". Hsdnc.org. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  60. ^ "Los Angeles Department of Neighborhood Enpowerment". Done.lacity.org. January 20, 2012. Archived from the original on November 14, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  61. ^ "HSDNC.org: FAQs". Archived from the original on 2008-12-08.
  62. ^ "Hollywood High School".
  63. ^ [3] Archived July 7, 2009, at the Wayback Machine

External links

Coordinates: 34°06′N 118°20′W / 34.100°N 118.333°W

91st Academy Awards

The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2018, and took place at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. The ceremony was held on February 24, 2019. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards (commonly referred to as Oscars) in 24 categories. The ceremony was televised in the United States by the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), produced by Donna Gigliotti and Glenn Weiss, with Weiss also serving as director. It was the first ceremony in three decades, since the 61st Academy Awards in 1989, to be conducted with no host.

In related events, the Academy held its 10th Annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on November 18, 2018. The Academy Scientific and Technical Awards were presented by host actor David Oyelowo on February 9, 2019, in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills.Green Book won three awards, including Best Picture and Best Supporting Actor for Mahershala Ali's portrayal of Don Shirley, and Bohemian Rhapsody led the ceremony with four awards, including Best Actor for Rami Malek's portrayal of Freddie Mercury. Roma and Black Panther also received three awards apiece, with the former winning Best Director for Alfonso Cuarón and becoming the first Mexican submission to win Best Foreign Language Film. Olivia Colman was awarded Best Actress for portraying Anne, Queen of Great Britain in The Favourite. With a U.S. viewership of 29.6 million, it marked a 12% increase over the 2018 ceremony.

Bohemian Rhapsody (film)

Bohemian Rhapsody is a 2018 biographical film about Freddie Mercury, lead singer of the British rock band Queen. It follows the singer's life from when he joins the band in 1970 to their 1985 Live Aid performance at the original Wembley Stadium in London. It was directed by Bryan Singer from a screenplay by Anthony McCarten, and produced by Graham King and Queen manager Jim Beach. It stars Rami Malek as Mercury, with Lucy Boynton, Gwilym Lee, Ben Hardy, Joe Mazzello, Aidan Gillen, Tom Hollander, Allen Leech, and Mike Myers in supporting roles. Queen members Brian May and Roger Taylor served as consultants. A British-American venture, the film was produced by 20th Century Fox, New Regency, GK Films, and Queen Films, with Fox serving as distributor.

Bohemian Rhapsody was announced in 2010, with Sacha Baron Cohen set to play Mercury. After he left the project in 2013 following creative differences with producers, the project languished for several years before Malek was cast in November 2016. Bryan Singer was the director through most of principal photography, which began in London in September 2017, but was fired in December 2017, for absence, and clashing with the cast and crew. Dexter Fletcher, who was originally set to direct the film early in development, was hired to complete the film, although Singer retained sole director credit as per Directors Guild of America guidelines. Fletcher received an executive producer credit and filming concluded in January 2018.

The film was released in the United Kingdom on 24 October 2018 and in the United States on 2 November 2018. It received mixed reviews from critics; its portrayals of Mercury's life and sexuality and of the other band members were criticised, but Malek's performance, and the Live Aid and music sequences received praise. The film contains a number of historical inaccuracies. It became a major box office success, grossing over $879 million worldwide on a production budget of about $50 million, becoming the sixth-highest-grossing film of 2018 worldwide and setting the all-time box office records for the biopic and drama genres.

Bohemian Rhapsody received numerous accolades, including a leading four awards at the 91st Academy Awards for Best Actor (Malek), Best Film Editing, Best Sound Editing and Best Sound Mixing; it was also nominated for Best Picture. The film won Best Motion Picture – Drama at the 76th Golden Globe Awards, and was nominated for the Producers Guild of America Award for Best Theatrical Motion Picture and BAFTA Award for Best British Film, while Malek won the Golden Globe, Screen Actors Guild and BAFTA for Best Actor.

Chris Pratt

Christopher Michael Pratt (born June 21, 1979) is an American actor. He rose to prominence for his television roles, particularly as Andy Dwyer in the NBC sitcom Parks and Recreation (2009–2015), for which he received critical acclaim and was nominated for the Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series in 2013. He also starred earlier in his career as Bright Abbott in The WB drama series Everwood (2002–2006) and has roles in Wanted (2008), Jennifer's Body (2009), Moneyball (2011), The Five-Year Engagement (2012), Zero Dark Thirty (2013), Delivery Man (2013), and Her (2013).

