A hole punch (also known as a hole puncher) most commonly refers to an office tool that is used to create holes in sheets of paper, often for the purpose of collecting the sheets in a binder or folder. The term can also refer to tools of different construction from one designed for paper, such as a those used for leather goods (generally called a leather punch), for cloth, for thin plastic sheeting, and for variations of sheet metal, such as aluminum siding or metal air ducts.
A typical hole punch, whether a single or multiple hole punch, has a long lever which is used to push a bladed cylinder, the punch, straight through one or more sheets of paper and then through a close fitting hole in the die. As the vertical travel distance of the cylinder is only a few millimeters, it can be positioned within a centimeter of the lever fulcrum. For low volume hole punches, the resulting lever need not be more than 8 centimetres (3.1 in) for sufficient force.
Two paper guides are needed to line up the paper: one opposite where the paper is inserted, to set the margin distance, and one on an adjacent side.
Hole punches for industrial volumes (hundreds of sheets) feature very long lever arms, but function identically.
Another mechanism uses hollowed drills which are lowered by a screwing action into the paper. The paper is cut and forced up into the shaft of the drill to be later discarded as tightly packed columns of waste paper. This method allows a small machine to cut industrial volumes of paper with little effort.
The most common standard dimension and location of filing holes punched in paper is International Standard ISO 838. Two holes with a diameter of 6±0.5 mm are punched into the paper. The centers of these holes are 80±0.5 mm apart and have a distance of 12±1 mm to the nearest edge of the paper. The holes are located symmetrically in relation to the axis of the sheet or document.
Any paper format that is at least 100 mm high (e.g. ISO A7 and larger) can be filed using this system. A printed document with a margin of 20–25 mm will accommodate ISO 838 filing holes.
A four-hole extension is also commonly used. The two middle holes are punched in accordance with ISO 838, and so paper punched with the four holes can be filed in binders that are consistent with ISO 838. The two additional holes are located 80 mm above and below these. The use of two additional holes provides more stability. This extension is sometimes referred to as the "888" system, because of the three 8-cm gaps between the holes. Some 2-hole punches have an "888" marking on their paper guide, to assist punching all four holes into A4 paper.
For USA Legal Size paper format [8½ by 14 inches (215 by 356 mm)] traditionally 4 holes has been used in the past and still in use today but not as common as its sibling the standard 3 holes (see below). The 4 holes are preferred due to the extra-long length of 14-inch side of the paper where the 4 holes would be placed. Binders with 4 rings gives the paper better support in the binder. Were the documents only punched with 3 holes, this would allow sagging of the paper at the top part of the binder above the top ring. The 4 holes are positioned symmetrically with centers 3.5 inches (89 mm) apart.
In regions that use the US Letter paper format [8½ by 11 inches (215 by 280 mm)]; United States, Canada, and in part Mexico and the Philippines), a three-hole standard is widely used. The holes are positioned symmetrically, with the centers 4.25 inches (108 mm) apart. The diameter of the holes varies between manufacturers, with typical values being 1⁄4 to 5⁄16 inch (6.4 to 7.9 mm). The 5/16 value is most commonly used, as it allows for looser tolerances in both ring binder and paper punching. The distance of the hole center to the paper edge also varies, with 1⁄2 inch (13 mm) being a typical value. Unlike ISO 838, this 3-hole system appears to have no well-established official specification, and is a de facto standard established by custom and tradition. It can only be applied to paper formats that are at least 9.5 inches (240 mm) high.
Another standard also occasionally used in the US is a "filebinder" system. Its two holes are positioned symmetrically, with the centers 2.75 inches (70 mm) apart.
In Sweden, a four-hole national standard is almost exclusively used. The centers of the holes are 21 mm, 70 mm and 21 mm apart. The guides help keep the paper in a straight line.
The official name of this four-hole system is triohålning, since it was adapted to the "Trio binder" which was awarded Swedish patent in 1890. The binder's inventor, Andreas Tengwall, supposedly named it after a consortium consisting of himself and two companions, i.e. a trio. The binder can be opened at any place while holding the papers in place, as the inner holes have guide pins from one side, the outer holes have pins from the other side.
