Hoh River

The Hoh River is a river in the U.S. state of Washington, located on the Olympic Peninsula. About 56 miles (90 km) long,[3] the Hoh River originates at the Hoh Glacier on Mount Olympus and flows west through the Olympic Mountains of Olympic National Park and Olympic National Forest, then through the foothills in a broad valley, emptying into the Pacific Ocean at the Hoh Indian Reservation. The final portion of the Hoh River's course marks the boundary between the coastal segment of Olympic National Park and Olympic National Forest, the Hoh Indian Reservation.

The Hoh's drainage basin is 299 square miles (770 km2). Its discharge, or streamflow, has considerable seasonal variation, with summer streamflow averaging about one-third that of winter flows.[3]

The Hoh is a glacial river fed by glaciers on Mount Olympus, such as the Blue Glacier. The glaciers grind rock into a fine glacial flour which turns the Hoh River a milky slate blue color. The river valley is generally broad and relatively flat, causing the glacial sediments to settle out, creating extensive gravel bars, river meanders, and the many side channels characteristic of a braided river.

One of the road entrances to Olympic National Park is on the Hoh River. The Hoh River Campground is the trailhead of the Hoh River Trail, which follows the river through the Hoh Rain Forest from the campground to Mount Olympus. Logjams are common, resulting in quiet pools and new river channels being formed.[2]

The river's name and the name of the Hoh tribe both ultimately come from the Quinault placename /húxw/.[5]

Hoh River
Hoh river in spring
The Hoh river in spring
Hoh River is located in Washington (state)
Hoh River
Location of the mouth of the Hoh River in Washington
EtymologyHoh Native American tribe
Location
CountryUnited States
StateWashington
CountiesClallam, Jefferson
Physical characteristics
SourceHoh Glacier
 - locationMount Olympus, Olympic Mountains, Washington
 - coordinates47°48′37″N 123°38′55″W / 47.81028°N 123.64861°W[1]
 - elevation7,000 ft (2,100 m)[2]
MouthPacific Ocean
 - coordinates
47°44′58″N 124°26′21″W / 47.74944°N 124.43917°WCoordinates: 47°44′58″N 124°26′21″W / 47.74944°N 124.43917°W[1]
Length56 mi (90 km)[3]
Basin size299 sq mi (770 km2)[3]
Discharge 
 - locationriver mile 15.4 near Forks[4]
 - average2,538 cu ft/s (71.9 m3/s)[4]
 - minimum252 cu ft/s (7.1 m3/s)
 - maximum40,000 cu ft/s (1,100 m3/s)
Hohwinter
The Hoh River in winter.

Course

The source of the Hoh River is meltwater from the Hoh Glacier on the northeast side of Mount Olympus. The river flows north then west, curving around the north side of the mountain. It collects headwater tributaries from other glaciers on Mount Olympus such as the Ice River, which flows from the Ice River Glacier, and Glacier Creek, which flows from Blue Glacier and White Glacier. Mount Tom Creek, a tributary which joins the Hoh farther downstream, flows from the White Glacier as well. Other headwater tributaries include Elkhorn Creek and Cream Lake Creek, both of which flow west from the Bailey Range of the Olympic Mountains. Ice River joins shortly below Cream Lake Creek. A few miles below that the Hoh River begins to flow more directly west. Glacier Creek joins from the south, from Mount Olympus. About a mile below Glacier Creek, at approximately Hoh river mile 48, the valley broadens and the river begins to take on braided characteristics. Falls Creek joins from the south, then Slate Creek and Hoh Creek from the north.