Pratt achieved leading man status in 2014 after starring in two critically and commercially successful films, Warner Animation Group's The Lego Movie as Emmet Brickowski and Marvel Studios' Guardians of the Galaxy as Star-Lord. In 2015, he starred in Jurassic World, the fourth installment in the Jurassic Park franchise, which was his most financially successful film up until the release of Avengers: Infinity War; he reprised the former role in the sequel Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom in 2018. In 2015, Time named Pratt one of the 100 most influential people in the world on the annual Time 100 list.Pratt continued his leading man run in 2016 with The Magnificent Seven and Passengers. He reprises his role as Star-Lord in the Marvel Cinematic Universe in Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 (2017), Avengers: Infinity War (2018) and its upcoming sequel, Avengers: Endgame (2019).

Cinema of the United States

The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a large effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century. The dominant style of American cinema is classical Hollywood cinema, which developed from 1917 to 1960 and characterizes most films made there to this day. While Frenchmen Auguste and Louis Lumière are generally credited with the birth of modern cinema, American cinema soon came to be a dominant force in the industry as it emerged. It produces the total largest number of films of any single-language national cinema, with more than 700 English-language films released on average every year. While the national cinemas of the United Kingdom (299), Canada (206), Australia, and New Zealand also produce films in the same language, they are not considered part of the Hollywood system. Hollywood has also been considered a transnational cinema. Classical Hollywood produced multiple language versions of some titles, often in Spanish or French. Contemporary Hollywood offshores production to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.

Hollywood is considered the oldest film industry where earliest film studios and production companies emerged, it is also the birthplace of various genres of cinema—among them comedy, drama, action, the musical, romance, horror, science fiction, and the war epic—having set an example for other national film industries.

In 1878, Eadweard Muybridge demonstrated the power of photography to capture motion. In 1894, the world's first commercial motion-picture exhibition was given in New York City, using Thomas Edison's kinetoscope. The United States produced the world's first sync-sound musical film, The Jazz Singer, in 1927, and was at the forefront of sound-film development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the US film industry has largely been based in and around the 30 Mile Zone in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. Director D.W. Griffith was central to the development of a film grammar. Orson Welles's Citizen Kane (1941) is frequently cited in critics' polls as the greatest film of all time.The major film studios of Hollywood are the primary source of the most commercially successful and most ticket selling movies in the world, such as The Birth of a Nation (1915), Gone with the Wind (1939), The Sound of Music (1965), The Godfather (1972), Jaws (1975), Star Wars (1977), E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982), Jurassic Park (1993), Titanic (1997), and Avatar (2009). Moreover, many of Hollywood's highest-grossing movies have generated more box-office revenue and ticket sales outside the United States than films made elsewhere.

Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, making the United States one of the most prolific producers of films in the world and a leading pioneer in motion picture engineering and technology.

DC Extended Universe

The DC Extended Universe (DCEU) is the unofficial term used to refer to an American media franchise and shared universe that is centered on a series of superhero films, distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures and based on characters that appear in American comic books by DC Comics. The shared universe, much like the original DC Universe in comic books and the television programs, was established by crossing over common plot elements, settings, cast, and characters. The films have been in production since 2011 and in that time Warner Bros. has distributed six films. The series has grossed over $4.91 billion at the global box office, currently making it the 12th highest-grossing film franchise.

The films are written and directed by a variety of individuals and feature large, often ensemble, casts. Several actors, including Henry Cavill, Ben Affleck, Gal Gadot, Ezra Miller, Jason Momoa, and Ray Fisher, have appeared in numerous films of the franchise, with continued appearances in sequels planned. In May 2016, DC's chief creative officer Geoff Johns and Warner Bros. executive vice president Jon Berg were appointed to co-run the DC Films division and oversee creative decisions, production and story-arcs in order to create a cohesive overarching plot within the films. In January 2018, Walter Hamada was appointed the president of DC Films, replacing Berg.

The first film in the DCEU was Man of Steel in 2013 followed by Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and Suicide Squad in 2016, Wonder Woman and Justice League in 2017, and Aquaman in 2018. The franchise will continue with scheduled release dates for Shazam! in 2019, Birds of Prey and Wonder Woman 1984 in 2020, The Batman, The Suicide Squad and The Flash in 2021, and Aquaman 2 in 2022. A multitude of other projects are in various stages of development.

