Hitler oath

The term Hitler oath (German: Führereid or Eid auf den Führer, "Oath to the Leader") — also often referred to in English as simply the Soldier's Oath or Soldiers' Oath[1] — refers to the oaths of allegiance, sworn by the officers and soldiers of the German Armed Forces and civil servants of Nazi Germany between the years 1934 and 1945. The oath pledged personal loyalty to Adolf Hitler in place of loyalty to the constitution of the country.

Background

On the day before President Paul von Hindenburg's death on August 2, 1934, Hitler's cabinet had enacted a law combining the offices of Chancellor (the head of government) and President (the head of state); Adolf Hitler would henceforth be known as Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Chancellor) and was both head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. The day of Hindenburg's death, the cabinet ordered a plebiscite for August 19 for the German people to approve the combination of the two offices.

Although the popular view is that Hitler drafted the oath himself and imposed it on the military, the oath was the initiative of Defence Minister General Werner von Blomberg and General Walther von Reichenau, the chief of the Ministerial Office. Indeed, Hitler was surprised by the oath.[2] Before Hitler took office, the military swore the Reichswehreid to the German constitution and president. The intention of Blomberg and Reichenau in having the military swear an oath to Hitler was to create a personal special bond between him and the military, which was intended to tie Hitler more tightly towards the military and away from the NSDAP. Years later, Blomberg admitted that he did not think through the full implications of the oath at the time.[2]

Germany's voters went to the polls and 89.9% voted their approval for Hitler to assume complete power over Germany. The following day, August 20, 1934, the cabinet decreed the "Law On The Allegiance of Civil Servants and Soldiers of the Armed Forces", which superseded the original oaths. Prior to the decree, both members of the armed forces and civil servants had sworn loyalty to "the People and the Fatherland" (Volk und Vaterland); civil servants had additionally sworn to uphold the constitution and laws of Germany. The new law decreed that instead, both members of the armed forces and civil servants would swear an oath to Hitler personally.

Text of the oaths

Reichswehr oath

From 1919 until 1935, the Weimar Republic's armed forces were called the Reichswehr ("Realm Defence"), which had the following oath formula from 14 August 1919 until 1 December 1933:[3]

"Ich schwöre Treue der Reichsverfassung und gelobe,
daß ich als tapferer Soldat das Deutsche Reich und seine gesetzmäßigen Einrichtungen jederzeit schützen,
dem Reichspräsidenten und meinen Vorgesetzten Gehorsam leisten will.

"I swear loyalty to the Reich's constitution and pledge,
that I as a courageous soldier always want to protect the German Reich and its legal institutions,
(and) be obedient to the Reichspräsident and to my superiors."

In January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Reichskanzler and the Enabling Act and Gleichschaltung came in effect. As a result, a new wording was adopted on 2 December 1933:

"Ich schwöre bei Gott diesen heiligen Eid,
daß ich meinem Volk und Vaterland allzeit treu und redlich dienen
und als tapferer und gehorsamer Soldat bereit sein will,
jederzeit für diesen Eid mein Leben einzusetzen."

"I swear by God this holy oath,
that I want to ever loyally and sincerely serve my people and fatherland
and be prepared as a brave and obedient soldier
to risk my life for this oath at any time."

Wehrmacht oath

Bundesarchiv Bild 102-16108, Vereidigung von Reichswehr-Soldaten auf Hitler
Reichswehr soldiers swear the Hitler oath in 1934, with hands raised in the traditional schwurhand gesture

Die Vereidigung der Wehrmacht auf Adolf Hitler, 2.8.1934

"Ich schwöre bei Gott diesen heiligen Eid,
daß ich dem Führer des Deutschen Reiches und Volkes
Adolf Hitler, dem Oberbefehlshaber der Wehrmacht,
unbedingten Gehorsam leisten und als tapferer Soldat bereit sein will,
jederzeit für diesen Eid mein Leben einzusetzen."

The Wehrmacht Oath of Loyalty to Adolf Hitler, 2 August 1934

"I swear to God this sacred oath
that to the Leader of the German Empire and people,
Adolf Hitler, supreme commander of the armed forces,
I shall render unconditional obedience and that as a brave soldier I shall at all times be prepared
to give my life for this oath."

Civil servant oath

Diensteid der öffentlichen Beamten

"Ich schwöre: Ich werde dem Führer des Deutschen Reiches und Volkes
Adolf Hitler treu und gehorsam sein, die Gesetze beachten,
und meine Amtspflichten gewissenhaft erfüllen, so wahr mir Gott helfe."

Service oath for public servants

"I swear: I will be faithful and obedient to the leader of the German Empire and people,
Adolf Hitler, to observe the law,
and to conscientiously fulfill my official duties, so help me God."

Oathtakers then sang both Deutschland Über Alles and the Nazi anthem Horst-Wessel-Lied.[4]

Public figures who refused to take the oath

Thousands of military officers reportedly claimed to be ill to avoid taking the oath, but were forced to do so after returning to duty.[4][5] Some who refused to do so:

  • Karl Barth (Swiss theologian); Consequences: loss of professorship
  • Martin Gauger (probationary judge as a state prosecutor in Wuppertal); Consequences: forced retirement of his position as a state prosecutor
  • Franz Jägerstätter (Austrian conscientious objector); Consequences: execution in 1943; beatified in 2007
  • Josef Mayr-Nusser (from Bozen), after call-up for duty in the Waffen-SS; Consequences: Death penalty, died on the way to the Dachau concentration camp
  • Joseph Ruf ("Brother Maurus" of the Christkönigsgesellschaft (rel.)), Consequences: Death penalty
  • Franz Reinisch (Pallottines padre from Austria), after call-up for duty in the German Wehrmacht; Consequences: execution by beheading in 1942

Notes

  1. ^ For example, in Total War: Causes and Courses of the Second World War by Peter Calvocoressi and Guy Wint (Penguin and Pantheon, 1972), The Western Hemisphere, Part I, chapter 2, "From Versailles to the Soldiers' Oath: 1919-34"
  2. ^ a b Kershaw, Ian Hitler Hubris, New York: W.W. Norton, 1998 p 525.
  3. ^ Reichsgesetzblatt 14 August 1919, page 1419.
  4. ^ a b Gunther, John (1940). Inside Europe. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 59.
  5. ^ Knickerbocker, H. R. (1941). Is Tomorrow Hitler's? 200 Questions on the Battle of Mankind. Reynal & Hitchcock. p. 9.