Olympus Ranger Station, a National Park Service cabin, is located on the north side of the river at approximately river mile 45, near the junction of the Hoh River Trail and the Hoh Lake Trail. At river mile 42 the Happy Four backcountry camping area is located along the river trail. Below that the tributary Cougar Creek joins from the north, then Mount Tom Creek from the south. Jackson Creek joins from the south at approximately river mile 37 near the Hoh Rain Forest Visitor Center and campground. The Visitor Center is located at the end of Upper Hoh Road and the beginning of the Hoh River Trail. The Upper Hoh Road runs east from U.S. Highway 101, paralleling the Hoh River from Willoughby Creek Campground to the national park. In the region near the national park boundary the Hoh River occupies a U-shaped valley with a flat bottom about one mile across. Mountain slopes rise steeply on either side.

The Hoh River continues flowing west, collecting numerous tributary streams, the most important being the South Fork Hoh River, which joins the main Hoh at about river mile 31. About a mile below the South Fork confluence the Hoh River leaves Olympic National Park. It continues to flow west through a widening valley surrounded by low mountains and foothills. Ranches occupy parts of the valley and land ownership is generally private. Owl Creek and Maple Creek join from the south. The Hoh makes a small northward bend, skirting the edge of, and briefly entering Olympic National Forest. Elk Creek joins from the south, then Alder Creek from the north, then Winfield Creek from the south, after which the Hoh River flows through a large horseshoe bend located at about river mile 15. Hell Roaring Creek joins the horseshoe bend from the north. Three campgrounds are sited along the river upstream from the horseshoe bend, including Minnie Peterson, Willoughby Creek, and Hoh Oxbow. All three are managed by Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR). Hoh Ox Bow Campground is located just west of the horseshoe bend near where U.S. Highway 101 crosses the river. Highway 101 follows the river on the south side. The small Oil City Road follows the Hoh River on the north side to the river's mouth. Cottonwood Campground, another DNR site, is on the north side of the Hoh River, accessed by Oil City Road.

Hoh River Near Mouth
Near the mouth of the river

Below the horseshoe bend the Hoh River begins to meander widely through a broad and flat floodplain.[6] In its final miles the Hoh River collects the tributaries Fletcher Creek and Fossil Creek. Highway 101 leaves the river and heads south. About two miles from its mouth the Hoh River becomes the boundary between the Hoh Indian Reservation, on the south, and the coastal part of Olympic National Park on the north. The former settlement of Oil City is located on the north side of the Hoh River about a half mile from its mouth. A large headland peninsula called Hoh Head[7] is located on the Pacific coast a few miles north of the river's mouth.[8][9]

South Fork

The South Fork Hoh River originates at 47°46′53″N 123°43′2″W / 47.78139°N 123.71722°W, flowing from Hubert Glacier and other small glaciers on the south side of Mount Olympus. It flows generally west through Olympic National Park collecting many tributary streams. At about river mile 11 it enters a broad glacially carved U-shaped valley and becomes braided. The South Fork leaves Olympic National Park at approximately river mile 4, entering Olympic National Forest. It turns slightly northwest and joins the main Hoh River at approximately Hoh river mile 31.[10] South Fork Campground, managed by Washington State DNR, is located on the South Fork. The road to the campground continues up the South Fork Hoh River to the South Fork Hoh Trailhead, just west of the national park boundary.[8][9]

History

The indigenous people of the Hoh River are known as the Hoh but they call themselves chalat'. Their name for the Hoh River is chalak'ac'it.[11]

The earliest documented encounter between Europeans and the Hoh people occurred in 1787 when the British fur trader Charles William Barkley, captain of the Imperial Eagle, dispatched a boat up the Hoh River to trade with the natives. The boat's crew of six were killed by the Hoh people, according to European histories. The incident led to the naming of Destruction Island. Barkley named the river Destruction River, but the name became attached to the island instead. The Hoh people deny the story, saying they never massacred ship-wrecked sailors.[11]