Deadline Hollywood

Deadline Hollywood, also known as Deadline.com and previously known as the news blog Deadline Hollywood Daily, is an online magazine founded by Nikki Finke in 2006. Owned by Jay Penske since 2009, it is a brand of the Penske Media Corporation. The site is updated several times a day, with entertainment industry news as its focus.

Hollywood, Florida

Hollywood is a city in Broward County, Florida, between Fort Lauderdale and Miami. The average temperature is between 68 and 83 °F (20 and 28 °C). As of July 1, 2017, Hollywood had a population of 153,627. Founded in 1925, the city grew rapidly in the 1950s and 1960s, and is now the twelfth-largest city in Florida. Hollywood is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, which was home to an estimated 6,012,331 people at the 2015 census.

Hollywood Walk of Fame

The Hollywood Walk of Fame comprises more than 2,600 five-pointed terrazzo and brass stars embedded in the sidewalks along 15 blocks of Hollywood Boulevard and three blocks of Vine Street in Hollywood, California. The stars are permanent public monuments to achievement in the entertainment industry, bearing the names of a mix of musicians, actors, directors, producers, musical and theatrical groups, fictional characters, and others. The Walk of Fame is administered by the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce and maintained by the self-financing Hollywood Historic Trust. It is a popular tourist destination, with a reported 10 million visitors in 2003. The Hollywood Chamber of Commerce holds trademark rights to the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Jennifer Aniston

Jennifer Joanna Aniston (born February 11, 1969) is an American actress, film producer, and businesswoman. The daughter of actors John Aniston and Nancy Dow, she began working as an actress at an early age with an uncredited role in the 1987 film Mac and Me. After her career grew successfully in the 1990s, Aniston has remained a well-known public figure and established herself as one of the leading and highest-paid actresses in Hollywood as of 2018.

Aniston rose to fame portraying Rachel Green on the television sitcom Friends (1994–2004), for which she earned Primetime Emmy, Golden Globe, and Screen Actors Guild awards. The character was widely popular while the series aired and was later recognized as one of the greatest female characters in American television. Aniston has since played lead roles in numerous comedies and romantic comedies. Her box office successes include Bruce Almighty (2003), The Break-Up (2006), Marley & Me (2008), Just Go with It (2011), Horrible Bosses (2011), and We're the Millers (2013), each of which grossed over $200 million in worldwide box office receipts. Her most critically acclaimed roles include the dramedy The Good Girl (2002) and the drama Cake (2014).

Aniston co-founded production company Echo Films in 2008. Divorced from actor Brad Pitt, to whom she was married for five years, she is separated from actor Justin Theroux, whom she married in 2015.

Jonas Brothers

The Jonas Brothers are an American pop rock band. Formed in 2005, they gained popularity from their appearances on the Disney Channel television network. They consist of three brothers: Kevin Jonas, Joe Jonas, and Nick Jonas. Raised in Wyckoff, New Jersey, the Jonas Brothers moved to Little Falls, New Jersey in 2005, where they wrote their first record that made its Hollywood release. In the summer of 2008, they starred in the Disney Channel Original Movie Camp Rock and its sequel, Camp Rock 2: The Final Jam. They also starred as Kevin, Joe, and Nick Lucas, the band Lucas in their own Disney Channel series Jonas, which was rebranded as Jonas L.A. after the first season and cancelled after the second. The band released four albums: It's About Time (2006), Jonas Brothers (2007), A Little Bit Longer (2008), and Lines, Vines and Trying Times (2009).

In 2008, the group was nominated for the Best New Artist award at the 51st Grammy Awards and won the award for Breakthrough Artist at the American Music Awards. As of May 2009, before the release of Lines, Vines and Trying Times, they had sold over eight million albums worldwide. After a hiatus during 2010 and 2011 to pursue solo-projects, the group reconciled in 2012 to record a new album, which was cancelled following their break-up on October 29, 2013.

They have sold over 17 million albums worldwide. Six years following their split, the group reunited with the release of "Sucker" on March 1, 2019. The song became the 34th song to debut at number one on the Billboard Hot 100. It became the Jonas Brothers' first number one single on the chart.