References

Adolf Hitler's rise to power

Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party then known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party). The name was changed in 1920 to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly known as the Nazi Party). It was anti-Marxist and opposed to the democratic post-war government of the Weimar Republic and the Treaty of Versailles, advocating extreme nationalism and Pan-Germanism as well as virulent anti-Semitism. Hitler's "rise" can be considered to have ended in March 1933, after the Reichstag adopted the Enabling Act of 1933 in that month. President Paul von Hindenburg had already appointed Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933 after a series of parliamentary elections and associated backroom intrigues. The Enabling Act—when used ruthlessly and with authority—virtually assured that Hitler could thereafter constitutionally exercise dictatorial power without legal objection.

Adolf Hitler rose to a place of prominence in the early years of the party. Being one of its best speakers, he told the other members to either make him leader of the party or he would never return. He was aided in part by his willingness to use violence in advancing his political objectives and to recruit party members who were willing to do the same. The Beer Hall Putsch in November 1923 and the later release of his book Mein Kampf (Translation: My Struggle) expanded Hitler's audience. In the mid-1920s, the party engaged in electoral battles in which Hitler participated as a speaker and organizer, as well as in street battles and violence between the Rotfrontkämpferbund and the Nazis' Sturmabteilung (SA). Through the late 1920s and early 1930s, the Nazis gathered enough electoral support to become the largest political party in the Reichstag, and Hitler's blend of political acuity, deceptiveness and cunning converted the party's non-majority but plurality status into effective governing power in the ailing Weimar Republic of 1933.

Once in power, the Nazis created a mythology surrounding the rise to power, and they described the period that roughly corresponds to the scope of this article as either the Kampfzeit (the time of struggle) or the Kampfjahre (years of struggle).

Bad Wiessee

Bad Wiessee is a municipality in the district of Miesbach in Upper Bavaria in Germany. Since 1922, it has been a spa town and located on the western shore of the Tegernsee Lake. It had a population of around 4800 inhabitants in 2014. The word "Bad" means "spa" or "baths", while "Wiessee" derives from "Westsee", meaning "western part of the lake". Bad Wiessee was first documented in 1017 in the tax book of the Tegernsee Abbey, encouraged to pay goods to the abbey.

Bad Wiessee is known for its healing sulfur-fountain, discovered by the Dutch oil explorer Adriaan Stoop in 1909 while he was drilling for oil. He built the first iodine sulfur bath in 1912 after oil production had been exhausted. People spend their holidays in Bad Wiessee because of its quiet atmosphere and its location at the north side of the Alps.Tourism is one of the main sources of income for the population of Bad Wiessee. Although spa tourism has declined in the last decades, Bad Wiessee is still very popular for its casino and with wealthy people, many of them buying a second home or condo to spend their holidays or retirement there. The hotels, shops and restaurants cater for the medium-price-category traveller but traditional B&B and reasonable priced accommodations are still available all year round.

Bad Wiessee became notorious as the scene of the key events linked to the Night of the Long Knives, 30 June 1934, when Adolf Hitler and the Schutzstaffel (SS) purged the leadership of the Sturmabteilung (SA), many of whom were staying at the resort, in the Hotel Hanselbauer. The key leaders Ernst Röhm, Anton von Hohberg und Buchwald, Karl Ernst, Edmund Heines and Peter von Heydebreck were arrested and taken to Stadelheim Prison where they were later executed.

Bad Wiessee was also the retirement home, in 1939–1945, of Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg, author of "The Hitler oath". Field Marshal Kesselring is interred in the Bergfriedhof Cemetery in Bad Wiessee.

Carl Friedrich Goerdeler

Carl Friedrich Goerdeler (31 July 1884 – 2 February 1945) was a monarchist conservative German politician, executive, economist, civil servant, and opponent of the Nazi regime. He actively opposed Nazi anti-Jewish policies while he held office and was opposed to the Holocaust.

Had the 20 July plot to assassinate Hitler of 1944 succeeded, Goerdeler would have served as the Chancellor of the new government. After his arrest he gave up the names of numerous co-conspirators to the Gestapo, causing the arrests, and executions of hundreds or even thousands of others. He was executed by hanging on 2 February 1945.

Deutsches Jungvolk

The Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend (DJ, also DJV; German for "German Youngsters in the Hitler Youth") was the separate section for boys aged 8 to 14 of the Hitler Youth organisation in Nazi Germany. Through a programme of outdoor activities, parades and sports, it aimed to indoctrinate its young members in the tenets of Nazi ideology. Membership became fully compulsory for eligible boys in 1939. By the end of World War II, some had become child soldiers. After the end of the war in 1945, the Deutsches Jungvolk and its parent organization, the Hitler Youth, ceased to exist.