In 1808 the Russian American Company set two vessels south from Russian America as part of an effort to expand Russian control south to the Columbia River and beyond. One of the vessels, the schooner Sv. Nikolai ran aground at Rialto Beach, north of the Quillayute River. Tension between the crew and the local Hohs led to battle. The Russians fled south along the coast to the mouth of the Hoh River where many were captured and taken captive by the Hoh people. Those who evaded capture fled up the Hoh River. They built a small blockhouse and survived into the winter. In February they surrendered to the Hoh tribe at the mouth of the Hoh River. The captives were exchanged and traded among the coastal tribes, with most ending up with the Makah in the Neah Bay area. In 1810 the Lydia, commanded by Captain T. Brown, an American working for the Russian American Company, sailed into Neah Bay. The thirteen surviving captives being held by the Makah were ransomed by Captain Brown, who then returned them to Sitka.[11][12][13]

In the 1850s Isaac Stevens, the first governor of Washington Territory, began negotiations with the tribes of the Olympic Peninsula with the goal of obtaining land cessions and creating Indian reservations. In 1855 a treaty was signed by representatives of the Quinault, Queets, Quileute, and Hoh. The negotiations were done in the trade pidgin language Chinook Jargon. The treaty, known as the Treaty of Olympia (or the Quinault River Treaty[12]), was ratified by Congress in 1859. Its terms included the cession of most of the western Olympic Peninsula to the U.S. federal government with a reserve to be determined later. The Quinault Indian Reservation was established in 1863 and the treaty signature tribes were expected to move there. The Hoh, however, refused to move. In 1872 the Indian agent R.H. Milroy explained that the Hoh did not believe they had agreed to cede their land and that the treaty signed had been explained to them as being an agreement about keeping peace with U.S. citizens and allowing them to enter the Hoh's territory and trade for furs. In 1893 President Grover Cleveland signed an executive order establishing the Hoh Reservation on the south side of the mouth of the Hoh River.[11]

Early pioneers wishing to settle in the Hoh River valley faced numerous challenges including the dense forest and enormous trees, regular large-scale flooding, isolation from markets, and the impracticality of navigating the Hoh River due to its swift current, floods, and frequent logjams. Nevertheless, land relatively far upriver was settled. The area now within Olympic National Park was never inhabited by non-indigenous people. By 1900 the population in the Hoh River Valley was enough to warrant two post offices, one established in 1897, the other in 1904. Over time the population dwindled. By 1919 there were few people left. Abandoned structures rapidly deteriorated in the wet environment. The few historic structures that used to exist in the Hoh River Valley are entirely gone today.[14]

On the north side of the mouth of the Hoh River, across from the Hoh Indian Reservation, the town of Oil City was established in 1911 by Frank W. Johnson and the Olympic Oil Company. Natives had already discovered the oil, which seeps to the surface. This was to be a deep water oil port. Many of the lots were bought on the hopes of oil prosperity, but some were used for vacation homes. Oil drilling operations were conducted by the Milwaukee Oil Co., the Washington Oil Co., the Jefferson Oil Co. and others in the surrounding areas. No significant commercial oil reserves were found. Later, two-thirds of the platted city were returned to the state which now forms part of the Olympic Wilderness Park. http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=7446

Natural history

Hoh Valley, Olympic National Park
Hoh Rain Forest

A significant part of the Hoh River flows through the Hoh Rainforest, a relatively rare example of a temperate rain forest. Abundant winter rainfall results in a lush green canopy of coniferous and deciduous trees, often covered with mosses and ferns. Annual precipitation is 140 to 170 inches (3,600 to 4,300 mm). According to the National Park Service the Hoh Rain Forest is one of the finest remaining examples of temperate rain forest in the United States. It is one of the most popular destinations of Olympic National Park.[15] Giant Western Hemlock, Douglas-fir, Thuja plicata (Western Red Cedar), and Sitka Spruce trees dominate the landscape, while ferns and mosses cloak the trees and forest floor. Fallen trees often become nurse logs.[16]

When Olympic National Park was created in 1938 one of its primary objectives was to protect the herds of Roosevelt elk. Today about 400 of the park's 4,000-5,000 elk live in the Hoh River valley.[2]