List of Marvel Cinematic Universe films

The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) films are an American series of superhero films based on characters that appear in publications by Marvel Comics. The MCU is the shared universe in which all of the films are set. The films have been in production since 2007, and in that time Marvel Studios has produced and released 21 films, with 10 more in various stages of production. It is the highest-grossing film franchise of all time, having grossed over $18.2 billion at the global box office.

Kevin Feige has produced every film in the series, alongside Avi Arad for the first two releases, Gale Anne Hurd for The Incredible Hulk, Amy Pascal for the Spider-Man films, and Stephen Broussard for Ant-Man and the Wasp. The films are written and directed by a variety of individuals and feature large, often ensemble, casts. Many of the actors, including Robert Downey Jr., Chris Evans, Chris Hemsworth, Samuel L. Jackson, and Scarlett Johansson signed contracts to star in numerous films.

The first film in the series was Iron Man (2008), which was distributed by Paramount Pictures. Paramount also distributed Iron Man 2 (2010), Thor (2011) and Captain America: The First Avenger (2011), while Universal Pictures distributed The Incredible Hulk (2008). Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures began distributing the films with the 2012 crossover film The Avengers, which concluded Phase One of the franchise. Phase Two includes Iron Man 3 (2013), Thor: The Dark World (2013), Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014), Guardians of the Galaxy (2014), Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), and Ant-Man (2015).

Captain America: Civil War (2016) is the first film in the franchise's Phase Three, and is followed by Doctor Strange (2016), Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 (2017), Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017), Thor: Ragnarok (2017), Black Panther (2018), Avengers: Infinity War (2018), Ant-Man and the Wasp (2018), and Captain Marvel (2019), with Avengers: Endgame (2019) still scheduled for the phase. Spider-Man: Far From Home has also been scheduled for 2019, beginning Phase Four. Two untitled films are scheduled for 2020, three for 2021, and three for 2022. Sony Pictures distributes the Spider-Man films, which they continue to own, finance, and have final creative control over.

Marvel Cinematic Universe

The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is an American media franchise and shared universe that is centered on a series of superhero films, independently produced by Marvel Studios and based on characters that appear in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The franchise has expanded to include comic books, short films, television series, and digital series. The shared universe, much like the original Marvel Universe in comic books, was established by crossing over common plot elements, settings, cast, and characters. Phil Coulson, portrayed by Clark Gregg, is an original character to the MCU and the only character to appear across all its different media.

The first film released in the MCU was Iron Man (2008), which began the first phase of films culminating in the crossover film Marvel's The Avengers (2012). Phase Two began with Iron Man 3 (2013), and concluded with Ant-Man (2015). The MCU is currently in Phase Three, which began with the release of Captain America: Civil War (2016) and is set to conclude with Avengers: Endgame (2019). Phase Four will begin with the release of Spider-Man: Far From Home (2019). Marvel Television expanded the universe further, first to network television with Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. on ABC in the 2013–14 television season, followed by online streaming with Marvel's Daredevil on Netflix in 2015 and Marvel's Runaways on Hulu in 2017, and then to cable television with Marvel's Cloak & Dagger on Freeform in 2018. Marvel Television has also produced the digital series Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Slingshot, which is a supplement to Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Soundtrack albums have been released for all of the films, along with many of the television series, as well as the release of compilation albums containing existing music heard in the films. The MCU also includes tie-in comics published by Marvel Comics, while Marvel Studios has also produced a series of direct-to-video short films and a viral marketing campaign for its films and the universe with the faux news program WHIH Newsfront.

The franchise has been commercially successful as a multimedia shared universe, though some critics have found that some of its films and television series have suffered in service of the wider universe. It has inspired other film and television studios with comic book character adaptation rights to attempt to create similar shared universes. The MCU has also been the focus of other media, outside of the shared universe, including attractions at various Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, an attraction at Discovery Times Square, a Queensland Gallery of Modern Art exhibit, two television specials, guidebooks for each film, multiple tie-in video games, and commercials.

Nick Jonas

Nicholas Jerry Jonas (born September 16, 1992) is an American singer, songwriter and actor. Jonas began acting in theater at the age of seven, and released his debut single in 2002 which caught the attention of Columbia Records where Jonas formed a band with his older brothers, Joe and Kevin, known as the Jonas Brothers. The group released their debut studio album It's About Time through the Columbia label in 2006. After leaving Columbia Records and signing with Hollywood Records, the group released their self-titled second studio album in 2007, which became their breakthrough record. The band became prominent figures on the Disney Channel during this time, gaining a large following through the network and they appeared in the widely successful musical television film Camp Rock (2008) and its sequel Camp Rock 2: The Final Jam (2010) as well as two of their own series, Jonas Brothers: Living the Dream (2008–2010) and Jonas (2009–2010).