Erich Raeder pre Grand Admiral

Erich Johann Albert Raeder (24 April 1876 – 6 November 1960) was a naval leader in Germany before and during World War II. Raeder attained the highest possible naval rank—that of Großadmiral (Grand Admiral) — in 1939, becoming the first person to hold that rank since Alfred von Tirpitz. Raeder led the Kriegsmarine (German War Navy) for the first half of the war; he resigned in 1943 and was replaced by Karl Dönitz. He was sentenced to life in prison at the Nuremberg Trials, but was released early due to failing health. Raeder is also well known for dismissing Reinhard Heydrich from the Reichsmarine in April 1931 for "conduct unbecoming to an officer and a gentleman".

This article covers Raeder's life before he became the Grand Admiral.

Franz Jägerstätter

Franz Jägerstätter, O.F.S., (also spelled Jaegerstaetter in English) (20 May 1907 – 9 August 1943) (born as Franz Huber) was an Austrian conscientious objector during World War II. Jägerstätter was sentenced to death and executed. He was later declared a martyr and beatified by the Catholic Church.

Führer

Führer (German pronunciation: [ˈfyːʁɐ], spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide". As a political title it is associated with the Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler.

Nazi Germany cultivated the Führerprinzip ("leader principle"), and Hitler was generally known as just der Führer ("the Leader").

The word Führer in the sense of "guide" remains common in German, and it is used in numerous compound words such as Oppositionsführer (Leader of the Opposition). However, because of its strong association with Hitler, the isolated word usually has negative connotations when used with the meaning of "leader", especially in political contexts. The word Führer has cognates in the Scandinavian languages, spelled fører in Danish and Norwegian which have the same meaning and use as the German word, but without necessarily having political connotations.

Index of World War II articles (H)

H-hour (D-day)

H. A. Sinclair de Rochemont

H. E. Bates

H. Emory Widener Jr.

H. H. Kung

H. Keith Thompson

H. L. N. Salmon

H. Montgomery Hyde

H. Ryan Price

H. Stuart Hughes

H. W. Whillock

Höcker Album

Höfle Telegram

Hôtel-Dieu de Paris

Hôtel Biron

Hôtel Carnavalet

Hôtel Continental

Hôtel Costes

Hôtel d'Evreux

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Hôtel de Ville (Paris Métro)

Hôtel de Ville, Paris

Hôtel des Invalides

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Hôtel Lambert

Hôtel Lutetia

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Hôtel particulier

Hôtel Ritz Paris

Hôtel Salomon de Rothschild

H2S radar

H2X radar

Ha'avara Agreement

HA. 19 (Japanese Midget Submarine)

Haakon Hansen (boxer)

Haakon VII of Norway

Haane Manahi

Haavara Agreement

Habib Bamogo

Raja Habib ur Rahman Khan

Hachirō Arita

Hadamar Clinic

Hadrien Feraud

Hafthohlladung

Hagushi

Hai (midget submarine)

Haig Acterian

HAIG L-15

Haijiu-class submarine chaser

Haika Grossman

Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia

Hailstorm Over Truk Lagoon

Hainan Island Operation

Hainewalde concentration camp

Hainichen concentration camp

Haiqing-class submarine chaser

Hajile

Hajime Sugiyama

Hajo Herrmann

Hajo Holborn

Hakim Saci

Hakko ichiu

Hal Clement

Hal Far Fighter Flight

Hal Gould

Hal Holbrook

Hal Lahar

Hal Turner

Hal Van Every

Hala Gorani

Halberstadt C.V

Halberstadt CL.II

Halberstadt CL.IV

Halberstadt D.I

Halberstadt D.II

Halcyon-class minesweeper

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Hall Overton

Halle concentration camp

Halls of Montezuma (film)

Halswell House

Hamazasp Babadzhanian

Hamburg Ravensbrück Trials

Hamilton Air Force Base

Hamilton H. Howze

Hamish Forbes

Hammerskins

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Hampshire County Division

Han Deqin

Han Xianchu

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Handan Campaign

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Hangmen Also Die!

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Hank Thompson (baseball)

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Hanna Reitsch

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Hans Kreysing

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Hans Waldmann (fighter pilot)

Hans Walter

Hans Weik

Hans Wind

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Hansa-Brandenburg B.I

Hansa-Brandenburg C.I

Hansa-Brandenburg CC

Hansa-Brandenburg D.I

Hansa-Brandenburg G.I

Hansa-Brandenburg GW

Hansa-Brandenburg KDW

Hansa-Brandenburg W.11

Hansa-Brandenburg W.12

Hansa-Brandenburg W.13

Hansa-Brandenburg W.19

Hansa-Brandenburg W.27

Hansa-Brandenburg W.29

Hansa-Brandenburg W.33

Hansa-Brandenburg W

Hansa (Swedish ship)

Hansa Bay

Hanson Victor Turner

Hanyang 88

Hanyang Arsenal

Hao Mengling

Happy Sam Sawyer

Happy Valley, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Harald Edelstam

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Harbaville Triptych

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Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays

Harbour Defence Motor Launch

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Harlo Jones

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Harm's Way (novel)

Harold "Barehands" Bates

Harold A. Garman

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Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis

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Harold Soref

Harold Stassen

Harold Taft

Harold Turner (German SS commander)

Harold Urey

Harold W. Bauer

Harold Ware

Harold Washington

Harold Wilson (rower)

Harris-class attack transport

Harris George Rogers

Harris Hull

Harrison C. Summers

Harrison Glancy

Harrison Thyng

Harro Schulze-Boysen

Harry's New York Bar

Harry "Wings" Day

Harry A. "Paddy" Flint

Harry B. Liversedge

Harry Brinkley Bass

Harry Broos

Harry Carey Jr.