The Hoh River supports a variety of salmonid fish, including spring and fall chinook, coho salmon, winter and summer steelhead, and sea-run coastal cutthroat trout. There are also smaller numbers of chum and sockeye salmon.[17] The Hoh River fishery is managed by the Hoh tribe in cooperation with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife [1].[11]

Land use

Land administration within the Hoh River's watershed, approximately, is 57.6% National Park Service (171.7 sq mi (445 km2)), 24.4% state (72.6 sq mi (188 km2)), 17.6% private (52.5 sq mi (136 km2)), 0.22% National Forest (0.64 sq mi (1.7 km2)), and 0.21% Hoh Indian Reservation (0.63 sq mi (1.6 km2)).[18]

Recreation

Forks WA Hoh National Forest Trail
Trail in the Hoh Rain Forest

The Hoh River Trail, managed by the National Park Service, begins at the national park's Hoh Rain Forest Visitor Center at the end of the Upper Hoh Road. The trail follows the Hoh River east into the heart of the park. After 17.5 mi (28.2 km) it reaches Glacier Meadows near Mount Olympus's Blue Glacier. The Hoh River Trail begins at an altitude of about 600 ft (180 m) and the trail is mostly flat for about 13 mi (21 km), after which it ascends steeply to Glacier Meadows, altitude 4,300 ft (1,300 m). The trail passes through the Hoh Rain Forest, a temperate rain forest, and, closer to Mount Olympus, montane forests and subalpine meadows. There are a number of backcountry campsites along the trail. Mountaineers wishing to climb Mount Olympus typically use the Hoh River Trail to reach the mountain. The climb requires experience with glacier travel and crevasse rescue skills.[19]

The Hoh Lake Trail branches off from the Hoh River Trail near the Olympus Ranger Station and ascends to Hoh Lake and Bogachiel Peak, then across High Divide into the Sol Duc River valley.[20]

The Oil City Trail, managed by Olympic National Park, begins on the north side of the mouth of the Hoh River and runs about a mile to the Pacific coast. People can hike north along the coast to Hoh Head and beyond.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Hoh River
  2. ^ a b c "Hoh Rain Forest" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d "Physical characteristics of selected rivers draining the Olympic Peninsula". NOAA, Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC). Archived from the original on 13 May 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  4. ^ a b "Water Resources Data-Washington Water Year 2005; Quinault, Queets, Hoh, and Quillayute River Basins" (PDF). USGS. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
  5. ^ Bright, William (2007). Native American placenames of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-8061-3598-4.
  6. ^ Heller, Paul; Beland, Peter; Humphrey, Neil; Konrad, Sarah; Lynds, Ranie; McMillan, Magaret; Valentine, Kenneth; Widman, Yvette; Furbish, David (2001). "Paradox of downstream fining and weathering-rind formation in the lower Hoh River, Olympic Peninsula, Washington" (PDF). Geology. Geological Society of America. 29 (11): 971–974. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0971:podfaw>2.0.co;2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  7. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Hoh Head
  8. ^ a b General course info mainly from USGS topographic maps accessed via the "GNIS in Google Map" feature of the USGS Geographic Names Information System website.
  9. ^ a b "Wilderness Map, Olympic National Park" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
  10. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: South Fork Hoh River
  11. ^ a b c d e Wray, Jacilee (2003). Native Peoples of the Olympic Peninsula. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 119–132. ISBN 978-0-8061-3552-6.
  12. ^ a b Ruby, Robert H.; John Arthur Brown (1992). A guide to the Indian tribes of the Pacific Northwest. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 81=82. ISBN 978-0-8061-2479-7.
  13. ^ Kirk, Ruth; Carmela Alexander (1990). Exploring Washington's Past: A Road Guide to History. University of Washington Press. pp. 478–480. ISBN 0-295-97443-5.
  14. ^ "Settlement of the Hoh River Valley". National Park Service. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
  15. ^ "Visiting the Hoh Rain Forest". National Park Service. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
  16. ^ "Temperate Rain Forest". National Park Service. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
  17. ^ Rose, Doug (2006). Washington River Maps & Fishing Guide. Frank Amato Publications. p. 12. ISBN 1-57188-367-3.
  18. ^ "Watershed Conditions and Seasonal Variability for Select Streams within WRIA 20, Olympic Peninsula, Washington" (PDF). U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
  19. ^ "Hoh River Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
  20. ^ "Hoh Lake Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
  21. ^ "Oil City Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved 31 July 2009.