Single hole punches are often used to punch a ticket, which indicates it has been used, or to make confetti when creating scrapbooks and other paper crafts. For applications needing a variety of hole shapes, a ticket punch may be used. A single hole punch differs from a ticket punch in having a shorter reach and no choice of hole shape.
In the United States, single hole punches are often used to punch holes through playing cards, marking them as "used" or "canceled". This helps cut down on cheating by eliminating any cards that may have been tainted by players. Paper drilling is also popular for this purpose.
Single hole punches are widely used in the UK Civil Service where papers are punched with a single hole in the upper left, and secured using a treasury tag.
A related office tool is the eyelet punch. This is a single-hole punch which also crimps a metal fastening loop around the hole. It is used to permanently secure a few sheets of paper together which must not be separated or modified.
Multiple hole punches typically make between one and eight holes at one time, the placement of which matches the spacing of the rings in a binder. For example, the filofax system uses six holes in two groups of three. In much of the world, two-hole and four-hole punches consistent with ISO 838 are the norm.
In the US, the three-hole punch is most common. Less frequently seen is the two-hole filebinder punch.
In Japan, loose leaf in A4 and JIS B5 sizes (for binders) usually has 30 and 26 holes respectively according to the standard JIS Z 8303 (section 11); which specifies holes of 6±0.5mm of diameter, with their centers every 9.5±1mm, and a distance of 6.5±0.5mm from the center of the holes to the edge of the paper with the additional restriction that the holes must be placed in positions symmetric to the axis across the middle of the page.
To prepare documents for comb binding there are special 19-hole punches for letter paper and 23-hole punches for A4 paper. The holes are usually rectangular in shape, to accommodate the plastic binding combs. Specialized punches are also used for the similar but incompatible coil binding process.
There are office models available for the perforation of 1 to 150 sheets of paper, and industrial models for up to 470 sheets. Most multiple-hole and many single-hole punches accumulate the waste paper circles (chads) in a chamber, which must be periodically emptied in order to allow the continued operation of the punch. For large stacks of paper, a process of drilling may work better than punching.
Paper drills are machines similar to a drill press that use hollow drill bits to drill through stacks of paper. The hollow bit design allows the chads to be ejected during drilling. Paper drills in the United States are most commonly either single-hole or three-hole in construction.
The origins of the hole punch date back to Germany via Matthias Theel, where two early patents for a device designed to "punch holes in paper" have since been discovered. Friedrich Soennecken filed his patent on November 14, 1886, for his Papierlocher für Sammelmappen.
Audiobulb Records is a Sheffield based independent record label holding a global artist roster – brought together under the banner of ‘exploratory electronic music’. The label was founded in 2003 by David Newman with the aim of promoting a new generation of innovative electronic artists. Audiobulb Records has promoted artists by releasing physical CDs, digital download albums, online multi-media pieces and custom audio software and hardware. The work of the label has been featured on various known publications, from XLR8R to The Wire magazine.
Audiobulb Records is also the home of open access projects including "Root of Sine" & "Endless Endless".Confetti
Confetti are small pieces or streamers of paper, mylar, or metallic material which are usually thrown at celebrations, especially parades and weddings. The origins are from the Latin confectum, with confetti the plural of Italian confetto, small sweet. Modern paper confetti trace back to symbolic rituals of tossing grains and sweets during special occasions, traditional for numerous cultures throughout history as an ancient custom dating back to pagan times, but adapted from sweets and grains to paper through the centuries.