The band's third studio album, A Little Bit Longer (2008), saw continued commercial success for the group; the album's lead single "Burnin' Up" hit the top five on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. Following the release of their fourth studio album, Lines, Vines and Trying Times (2009), the Jonas Brothers confirmed a hiatus. Nick formed a new band known as Nick Jonas & the Administration, who released the album Who I Am in 2010. Afterward, Jonas shifted his focus to acting and had a recurring role on the television series Smash.

After the group's official disbandment in 2013, Jonas began work on his second solo studio album, signing with Island Records and releasing Nick Jonas through the label in 2014, which saw the commercial success of the single "Jealous". Jonas later co-founded Safehouse Records, a record label in conjunction with the Island and Hollywood labels. His third studio album Last Year Was Complicated (2016) peaked at number two on the Billboard 200 chart in the United States. Following the release, Jonas won the Songwriters Hall of Fame's Hal David Starlight Award in 2016. In 2017, Jonas appeared in the adventure comedy film Jumanji: Welcome To The Jungle, which became the fifth highest-grossing film of the year. In 2018, Jonas married Indian actress Priyanka Chopra.

Once Upon a Time in Hollywood

Once Upon a Time in Hollywood is an upcoming mystery crime film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino and starring Leonardo DiCaprio, Brad Pitt and Margot Robbie. Set in Los Angeles during the Manson Family murders, the film tells the story of television actor Rick Dalton and his stunt double Cliff Booth as they try to get involved in the film industry. It also is the last film to feature Luke Perry, who died in March 2019.

First announced in July 2017, the film will be the first of Tarantino's not to be associated with Harvey Weinstein, after Tarantino cut ties with The Weinstein Company following sexual abuse allegations against Weinstein later that October. Sony Pictures won the distribution rights, having met several of Tarantino's demands including final cut privilege. Pitt, DiCaprio and Robbie, as well as several Tarantino regulars such as Tim Roth, Kurt Russell and Michael Madsen, joined the cast between January and June 2018. Principal photography lasted from that June through November around Los Angeles.

The film is an American and British venture, produced by Columbia Pictures, Heyday Films and Bona Film Group, and scheduled to be released in the United States on July 26, 2019.

Riverdale (2017 TV series)

Riverdale is an American teen drama television series based on the characters of Archie Comics. The series was adapted for The CW by Archie Comics' chief creative officer Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa, and is produced by Warner Bros. Television and CBS Television Studios, in association with Berlanti Productions and Archie Comics. Originally conceived as a feature film adaptation for Warner Bros. Pictures, the idea was re-imagined as a television series for Fox. In 2015, development on the project moved to The CW, where the series was ordered for a pilot. Filming takes place in Vancouver, British Columbia.

The series features an ensemble cast based on the characters of Archie Comics, with KJ Apa in the role of Archie Andrews; Lili Reinhart as Betty Cooper, Camila Mendes as Veronica Lodge, and Cole Sprouse as Jughead Jones, the series' narrator. The cast also features Madelaine Petsch as Cheryl Blossom, Ashleigh Murray as Josie McCoy, Casey Cott as Kevin Keller, Charles Melton and Ross Butler as Reginald "Reggie" Mantle and Vanessa Morgan as Toni Topaz. Other characters in the series include the parents of the main characters: Luke Perry as Fred Andrews, Mädchen Amick as Alice Cooper, Marisol Nichols and Mark Consuelos as Hermione and Hiram Lodge, and Skeet Ulrich as FP Jones.

The series debuted on January 26, 2017, to positive reviews. A 22-episode second season premiered on October 11, 2017, and concluded on May 16, 2018. On April 2, 2018, The CW renewed the series for a third season, which premiered on October 10, 2018. On January 31, 2019, The CW renewed the series for a fourth season.

The Hollywood Reporter

The Hollywood Reporter (THR) is an American digital and print magazine, and website, which focuses on the Hollywood film, television, and entertainment industries. It was founded in 1930 as a daily trade paper, and in 2010 switched to a weekly large-format print magazine with a revamped website.