External links

Blue Glacier

Blue Glacier is a large glacier located to the north of Mount Olympus in the Olympic Mountains of Washington. The glacier covers an area of 1.7 sq mi (4.4 km2) and contains 580,000,000 cu ft (16,000,000 m3) of ice and snow in spite of its low terminus elevation. The glacier length has decreased from about 3.4 mi (5.5 km) in 1800 to 2.7 mi (4.3 km) in the year 2000. Just in the period from 1995 and 2006, Blue Glacier retreated 325 ft (99 m). Blue Glacier is also thinning as it retreats and between 1987 and 2009 the glacier lost 178 ft (54 m) of its depth near its terminus and between 32 and 48 ft (9.8 and 14.6 m) in the uppermost sections of the glacier known as the accumulation zone.

Bogachiel River

The Bogachiel River is a river of the Olympic Peninsula in the U.S. state of Washington. It originates near Bogachiel Peak, flows west through the mountains of Olympic National Park. After emerging from the park it joins the Sol Duc River, forming the Quillayute River, which empties into the Pacific Ocean near La Push, Washington.

The Quillayute River system, with its main tributaries of the Bogachiel, Sol Duc, Calawah, and Dickey Rivers, drains the largest watershed on the north Olympic Peninsula.

The name "Bogachiel" is a corruption of the Quileute words bo qwa tcheel el, or /boqʷač'íʔl/, from /bó:q'ʷa/, "muddy", and /číʔlowa/, "water", meaning "gets riley [turbid] after a rain", "muddy waters", or, less likely, "big river".

Charles William Barkley

Charles William Barkley (1759 – 16 May 1832) was a ship captain and maritime fur trader. He was born in Hertford, England, son of Charles Barkley.His name is sometimes erroneously spelled Barclay due to the misspelling "Barclay Sound" (in what is now Vancouver Island, British Columbia) on early Admiralty charts, which arose from a mistake from Land District records. The misspelling originated in 1859 with the government agent William Eddy Banfield who issued certificates identifying the "Barclay Land District." The name was corrected to Barkley Sound in 1904. (Banfield's own name was misspelled in the name of the town of Bamfield, also on Vancouver Island.)

Chimakuan languages

The Chimakuan language family consists of one extinct and one severely endangered language spoken in northwestern Washington state, United States, on the Olympic Peninsula. It is part of the Mosan sprachbund, and one of its languages is famous for having no nasal consonants. The two languages were about as close as English and German.

Clallam County, Washington

Clallam County is a county in the U.S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, the population was 71,404. The county seat and largest city is Port Angeles. The name is a Klallam word for "the strong people". The county was formed on April 26, 1854. Located on the Olympic Peninsula, it is south from the Strait of Juan de Fuca, which forms the Canada–US border, as British Columbia's Vancouver Island is across the strait.