Confetti are made in a variety of colors, and commercially available confetti come in many different shapes. A distinction is made between confetti and glitter; glitter is smaller than confetti (pieces usually no larger than 1mm) and is universally shiny. Most table confetti are also shiny. While they are called metallic confetti they are actually metallized PVC. The most popular shape is the star. Seasonally, Snowflake Confetti are the most requested shape. Most party supply stores carry paper and metallic confetti. Confetti are commonly used at social gatherings such as parties, weddings, and Bar Mitzvahs, but are often considered taboo at funerals, due to the somber atmosphere. The simplest confetti are simply shredded paper (see ticker-tape parade), and can be made with scissors or a paper shredder. Other confetti often consist of chads punched out of scrap paper. A hole punch can be used to make small round chads. For more elaborate chads, a ticket punch can be used. Most pieces of paper flats will flutter as tumblewings giving flight times because of gliding aerodynamics.
In recent years the use of confetti as a cosmetic addition to trophy presentations at sporting events has become increasingly common. In this case, larger strips of paper (typically measuring 20 mm × 60 mm) in the colors appropriate to the team or celebration are used. For smaller volumes of confetti, ABS or PVC "barrels" are filled and the confetti is projected via a "cannon" (a small pressure vessel) using compressed air or carbon dioxide. For larger venues or volumes of confetti, a venturi air mover powered by carbon dioxide is used to propel significantly larger volumes of confetti greater distances.Disc-binding
Disc-binding is a type of notebook binding that uses discs to hold the sheets of paper. Each disc has a raised edge. Notebook sheets have perforations along the binding edge that match the profile and spacing of the binding discs.
Notebook sheets are removed by peeling the perforations away from the binding discs. Sheets are added by affixing the perforations to the discs. Sheets can be transferred between disc-bound notebooks of different functions and sizes, provided the discs have the same profile and spacing. In addition to using paper specifically manufactured for a particular disc-binding system, ordinary paper can be inserted by using a specially designed hole punch to perforate the pages to conform to the discs.
Several companies have manufactured or distributed disc-binding systems. These include the Belgian firm Atoma, the now-defunct Israeli brand Flic, Levenger Company (under the brand name Circa) in the US, Clairefontaine (under the brand 'Clairing') in France, Rollabind in the US, Office Depot (TUL), Staples (Arc), and William Hannah in the UK.Double-sided disk
In computer science, a double-sided disk is a disk of which both sides are used to store data.
Early floppy disks only used one surface for recording. The term single-sided disk was not common until the introduction of the double-sided disk, which offered double the capacity in the same physical size. Initially, double-sided disks had to be removed and flipped over to access data on the other side, but eventually devices were made that could read both sides without the need to eject the disk.
Manufacturers sold both single-sided and double-sided disks with the double-sided disks being typically 50% more expensive than single-sided disks. While the magnetic-coated medium was coated on both sides, the single-sided floppies had a read-write notch on only one side, thus allowing only one side of the disk to be used. When users discovered this, they began buying the less-expensive single-sided disks and "notching" them using scissors, a hole punch, or a specially-designed "notcher" to allow them to write to the reverse side of the disk.
DVDs also are available in single-sided and double-sided formats, often as an alternative to two-disc packages. Both sides can be either single layered (DVD-10) or dual layered (DVD-18) or both (DVD-14). When used for movie releases, double-sided DVDs typically have the widescreen (or letterbox) version of the movie on one side, and the pan and scan (sometimes called "fullscreen") version on the opposite side, often with different set of bonus content on each side (Many Fox and MGM DVDs have this setup). Some releases place the feature on Side A, and the extra features on the Side B (i.e. The Pianist and Terminator 1 and 2). Some particularly lengthy films (i.e. Schindler's List and Oliver!) are divided between the two sides, starting on Side A and continuing on Side B, and include a prompt for when to flip the disc (identically to a LaserDisc). It is more convenient, however, for movies to be released on single-sided discs, with the film and extras on the same side, and widescreen and letterbox versions packaged separately.