Headquartered in Los Angeles, THR is part of the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a group of properties that includes Billboard and SpinMedia. It is owned by Valence Media, a holding company co-founded by Todd Boehly, an executive of its previous owners, Guggenheim Partners and Eldridge Industries.

Vanessa Hudgens

Vanessa Anne Hudgens (born December 14, 1988) is an American actress and singer. After making her feature film debut in Thirteen (2003), Hudgens rose to prominence portraying Gabriella Montez in the High School Musical film series (2006–08), which brought her significant mainstream success. The success of the first film led to Hudgens' acquiring a recording contract with Hollywood Records, with whom she released two studio albums, V (2006) and Identified (2008).

Since the release of her studio albums and the High School Musical franchise, Hudgens has focused on her acting career. She has appeared in the films Bandslam (2009), Beastly (2011), Sucker Punch (2011), Journey 2: The Mysterious Island (2012), Spring Breakers (2013), Machete Kills (2013), and The Princess Switch (2018). She has also played the title role in the Broadway musical Gigi in 2015. She has had a role in two of Fox's live musical productions: Rizzo in Grease: Live in 2016, and Maureen Johnson in Rent: Live in 2019.

Vera Farmiga

Vera Ann Farmiga (; born August 6, 1973) is an American actress, film director, and producer.

Farmiga began her career on stage in the original Broadway production of Taking Sides (1996). She made her television debut in the Fox fantasy series Roar (1997), and her film debut in the drama-thriller Return to Paradise (1998). Farmiga made her directorial debut in 2011 with the acclaimed drama film Higher Ground, in which she had a leading role.

Farmiga's breakthrough came in 2004 with her starring role as a mother harboring a secret drug habit in the drama Down to the Bone. She received further praise for the drama film Nothing But the Truth (2008), and won critical acclaim for playing Alex Goran in the 2009 comedy-drama Up in the Air, for which she was nominated for the Golden Globe Award, SAG Award, BAFTA Award, and Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress.

Farmiga also had starring roles in the political thriller The Manchurian Candidate (2004), the crime drama The Departed (2006), the historical drama The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas (2008), the romance drama Never Forever (2007), the romantic comedy Henry's Crime (2010), the science fiction thriller Source Code (2011), the action thriller Safe House (2012), and the biographical drama The Front Runner (2018).

Farmiga portrayed paranormal investigator Lorraine Warren in the blockbuster horror films The Conjuring (2013), The Conjuring 2 (2016), and Annabelle Comes Home (2019). From 2013 to 2017, she starred as Norma Louise Bates in the A&E drama series Bates Motel, which earned her a Primetime Emmy Award nomination. These roles, along with Joshua (2007) and Orphan (2009), saw her dubbed as a contemporary scream queen.

Climate data for Hollywood, Los Angeles, California
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 91
(33)
91
(33)
94
(34)
103
(39)
97
(36)
108
(42)
103
(39)
98
(37)
108
(42)
103
(39)
99
(37)
94
(34)
108
(42)
Average high °F (°C) 66.5
(19.2)
66.9
(19.4)
67.4
(19.7)
70.2
(21.2)
70.6
(21.4)
72.8
(22.7)
77.2
(25.1)
79.4
(26.3)
77.9
(25.5)
74.8
(23.8)
71.3
(21.8)
66.7
(19.3)
71.8
(22.1)
Average low °F (°C) 50.5
(10.3)
50.8
(10.4)
51.3
(10.7)
53.2
(11.8)
55.8
(13.2)
57.5
(14.2)
61.5
(16.4)
62.4
(16.9)
61.7
(16.5)
58.8
(14.9)
55.2
(12.9)
50.7
(10.4)
55.8
(13.2)
Record low °F (°C) 30
(−1)
36
(2)
37
(3)
40
(4)
45
(7)
44
(7)
52
(11)
51
(11)
48
(9)
40
(4)
33
(1)
33
(1)
30
(−1)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.99
(101)
5.23
(133)
2.84
(72)
0.97
(25)
0.31
(7.9)
0.11
(2.8)
0.02
(0.51)
0.05
(1.3)
0.25
(6.4)
0.91
(23)
1.36
(35)
2.75
(70)
18.79
(477.91)
Source: The Weather Channel[48]
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