Clallam County comprises the Port Angeles, WA Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Destruction Island

Destruction Island (also known historically as Green Island) is a 30-acre (12 ha) island located approximately 3.5 miles (6 km) off the Washington coast. Home to seabirds, shorebirds, and marine mammals, it is part of the Quillayute Needles National Wildlife Refuge.The Hoh Indians used to frequent Destruction Island to capture rhinoceros auklets. In recent years the population of rhinoceros auklet have been in decline as a result of habitat loss and eagle predation due to the presence of non-native European rabbits.Destruction Island's name is derived from two massacres which happened nearby. In 1775, Spanish Navy lieutenant Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra dispatched a crew of seven men to the mainland in order to gather wood and fresh water on the beach near Point Grenville, but they were slaughtered by an estimated three hundred local Indians, leading him to name it the Isla de Dolores (the Island of Sorrows). Twelve years later, Captain Charles William Barkley, an independent English fur trader, arrived in the ship Imperial Eagle, and sent a party ashore from the island to a similar fate. Barkley named the river where the second massacre took place the Destruction River. Captain George Vancouver later transferred the name to the Isla de Dolores when the river was given its Indian name, the Hoh River.Three shipwrecks occurred at the island in 1889: Cassanora Adams, Port Gordon, and Wide West. The 94 foot (29 m) Destruction Island Lighthouse was built on Destruction Island in 1888-91. A US Coast Guard detachment operated the lighthouse from 1939 to the early 1970s. The light was automated in 1968, before it was shut off for good in April 2008. The island itself is accessible only by boat. The popular Ruby Beach is about 4 miles northeast on the coast. Both the island and the lighthouse are visible from the beach.

Hoh Glacier

Hoh Glacier is a glacier on Mount Olympus in the Olympic National Park in Jefferson County of the U.S. state of Washington. It is the source of the Hoh River. Hoh Glacier is the longest glacier on Mount Olympus at 3.06 miles (4.93 km), though it is smaller in volume than Blue Glacier.

Hoh Indian Tribe of the Hoh Indian Reservation

The Hoh or Chalá·at (′Those-Who-Live-on-the-Hoh River′ or ′People of the Hoh River′) are a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. The tribe lives on the Pacific Coast of Washington on the Olympic Peninsula. The Hoh moved onto the Hoh Indian Reservation, 47°44′31″N 124°25′17″W at the mouth of the Hoh River, on the Pacific Coast of Jefferson County, after the signing of the Quinault Treaty on July 1, 1855. The reservation has a land area of 1.929 square kilometres (477 acres) and a 2000 census resident population of 102 persons, 81 of whom were Native Americans. It lies about half-way between its nearest outside communities of Forks, to its north, and Queets (on the Quinault Indian Reservation), to its south.

The Hoh River (and the Hoh who were named after it) takes its name from the Quinault language name for the river, Hoxw. No meaning can be associated with the Quinault name, in fact, no etymology for the name can be found in either the Quinault or Quileute languages.

The Hoh call themselves Chalá·at or Chalat' (′People of the southern river, i.e. Hoh River′) after their name for the Hoh River Cha’lak’at’sit or Chalak'ac'it, which means the "southern river".

In aboriginal times, there was nothing secluded about the Hoh Watershed, even its upper reaches. No less than seven permanent settlements were situated along the banks of the Hoh, most with a fishtrap. The river served not only as a riverine thoroughfare leading to their fishing sites and their hunting, trapping and foraging grounds, it was also the nursery of the salmon and home of freshwater fishes that they harvested as part of their annual cycle. The watershed included the sites of the burials of their ancestors, the hidden locations of their empowering guardian spirits, and the family campgrounds and upstream summer-homesites near resource gathering areas that were heritable family property. Besides that, there were named landmarks, sites associated with ritual and mythic occurrences, and riverside trails.

The Hoh (Chalá·at) people refer to both their traditional lands and their reservation as ChalAt’i’lo t’sikAti, (′the land belonging to the people who live at the Hoh River′).Though the Hoh (Chalá·at) are today considered to be a band of the Quileute tribe, the original Hoh language was actually the Quinault language and they were related to the Quinault. After intermarriage with the Quileute, the Hoh became a bilingual tribe, speaking both Quileute and Quinault, until the Quileute language was favored. Today, however, all three tribes have overwhelmingly adopted American English as their home language.

The lifestyle of the Hoh, like many Northwest Coast tribes, involved the fishing of salmon.