Harry Cator

Harry Corner

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Harry D. Felt

Harry Daniels

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Harry DeWolf

Harry Dénis

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Harry Elmer Barnes

Harry F. Byrd Jr.

Harry Frank Guggenheim

Harry G. Haskell Jr.

Harry George Armstrong

Harry Gill (RAF officer)

Harry Gold

Harry Harrison

Harry Ice

Harry J. Collins

Harry J. Michael

Harry James Lowe Jr.

Harry Daghlian

Harry K. Fukuhara

Harry Kenneth Dimoline

Harry L. Martin

Harry Lee (athlete)

Harry Llewellyn

Harry Magdoff and espionage

Harry Mallin

Harry Mitchell (boxer)

Harry Newcombe

Harry Nicholls

Harry O'Neill (catcher)

Harry Pennell

Harry Pregerson

Harry R. Harr

Harry Reasoner

Harry Rée

Harry S. Truman

Harry Schell

Harry Schmidt (USMC)

Harry Secombe

Harry Steel

Harry Sundberg

Harry T. Mangurian Jr.

Harry T. Moore

Harry Thürk

Harry Turtledove's Darkness

Harry Wyld

Hart's War

Hartford-Brainard Airport

Hartland Molson

Hartley Shawcross, Baron Shawcross

Hartmann Lauterbacher

Harukichi Hyakutake

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Harvey Lipschultz (TV character)

Harvey Lord

Harvey Parnell

Harvey Possinger

Harwood Harrison

Hasegawa Yoshimichi

Hashim al-Atassi

Hashirajima

Haskell-class attack transport

Hassan Ahamada

Hasso von Boehmer

Hasso von Manteuffel

Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay

Hatazō Adachi

Hatbox Field

Hate-Monger

Hatsuharu-class destroyer

Hauptamt SS-Gericht

Hauptamt Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle

Hauptscharführer

Hauptsturmführer

Haupttruppführer

Haus der Kunst

Haussmann's renovation of Paris

Haussmann – Saint-Lazare (Paris RER)

Havana Conference of 1940

Haven-class hospital ship

Haviva Reik

Havre - Caumartin (Paris Métro)

Hawker Sea Fury

Hawker Sea Hawk

Hawker Tempest

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Hawker Typhoon

Hawkins grenade

Haxhi Lleshi

Haxo (Paris Métro)

Hayabusa-class torpedo boat

Hayao Kinugasa

Hayao Tada

Haydarpaşa Cemetery

Hayward Executive Airport

Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman

Hazel Ying Lee

He-Umezu Agreement

He Long

He Yingqin

He Zhuguo

Hełm wz. 31

Head in the Clouds

Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps

Heart Mountain War Relocation Center

Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon

Hearts of Iron II: Doomsday

Hearts of Iron II

Hearts of Iron

Heathcote Howard Hammer

Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison (novel)

Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison

Hebei-Chahar Political Council

Hebei-Rehe-Chahar Campaign

Hec Kilrea

Hector Bertram Gray

Hector Bianciotti

Hector Boece

Hector MacLean

Hector Monro, Baron Monro of Langholm

Hector P. Garcia

Hector Waller

Hedgehog (weapon)

Hedley Hazelden

Hedley Verity

Hedwiga Rosenbaumová

Hedy Epstein

German Army (Wehrmacht)

Heeresgeschichtliches Museum

Hehalutz

Heidemarie Steiner

Heidi Lee Morgan

Heikki Liimatainen (athlete)

Heiligenbeil concentration camp

Heiligenbeil Pocket

Heilungkiang National Salvation Army

Heimatvertriebene

Heimkehr

Hein ter Poorten

Heinie Elder

Heinkel HD 17

Heinkel HD 23

Heinkel HD 25

Heinkel HD 26

Heinkel HD 28

Heinkel HD 32

Heinkel HD 36

Heinkel HD 37

Heinkel HD 38

Heinkel HD 55

Heinkel HE 1

Heinkel He 100

Heinkel He 111

Heinkel He 112 operational service

Heinkel He 112

Heinkel He 113

Heinkel He 114

Heinkel He 115

Heinkel He 118

Heinkel He 119

Heinkel He 162

Heinkel He 176

Heinkel He 177

Heinkel He 178

Heinkel HE 2

Heinkel He 219

Heinkel He 274

Heinkel He 277

Heinkel He 280

Heinkel He 343

Heinkel He 42

Heinkel He 45

Heinkel He 46

Heinkel HE 5

Heinkel He 50

Heinkel He 51

Heinkel He 59

Heinkel He 60

Heinkel He 62

Heinkel He 70

Heinkel He 72

Heinkel He 74

Heinkel HE 8

Heinkel Lerche

Heino von Heimburg

Heinrich Bartels

Heinrich Behmann

Heinrich Bleichrodt

Heinrich Blum

Heinrich Boere

Heinrich Bär

Heinrich Eberbach

Heinrich Ehrler

Heinrich Fehlis

Heinrich Freiherr von Lüttwitz

Heinrich Freiherr von Stackelberg

Heinrich George

Heinrich Graf von Einsiedel

Heinrich Graf von Lehndorff-Steinort

Heinrich Graf zu Dohna-Schlobitten

Heinrich Gross

Heinrich Höfemeier

Heinrich Harrer

Heinrich Himmler

Heinrich Hoffmann (photographer)

Heinrich Kreipe

Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock

Heinrich Liebe

Heinrich Messner

Heinrich Müller (Gestapo)