DualDisc and DVDplus are two variants on the double-sided DVD format where one side is a compact disc. Both formats were created as potential successors to the compact disc format; in particular, the ability to include both audio and video features on the DVD side was intended to boost album sales by providing consumers with an added incentive to purchase physical albums instead of downloading pirated MP3s. However, both disc formats failed to make any long-lasting commercial impact and faded into obscurity by the end of the 2000's, due to competition from digital downloads and the Super Audio CD & DVD-Audio formats and because of physical design flaws that impeded DualDiscs and DVDplus discs' compatibility with many commercial CD players. Namely, the CD side of a DualDisc was much thinner than a standard CD (whereas the DVD side was thick enough to meet standardized specifications), offsetting it from the focal length of CD players' infrared lasers, while DVDplus discs were much thicker than both standard CDs and standard DVDs, causing the discs to have difficulties fitting into slot-loading players and disc changers.Fallstreak hole
A fallstreak hole (also known as a cavum, hole punch cloud, punch hole cloud, skypunch, cloud canal or cloud hole) is a large gap, usually circular or elliptical, that can appear in cirrocumulus or altocumulus clouds. Such holes are formed when the water temperature in the clouds is below freezing, but the water, in a supercooled state, has not frozen yet due to the lack of ice nucleation. When ice crystals do form, a domino effect is set off due to the Bergeron process, causing the water droplets around the crystals to evaporate: this leaves a large, often circular, hole in the cloud.It is thought that the introduction of large numbers of tiny ice crystals into the cloud layer sets off this domino effect of fusion which creates the hole. The ice crystals can be formed by passing aircraft, which often have a large reduction in pressure behind the wing- or propeller-tips. This cools the air very quickly, and can produce a ribbon of ice crystals trailing in the aircraft's wake. These ice crystals find themselves surrounded by droplets, and grow quickly by the Bergeron process, causing the droplets to evaporate and creating a hole with brush-like streaks of ice crystals below it. An early satellite documentation of elongated fallstreak holes over the Florida Panhandle that likely were induced by passing aircraft appeared in Corfidi and Brandli (1986). Fallstreak holes are more routinely seen by the higher resolution satellites of today (e.g., see third illustration accompanying this article).
The articles by Westbrook and Davies (2010) and Heymsfield et al. (2010) explain the processes behind the formation of fallstreak holes in greater detail, and show some observations of their microphysics and dynamics. Such clouds are not unique to any one geographic area and have been photographed from many places.
Because of their rarity and unusual appearance, fallstreak holes have been mistaken for or attributed to unidentified flying objects.Friedrich Soennecken
Friedrich Soennecken (September 20, 1848 – July 2, 1919), was an entrepreneur and inventor. He was the founder of Soennecken, a German office supplier.
Soennecken was born in Iserlohn-Dröschede, Sauerland in 1848, the son of a blacksmith. On May 27, 1875 he founded the F. Soennecken Verlag, a commercial enterprise in Remscheid, Westphalia. His main invention is the "round writing" style of calligraphy and the pen nib associated with it. Round writing was designed to be a visually appealing, standardized style of penmanship which was easy to learn and execute, and Soennecken published books on the topic in several languages.In 1888, Friedrich Nietzsche wrote to a friend that he had finally discovered both a quality paper to write on and a quality pen from Germany: Soenneckens Rundschrift Federhalter.Soennecken also introduced the two-hole punch and the ring binder. In 1876 he and his company relocated to Poppelsdorf, near Bonn, to be closer to the University which later awarded him the honorary title Dr. med. h. c..
Soennecken died in Bonn in 1919.Grammage
Grammage and basis weight, in the pulp and paper and the fabric industries, are the areal density of a paper or fabric product, that is, its mass per unit of area.
Two ways of expressing grammage are commonly used:
Expressed in grams per square meter (g/m2), paper density is also known as grammage. This is the measure used in most parts of the world.
Expressed in terms of the mass (expressed as weight) per number of sheets, it is known as basis weight. The convention used in the United States and a few other countries using US paper sizes is pounds of a ream of 500 (or in some cases 1000) sheets of a given (raw, still uncut) basis size. Japanese paper is expressed as the weight in kg of 1,000 sheets.Laurie Records
Laurie Records was a record label started in 1958 by brothers Robert and Gene Schwartz, and Allan I. Sussel. Sussel's earlier record company, Jamie Records (named after his elder daughter), had been unsuccessful, and as a result, Sussel joined forces with Schwartz to found Laurie Records, this time named after his other daughter, Laura Sue Sussel. By the early 1960s, Elliot Greenberg, an arranger and friend of Schwartz's, had gained a 12% ownership of the company. In addition, Gene's brother Bob Schwartz also became involved in the company. The company eventually grew to include a number of subsidiary labels, most notably Andie Records, named after Sussel's youngest daughter, Andrea Jo Sussel (which later changed its name to Rust Records).