Hoh Rainforest

The Hoh Rainforest is located on the Olympic Peninsula in western Washington state, USA. It is one of the largest temperate rainforests in the U.S. Within Olympic National Park, the forest is protected from commercial exploitation. This includes 24 miles (39 km) of low elevation forest 394 to 2,493 feet (120 to 760 m) along the Hoh River. The Hoh River valley was formed thousands of years ago by glaciers. Between the park boundary and the Pacific Ocean, 48 km (30 mi) of river, much of the forest has been logged within the last century, although many pockets of forest remain.

Kalaloch, Washington

Kalaloch is an unincorporated resort area entirely within Olympic National Park in western Jefferson County, Washington, United States. Kalaloch accommodations (lodge, cabins, and campgrounds) are on a 50-foot (15 m) bluff overlooking the Pacific Ocean, west of U.S. Highway 101 on the Olympic Peninsula, north of the reservation of the Quinault Indian Nation.

The name Kalaloch is a corruption of the Quinault term k'–E–le–ok, pronounced Kq–â-lā'–ȯk, meaning "a good place to land", "canoe launch and landing", or "sheltered landing". The site was one of the few safe landing sites for dugout canoes between the Quinault River and Hoh River.

Keith Lazelle

Keith Lazelle is a photographer based in Quilcene, Washington, United States. The Olympic Medical Center in Port Angeles owns the largest collection of his work. In 2008 the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture featured an exhibit of his work titled "Fast Moving Water: The Hoh River Story" with a companion book, Fast Moving Water: Images and Essays from the Hoh River, published by the Hoh River Trust.Photographs by Keith Lazelle have been used by Audubon, Eddie Bauer, Merrill Lynch, Microsoft, Outside magazine, Safeco Insurance, Seattle Space Needle, and The Nature Conservancy.

List of rivers of Washington

This is a list of rivers in the U.S. state of Washington.

Minnie Peterson

Minnie Peterson was born in 1897 in Hoko, Washington, U.S. to Swedish emigrant parents, Nels Nelson and Sofia Jönsdotter, who came to settle and pioneer land in Clallam County, Washington State. Nels emigrated from Linderöd, Kristianstad, Skåne, Sweden in 1888 and Sofia from Snogeröd, Gudmuntorp, Skåne, Sweden in 1895. The couple married in Seattle, Washington in 1895, two years before Minnie was born.

Minnie later would become known as “The Packer” throughout the Olympic Peninsula and Hoh River, where she lived off the land and worked for over 50 years as a guide (1927-1978), outfitter and notable packer for trips into the high Olympics wilderness of the Peninsula. A campground in her namesake, the Minnie Peterson Camp and Picnic Area, resides along the Hoh River nine miles south of the town of Forks, on Upper Hoh Road.In Minnie's published biography High Divide, she is described as a “tempered-steel character loved by some, admired by most and respected by all.”

Mount Carrie

Mount Carrie is a 6,995-foot (2,132-metre) mountain summit located within Olympic National Park in Clallam County of Washington state. Mt. Carrie is the highest point in the Bailey Range which is a subrange of the Olympic Mountains. With a good eye and clear weather, the mountain can be seen from the visitor center at Hurricane Ridge. Its nearest higher peak is Mount Mathias (7,156 ft) which is an outlier of Mount Olympus, 6.24 mi (10.04 km) to the south. Due to heavy winter snowfalls, Mount Carrie supports the Carrie Glacier in its northeast cirque, and Fairchild Glacier on the east slope. Precipitation runoff from the mountain drains into tributaries of the Elwha River and Hoh River. There is a scrambling route via the High Divide Trail and Cat Walk.

Mount Olympus (Washington)

Mount Olympus, at 7,980 feet, is the tallest and most prominent mountain in the Olympic Mountains of western Washington state. Located on the Olympic Peninsula, it is also the central feature of Olympic National Park. Mount Olympus is the highest summit of the Olympic Mountains; however, peaks such as Mount Constance, on the eastern margin of the range, are better known, being visible from the Seattle metropolitan area.