Heinrich Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein

Heinrich Rau

Heinrich Rischtoff

Heinrich Schwarz

Heinrich Severloh

Heinrich Sturm

Heinrich Thoma

Heinrich Trettner

Heinrich von Vietinghoff

Heinz-Georg Lemm

Heinz-Gerhard Vogt

Heinz-Wilhelm Eck

Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer

Heinz Arnold

Heinz Auerswald

Heinz Barth

Heinz Brücher

Heinz Dörmer

Heinz Drossel

Heinz Ebeling

Heinz Galinski

Heinz Günther Guderian

Heinz Guderian

Heinz Harmel

Heinz Hellmich

Heinz Hitler

Heinz Kapelle

Heinz Lange

Heinz Linge

Heinz Lorenz

Heinz Macher

Heinz Marquardt

Heinz Müller (SS officer)

Heinz Nixdorf

Heinz Pernet

Heinz Rökker

Heinz Reinefarth

Heinz Sachsenberg

Heinz Schmidt

Heinz Spanknobel

Heinz Strüning

Heinz von Randow

Heinz Waaske

Heisuke Hironaka

Heisuke Yanagawa

Heitarō Kimura

Helen Duncan

Helen Gwynne-Vaughan

Helen L. Seaborg

Helen Meany

Helen of Greece and Denmark

Helen Wainwright

Helen Wills Moody

Helena Macher

Helena Nordheim

Helene Moszkiewiez

Helenio Herrera

Helfer

Helga Deen

Helge Auleb

Hell in the Pacific

Hell Is for Heroes (film)

Hell ship

Hell to Eternity

Hellfire Pass

Hellmer Hermandsen

Hellmuth Heye

Hellmuth Mäder

Hellmuth Reymann

Helmbrechts concentration camp

Helmer Swenholt

Helmet for My Pillow

Helmut Baudach

Helmut Bennemann

Helmut Bruckner

Helmut Dörner

Helmut Gröttrup

Helmut Hamann

Helmut Kapp

Helmut Knochen

Helmut Kunz

Helmut Lennartz

Helmut Lent

Helmut Lipfert

Helmut Poppendick

Helmut Schmidt

Helmut Thumm

Helmut Vetter

Helmut Wick

Helmut Wirnsberger

Helmut Woltersdorf

Helmuth Ehrhardt

Helmuth Hübener

Helmuth James Graf von Moltke

Helmuth Stieff

Helmuth von Pannwitz

Helmuth von Ruckteschell

Helmuth Weidling

Heloise (abbess)

Hemp for Victory

Hendrik Elias

Hendrik Nicolaas Werkman

Hendrik Offerhaus

Hendrik Timmer (tennis)

Hendrik van Heuckelum

Hendrik van Riessen

Hendrikus Colijn

Henk de Best

Henk Feldmeijer

Henk Sneevliet

Henneicke Column

Henner Henkel

Henning von Tresckow

Henri-Cardin-Jean-Baptiste d'Aguesseau

Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery and Memorial

Henri-Jacques de Caumont, duc de La Force

Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau

Henri-Robert Petit

Henri Alekan

Henri Amouroux

Henri Auguste Barbier

Henri Barbusse

Henri Bergson

Henri Braquenié

Henri Béraud

Henri Caillavet

Henri Cartan

Henri Claude

Henri Cochet

Henri Curiel

Henri d'Astier de la Vigerie

Henri d'Orléans, duc d'Aumale

Henri Daniel-Rops

Henri de Man

Henri de Massue, 1st Earl of Galway

Henri de Régnier

Henri Deloge

Henri Dentz

Henri Dericourt

Henri Donnedieu de Vabres

Henri Dumat

Henri Duparc (composer)

Henri Désiré Landru

Henri Fantin-Latour

Henri Frenay

Henri Galau

Henri Giraud

Henri Gouhier

Henri Helle

Henri Honoré d'Estienne d'Orves

Henri Hérouin

Henri Krasucki

Henri Landwirth

Henri Laurent

Henri Lauvaux

Henri Lucien Doucet

Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville

Henri Martin (historian)

Henri Maspero

Henri Masson

Henri Meilhac

Henri Menier

Henri Michel

Henri Mineur

Henri Moissan

Henri Navarre

Henri Oreiller

Henri Pieck

Henri Pitot

Henri Poincaré

Henri Regnault

Henri Reynders

Henri Rol-Tanguy

Henri Tauzin

Henri Troyat

Henri Victor Regnault

Henri Wallon (psychologist)

Henri Wernli

Henri Winkelman

Henri, comte de Chambord

Henricus Tromp

Henrietta Maria of France

Henrik Agerbeck

Henrik Kauffmann

Henrik Robert

Henrik Sillem

Henry A. Commiskey Sr.

Henry A. Courtney Jr.

Henry A. Miley Jr.

Henry A. Schade

Henry Ashby Turner

Henry Bailey (sport shooter)

Henry Bellmon

Henry Bentinck, 11th Earl of Portland

Henry Blagrove

Henry Botterell

Henry Browne, Farmer

Henry Cabot Lodge Bohler

Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.

Henry Cattan

Henry Clausen

Henry Cohen (civil servant)

Henry Corbin

Henry Coston

Henry d'Avigdor-Goldsmid

Henry de Montherlant

Henry DeWolf Smyth

Henry E. Erwin

Henry Eric Harden

Henry Everard

Henry F. Warner

Henry Fancourt

Henry Fonda

Henry Friedlander

Henry Gurke

Henry Harwood

Henry Herbert Reed

Henry Houssaye

Henry Hugh Gordon Stoker

Henry Hurwitz Jr.