The label variations for Laurie singles were of three types: First, a grey label with Laurie Records written across the top. This was used for first release only, #3013. It then changed to a sky blue label, with the same basic printing of Laurie Records, from #3014 thru #3020. After the first few singles had been released, it changed to the typically recognized label of four red corners with the black square at the hole punch, with Laurie written at the top, from #3021 onward. Of those earlier releases, only #3013 and #3015, both releases by Dion & the Belmonts, were regular re-issues as part of the more familiar label design.
Among the most famous recording artists on Laurie's roster were Dion and the Belmonts, The Mystics, The Chiffons, The Jarmels, Bobby Goldsboro, and The Royal Guardsmen. Dion and the Belmonts were responsible for the first of Laurie's hit singles with their 1958 doo-wop song, "I Wonder Why". Ten years later, the group's lead vocalist, Dion DiMucci (known professionally as Dion), had a solo hit on the label with "Abraham, Martin & John". Another sizable hit for the label was the controversial song "Once You Understand", written and produced by the songwriting team of Lou Stalmman and Bobby Susser and released by the duo in 1971 under the pseudonym Think. Being a small independent record label, Laurie's chart successes usually occurred one at a time and, for the most part, with one-off hits, as was the case with the Mystics, the Jarmels, the Chiffons, and the Royal Guardsmen. In 1966, Laurie released a psychedelic single, "Charity" by the Gray Things, which appears on multiple compilation albums, including Mindrocker, a 13 CD anthology of US 60's psychedelic recordings released in Germany in 1982. "Charity" was issued in limited quantities but it remains popular today via multiple "You Tube" posts.The label also distributed records under several subsidiary labels, including Rust, Legrand, Calico, President, Providence, Dolphin (not to be confused with the Liberty-owned Dolphin/Dolton label). Laurie Records also handled the American distribution of records by the British Invasion band Gerry and the Pacemakers. Jo Siopis, a well known record producer and wife of Gerry & the Pacemakers' bass player, Les Chadwick, was instrumental in the distribution of Laurie Records albums in the United States.
Laurie changed its name in the early 1980s to 3C Records. 3C stands for Continental Communications Corporation and the master recordings that 3C produced are owned by the Capitol Records unit of Universal Music Group.Leather punch
A leather punch is a hole punch specifically for making holes in leather. The working tip of the punch is a hollow steel cylinder with a sharp circular knife-like edge. The leather piece is placed on a hard surface, which may be a part of the tool set, and the punch is forced through it, cutting out a small circular piece which is discarded. The punch may be a simple metal tool struck with a hammer; or several such punches may be mounted on a rotary turret on a pliers-like tool with an anvil, with the desired size selected by rotating the turret. Hole diameters typically range from about 1mm to 6mm. They are typically used for making holes for buckles, eyelets, and rivets in shoes, belts, bridles, etc.Menegazzia
Menegazzia is a genus of lichenized fungi containing roughly 70 accepted species. The group is sometimes referred to as the tree flutes, honeycombed lichens, or hole-punch lichens. The most obvious morphological feature of the genus is the distinctive perforations spread across the upper side of the thallus. This makes the group easy to recognise, even for those not particularly familiar with lichen identification.