Olympic Peninsula

The Olympic Peninsula is the large arm of land in western Washington that lies across Puget Sound from Seattle, and contains Olympic National Park. It is bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean, the north by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the east by Hood Canal. Cape Alava, the westernmost point in the contiguous United States, and Cape Flattery, the northwesternmost point, are on the peninsula. Comprising about 3600 square miles, the Olympic Peninsula contained many of the last unexplored places in the Contiguous United States. It remained largely unmapped until Arthur Dodwell and Theodore Rixon mapped most of its topography and timber resources between 1898 and 1900.

Quileute language

Quileute , also known as Quillayute , was the last Chimakuan language, spoken until the end of the 20th century by Quileute and Makah elders on the western coast of the Olympic peninsula south of Cape Flattery at La Push and the lower Hoh River in Washington State, United States. The name Quileute comes from kʷoʔlí·yot’ [kʷoʔléːjotʼ], the name of a village at La Push.

Quileute is famous for its lack of nasal sounds, such as [m], [n], or nasal vowels, an areal feature of Puget Sound.

Quileute is polysynthetic and words can be quite long.

Quillayute River

The Quillayute River (also spelled Quileute River) is a river situated on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington. It empties to the Pacific Ocean at La Push, Washington. The Quillayute River is formed by the confluence of the Bogachiel River, Calawah and the Sol Duc River. The Dickey River joins the Quillayute just above the river's mouth on the Pacific Ocean.

Although the Quillayute is one of the main rivers on the Olympic Peninsula and has a large drainage area, due to an unusual naming arrangement it is officially very short, being only about 4 miles (6.4 km) long. At the confluence of the Sol Duc and Bogachiel rivers the use of the Quillayute name ends, although the river continues far into the interior.

The Quillayute River is the current, traditional, and ancestral center of the territory of the Quileute Native Tribe, which before European settlement occupied the entire drainage basin (plus that of the Hoh River). Presently the natives live at the town of La Push on their small treaty reservation which adjoins the south shore of the river at the mouth.

The final 2 to 3 miles (3.2 to 4.8 km) at the mouth of the Quillayute pass through the narrow coastal strip of the Olympic National Park. Park roads lead to the Mora and Rialto Beach recreation area on the north side of the Quillayute. There are camping and picnicing facilities, public parking, and trailhead access to the coastal wilderness strip north of the river.

Seven Lakes Basin

Seven Lakes Basin is a basin located in the state of Washington, Olympic National Park, 15 miles south of Lake Crescent. The trail to the basin is 19 miles (31 km) round trip with about 4,000 feet (1,200 m) of elevation gain. The loop trail starts by following the Sol Duc River near Sol Duc Hot Springs and eventually heads south and begins a rapid elevation gain. The trail winds out of the rain forest and eventually ends at the High Divide, a long steep ridge that runs along the south side of the basin, where there are prime views of Mt. Olympus and the Hoh River valley to the south and the Sol Duc valley to the north. To the east lie glacial fields.

While the basin itself has a barren, lunar landscape it is surrounded by old-growth forest and alpine meadows lush with wildflowers and blueberries. Despite the name, Seven Lakes Basin, there are actually eight small lakes in the area. The lakes are Sol duc, Long, Lunch, Morgenroth, No Name, Clear, Round, and Lake No. 8. The largest of these lakes is Sol duc and the smallest is Morgenroth. Other lakes are encountered along the way which are not considered part of "seven lakes" include Heart Lake and Deer Lake. Heart Lake gets its name from its very distinct heart like shape.

Black Bear, mountain goats, marmots, and Olympic Elk are common in this area. Fishing is a popular activity in the area, although there are no fish in Heart Lake and several of the other smaller lakes in the basin.

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