Henry Huttleston Rogers Coe

Henry Hyde

Henry I. Hodes

Henry Jamison Handy

Henry L. Stimson

Henry Leach

Henry Lerolle

Henry M. Britt

Henry M. Mullinnix

Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson

Henry Mancini

Henry Margenau

Henry Millicer

Henry Morgentaler

Henry Morgenthau Jr.

Henry Mucci

Henry Oliver Hansen

Henry Oliver Rinnan

Henry Orenstein

Henry Percy, 9th Duke of Northumberland

Henry Poole MacKeen

Henry Ries

Henry Robert Bowreman Foote

Henry Rowland (actor)

Henry Royds Pownall

Henry Ruthven Moore

Henry Schauer

Henry Scrimgeour

H. B. Stallard

Henry Sydney, 1st Earl of Romney

Henry T. Elrod

Henry T. King

Henry Terry

Henry W. Hahn

Henry Wade

Henry Wallace McLeod

Henry Wascow

Henry Wellesley, 6th Duke of Wellington

Henry Wells (author)

Henry Welsford

Henry Wilhelm Kristiansen

Henry Wise Jr.

Henryk Breit

Henryk Chmielewski

Henryk Cybulski

Henryk de Kwiatkowski

Henryk Dobrzański

Henryk Iwański

Henryk Jabłoński

Henryk Leon Strasburger

Henryk Mandelbaum

Henryk Pietrzak

Henryk Sławik

Henryk Sucharski

Henryk Szatkowski

Henryk Woliński

Henryk Zygalski

Henschel Hs 123

Henschel Hs 124

Henschel Hs 126

Henschel Hs 127

Henschel Hs 129

Henschel Hs 130

Henschel Hs 132

Henschel Hs 293

Henschel Hs 294

Hera Borghese

Herb Sargent

Herb Siegert

Herb Trawick

Herbert A. Calcaterra

Herbert Annesley Packer

Herbert B. Powell

Herbert B. Warburton

Herbert Bachnick

Herbert Backe

Herbert Baum

Herbert Beckington

Herbert C. Jones

Herbert Cecil Duncan

Herbert Emery Schonland

Herbert F. Christian

Herbert Gerdes

Herbert Gruber

Herbert H. Burr

Herbert Hans Haupt

Herbert Hasler

Herbert Huber

Herbert Hudson Taylor

Herbert Hugo Menges

Herbert Ihlefeld

Herbert J. Sweet

Herbert John Leslie Barefoot

Bert Walker

Herbert Johnston

Herbert Joseph Thomas

Herbert Kappler

Herbert L. Anderson

Herbert Lange

Herbert Lloyd

Herbert Lumsden

Herbert Massey

Herbert Morrison

Herbert Nicol

Herbert Norkus

Herbert Otto Gille

Herbert Perry (sport shooter)

Herbert Schultze

Herbert Sobel

Herbert von Bose

Herbert von Petersdorff

Herbert Wallace Le Patourel

Herbert Wells (soccer)

Herbert Windt

Herbert Wohlfarth

Herbert York

Herberts Cukurs

Herbertus Bikker

Herbie Kronowitz

Herbie Roberts

Herdt

Here Is Germany

Hereford Army Airfield

Herington Regional Airport

Heritage Front

Herk Harvey

Herman Auerbach

Herman Bodson

Herman Bottcher

Herman C. Wallace

Herman H. Hanneken

Herman Keiser

Herman T. Schneebeli

Herman Talmadge

Herman von Klempt

Herman Wouk

Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke

Hermann-Friedrich Joppien

Hermann-Heinrich Behrend

Hermann Balck

Hermann Barrelet

Hermann Bauer

Hermann Braun

Hermann Breith

Hermann Broch

Hermann Buchner

Hermann Buchner

Hermann de Pourtalès

Hermann Ehrhardt

Hermann Eilts

Hermann Esser

Hermann Fegelein

Hermann Florstedt

Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Hermann Göring

Hermann Görtz

Hermann Gauch

Hermann Gehri

Hermann Giesler

Hermann Graf

Hermann Höfle

Hermann Hackmann

Hermann Hogeback

Hermann Hohn

Hermann Hoth

Hermann Kriebel

Hermann Langbein

Hermann Maas

Hermann Muhs

Hermann Niehoff

Hermann Oberth

Hermann Obrecht

Hermann Prieß

Hermann Rauschning

Hermann Recknagel

Hermann Scherchen

Hermann van Pels

Hermann von Oppeln-Bronikowski

Hermann Wilker

Hermann Wraschtil

Hermanus Brockmann

Hermine Braunsteiner

Herménégilde Chiasson

Hero of the Soviet Union

Herr Engelbert Von Smallhausen

Herr Kleiser

Herr Meets Hare

Herr Otto Flick

Herschel F. Briles

Herschel Green

Herschel Grynszpan

Herschel Johnson

Herschel Schacter

Hersh Lyons

Hershel W. Williams

Herta Bothe

Herta Ehlert

Herta Oberheuser

Hervey Machen

Hervé Le Tellier

Herzogenbusch

Heshui Campaign

Hetzer

Heuschrecke 10

Heydebreck-Cosel

Heywood-class attack transport

Heywood Hale Broun

Heywood L. Edwards

Hibakusha

Hidden & Dangerous 2

Hidden & Dangerous

Hideki Tojo

Hideki Yukawa

Hideo Iwakuro

Hideo Sasaki

Hideyoshi Obata

Hieronim Dekutowski

Higashikuni Morihiro

Higgins Industries

High Command Trial

High Flux Isotope Reactor

High Seas Fleet Badge

High Standard HDM

Highballing to Victory

Higher Than a Kite

Higinio Morínigo

HIJMS Shinano Maru (1904)