The genus has a sub-cosmopolitan distribution (excluding Antarctica), but is concentrated in Australasia, Melanesia, and southern South America. Most species grow exclusively on trees, but some grow on rocks, moss, and/or soil.One Inch Punch
One Inch Punch (aka One-Inch-Punch) was an alternative duo from Los Angeles consisting of former Justin Warfield Supernaut members Justin Warfield and Gianni Garofalo, with Warfield now being part of the darkwave music duo She Wants Revenge.Ring binder
Ring binders (loose leaf binders, looseleaf binders, or sometimes called files in Britain) are large folders that contain file folders or hole punched papers. These are held in the binder by circular or D-shaped retainers, onto which the contents are threaded. The rings themselves come in a variation of sizes including 0.5", 1", 1.5", and 2". These, though are the typical industry sizes. Yet, you can purchase bigger ones in select locations. The rings are usually spring-loaded, but can also be secured by lever arch mechanisms or other securing systems. The binders themselves are typically made from plastic with metal rings. Early designs were patented during the early 1890s to the early 1900s.Samsung Galaxy A8s
The Samsung Galaxy A8s is a midrange Android smartphone produced by Samsung Electronics as part of the Samsung Galaxy A series. It was announced on 10 December 2018 primarily for the Chinese market. It is also sold as the Samsung Galaxy A9 Pro (2019) in South Korea.The A8s is a triple camera smartphone produced by Samsung, featuring 3 different cameras on the rear. It features a 6.4 inch IPS LCD FHD+ Infinity-O Display without a notch. A circular hole is punched out in the top left corner of the display for the front camera. It is also the first Galaxy device to not include a headphone jack.Samsung Galaxy S10
Samsung Galaxy S10 is a line of Android smartphones manufactured by Samsung Electronics. The Galaxy S10 series is a celebratory series of the 10th anniversary of the Samsung Galaxy S flagship line. Unveiled during a press event, Samsung Galaxy Unpacked 2019 on February 20, 2019, they started shipping on March 8, 2019, and in some regions such as Australia and the United States, they started shipping them on March 6, 2019.As has been done since the Galaxy S8, Samsung unveiled flagship Galaxy S10 and Galaxy S10+ models, differentiated primarily by screen size and an additional front-facing camera on the S10+. In addition, Samsung also unveiled a smaller model known as the Galaxy S10e, as well as a larger, 5G-compatible version, the Galaxy S10 5G.
The Galaxy S10e, S10 and S10+ launch price started at $749, $899 and $999 respectively.Soennecken
Soennecken is a German office products manufacturer. Its products are well known in the Anglo-Saxon world, in North America, Australia and also India. Founded by Friedrich Soennecken in 1875, the name was registered as a trademark in 1905. Soennecken is the synonym for the development of the pen, binder and the punch. Due to bankruptcy, the trademark is owned by the BRANION EG since 1973. Today the enterprise offers a variety of office products.Stationery
Stationery is a mass noun referring to commercially manufactured writing materials, including cut paper, envelopes, writing implements, continuous form paper, and other office supplies. Stationery includes materials to be written on by hand (e.g., letter paper) or by equipment such as computer printers.Ticket punch
A ticket punch (or control nippers) is a hand tool for permanently marking admission tickets and similar items of paper or card stock. It makes a perforation and a corresponding chad. A ticket punch resembles a hole punch, differing in that the ticket punch has a longer jaw (or "reach") and the option of having a distinctive die shape. A ticket punch resembles a needle punch in that it makes a distinctive pattern in the item punched, but differs in that it makes a chad.Treasury tag
A treasury tag or India tag is an item of stationery used to fasten sheets of paper together or to a folder. It consists of a short length of string, with metal or plastic cross-pieces at each end that are orthogonal to the string. They are threaded through holes in paper or card made with a hole punch or lawyers bodkin or electric drill, and the cross-pieces are sufficiently wide as to not slip back through the holes.The names Treasury tag and India tag are first found on record in a list of stationery items published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) in 1912, and, both being capitalised, probably refer to HM Treasury and the India Office. While the terms are now equivalent, a Treasury tag was originally a lace with a sharp metal tag at one end, which could be threaded through the holes in a stack of documents or cards and inserted into a corresponding tag at the other end, thus forming a loop and binding the documents. The tags, in that case, were in line with the string, similar to aglets on a shoelace.
ISO standards by standard number