Hikari Kikan

Hikōtai Transport Unit

Hilaire Belloc

Hilan Ebert

Hilary Corke

Hilde Coppi

Hildegard Lächert

Hildegard Neumann

Hill 112

Hill 400, Bergstein

Hill 62 Memorial

Hillel Zeitlin

Hillsborough Army Airfield

Hilmar Wictorin

Hilmer von Bülow-Bothkamp

Himeyuri Students

Hindustan Field Force

Hinrich Lohse

Hinrich Schuldt

Hinzert concentration camp

HIPO Corps

Hippolyte-Jules Pilet de La Mesnardière

Hippolyte Delaroche

Hippolyte Taine

Hirabayashi v. United States

Hiram Wesley Evans

Hiranuma Kiichirō

Hiroaki Abe

Hirohito

Hiromichi Yahara

Hiroo Onoda

Hiroshi Ōshima

Hiroshi Imazato

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

Hiroshima (book)

Hiroshima (film)

Hiroshima City Ebayama Museum of Meteorology

Hiroshima Maidens

Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park

Hiroshima Peace Memorial

Hiroshima Witness

Hiroshima

Hiroyoshi Nishizawa

Hisaichi Terauchi

Hisakazu Tanaka

Hisao Tani

Hisaye Yamamoto

Hispanic Americans in World War II

Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca

Historical Advanced Squad Leader module

Historical revisionism (negationism)

Historikerstreit

Historiography of World War II

History (novel)

History of Blacks in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust

History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1941–1945)

History of children in the Holocaust

History of gay men in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust

History of German settlement in Central and Eastern Europe

History of Germany during World War II

History of Germany since 1945

History of Gibraltar

History of Greenland during World War 2

History of Greenland during World War II

History of Paris

History of Poland (1939–1945)

History of the Armée de l'Air (1909-1942)

History of the Armée de l'Air (colonial presence 1939-1962)

History of the European Union

History of the Jews during World War II

History of the Jews in Guernsey

History of the Jews in Jersey

History of the Jews in Monastir

History of the Jews in the Dominican Republic

History of the People's Liberation Army

History of the Second World War

History of the world

History of United States Naval Operations in World War II

Hitler's Letters and Notes

Hitler's Pope

Hitler's SS: Portrait in Evil

Hitler's Terror Weapons

Hitler's War (game)

Hitler's War

Hitler's Willing Executioners

Hitler and the Occult (book)

Hitler Has Only Got One Ball

Hitler Line

Hitler Myth

Hitler oath

Hitler Youth knife

Hitler Youth Quex

Hitler Youth: Growing Up in Hitler's Shadow

Hitler Youth

Hitler, Beast of Berlin

Hitler: A Film from Germany

Hitler: Speeches and Proclamations

Hitler: The Last Ten Days

Hitlerjunge

Hitlers Bombe

Hitoshi Imamura

Hiwi (volunteer)

Hiyō-class aircraft carrier

Hjördis Töpel

Hjalmar Mäe

Hjalmar Schacht

Hjalmar Siilasvuo

HKP 562 forced labor camp

Hlinka Guard

HM Prison Dhurringile

HM Trawler Force

HMAS Adelaide (1918)

HMAS Ararat (K34)

HMAS Armidale (J240)

HMAS Arunta (I30)

HMAS Australia (D84)

HMAS Ballarat (J184)

HMAS Bataan (I91)

HMAS Bathurst (J158)

HMAS Benalla (J323)

HMAS Bendigo (J187)

HMAS Bowen

HMAS Broome (J191)

HMAS Bunbury (J241)

HMAS Bundaberg (J231)

HMAS Burnie

HMAS Cairns (J183)

HMAS Canberra (D33)

HMAS Castlemaine

HMAS Cessnock (J175)

HMAS Colac

HMAS Cootamundra

HMAS Cowra

HMAS Deloraine

HMAS Diamantina (K377)

HMAS Dubbo (J251)

HMAS Echuca

HMAS Fremantle (J246)

HMAS Gascoyne (K354)

HMAS Gawler (J188)

HMAS Geelong (J201)

HMAS Geraldton (J178)

HMAS Gladstone (J324)

HMAS Glenelg (J236)

HMAS Goulburn

HMAS Gympie

HMAS Hawkesbury (K363)

HMAS Hobart (1939)

HMAS Horsham

HMAS Inverell

HMAS Ipswich (J186)

HMAS Junee

HMAS K9

HMAS Kalgoorlie

HMAS Kanimbla (1936)

HMAS Kapunda

HMAS Katoomba

HMAS Kiama

HMAS Kookaburra

HMAS Kuru

HMAS Latrobe

HMAS Launceston (J179)

HMAS Lismore (J145)

HMAS Lithgow (J206)

HMAS Macquarie (K532)

HMAS Manoora (1935)

HMAS Maryborough (J195)

HMAS Mavie

HMAS Mildura

HMAS Napier (G97)

HMAS Nepal (G25)

HMAS Nestor (G02)

HMAS Nizam (G38)

HMAS Norman (G49)

HMAS Parkes

HMAS Parramatta (U44)

HMAS Patricia Cam

HMAS Perth (D29)

HMAS Pirie (J189)

HMAS Platypus (1917)

HMAS Quadrant (G11)

HMAS Quality (G62)

HMAS Queenborough (G70)

HMAS Quiberon (G81)

HMAS Quickmatch (G92)

HMAS Rockhampton

HMAS Shepparton (J248)

HMAS Stawell

HMAS Strahan

HMAS Stuart (D-00/100)

HMAS Sydney (1934)

HMAS Tamworth (J191)

HMAS Toowoomba (J157)

HMAS Townsville (J205)

HMAS Vampire (D68)

HMAS Vendetta (D69)

HMAS Voyager (D31)

HMAS Wagga

HMAS Wallaroo

HMAS Warramunga (I44)

HMAS Warrnambool (J202)

HMAS Waterhen (D22)

HMAS Westralia (1939)

HMAS Whyalla (J153)

HMAS Wollongong (J172)

HMAS Yarra (U77)

HMCS Alberni (K103)

HMCS Asbestos (K358)

HMCS Assiniboine (I18)

HMCS Athabaskan (G07)

HMCS Buctouche (K179)

HMCS Calgary (K231)

HMCS Charlottetown (1941)

HMCS Chignecto (J160)

HMCS Cowichan (J146)

HMCS Digby (J267)

HMCS Esquimalt (J272)

HMCS Fraser (H48)

HMCS Granby (J264)

HMCS Haida (G63)

HMCS Halifax (K237)

HMCS Huron (G24)

HMCS Iroquois (G89)

HMCS Kapuskasing (J326)

HMCS Kenogami (K125)

HMCS Kitchener (K225)

HMCS Kootenay (H75)

HMCS Long Branch (K487)

HMCS Margaree (H49)

HMCS Miramichi (J169)

HMCS Moncton (K139)

HMCS Moosejaw (K164)

HMCS Nipigon (J154)

HMCS Nootka (R96)

HMCS Oakville (K178)

HMCS Ottawa (H60)

HMCS Pictou (K146)

HMCS Prince David (F89)

HMCS Quebec (C66)

HMCS Red Deer (J255)

HMCS Regina (K234)

HMCS Rimouski (K121)

HMCS Rivière du Loup (K357)

HMCS Sackville (K181)

HMCS Saguenay (D79)

HMCS Sarnia (J309)

HMCS Sioux (R64)

HMCS Skeena (D59)

HMCS Snowberry (K166)

HMCS St. Laurent (H83)

HMCS Stratford (J310)

HMCS Sudbury (K162)

HMCS Suderoy

HMCS Summerside (K141)

HMCS Ungava (J149)

HMCS Vegreville (J257)

HMCS Windflower (K155)

HMHS Newfoundland

HMIS Bombay (1941)

HMNZS Achilles (70)

HMNZS Arabis (K385)

HMNZS Arbutus (K403)

HMNZS Kiwi (T102)

HMNZS Leander

HMNZS Moa (T233)

HMNZS Monowai (F59)

HMNZS Tui (1970)

HMNZS Tui (T234)

HMNZS Wakakura (T00)

HMS Abelia (K184)

HMS Abercrombie (F109)

HMS Acasta (H09)

HMS Achates (H12)

HMS Acheron (H45)

HMS Active (H14)

HMS Activity (D94)

HMS Adamant (1940)

HMS Adventure (M23)

HMS Affleck (K462)

HMS Afridi (F07)

HMS Ajax (22)

HMS Allington Castle (K689)

HMS Alnwick Castle (K405)

HMS Amazon (D39)

HMS Amberley Castle (K386)

HMS Ambuscade (D38)

HMS Ameer (D01)

HMS Amethyst (F116)

HMS Anchusa (K186)

HMS Anson (79)

HMS Antelope (H36)

HMS Aphis (1915)

HMS Arbiter (D31)

HMS Arbutus (K86)

HMS Archer (D78)

HMS Ardent (H41)

HMS Ardrossan (J131)

HMS Arethusa (26)

HMS Argonaut (61)

HMS Argus (I49)

HMS Ark Royal (91)

HMS Arrow (H42)

HMS Ashanti (F51)

HMS Atheling (D51)

HMS Attacker (D02)

HMS Audacity (D10)

HMS Aurora (12)

HMS Avenger (D14)

HMS Aylmer (K463)

HMS Azalea (K25)

HMS Balfour (K464)

HMS Bamborough Castle (K412)

HMS Bangor (J00)

HMS Barfleur (D80)

HMS Barham (04)

HMS Barnard Castle (K694)

HMS Basilisk (H11)

HMS Battler (D18)

HMS Bayntun (K310)

HMS Bazely (K311)

HMS Beagle (H30)

HMS Bedouin (F67)

HMS Bee (1915)

HMS Begum (D38)

HMS Belfast (C35)

HMS Bellona (63)

HMS Bentinck (K314)

HMS Bentley (K465)

HMS Bergamot (K189)

HMS Berkeley Castle (K387)

HMS Bermuda (52)

HMS Berwick (65)

HMS Bickerton (K466)

HMS Birmingham (C19)

HMS Biter (D97)

HMS Bittern (L07)

HMS Black Prince (81)

HMS Black Swan (L57)

HMS Blanche (H47)

HMS Bligh (K467)

HMS Bluebell (K80)

HMS Boadicea (H65)

HMS Bonaventure (31)

HMS Boreas (H77)

HMS Boxer (F121)

HMS Braithwaite (K468)

HMS Bramham (L51)

HMS Brazen (H80)

HMS Brilliant (H84)

HMS Britomart (J22)

HMS Broke (D83)

HMS Bryony (K192)

HMS Bulldog (H91)

HMS Bullen (K469)

HMS Burnham (H82)

HMS Byard (K315)

HMS BYMS-2026 (J 826)

HMS BYMS-2203 (J 1003)

HMS Byron (K508)

HMS Cachalot (N83)

HMS Cairo (D87)

HMS Caistor Castle (K690)

HMS Calcutta (D82)

HMS Calder (K349)

HMS Caledon (D53)

HMS Calypso (D61)

HMS Camellia (K31)

HMS Campania (D48)

HMS Campbeltown (I42)

HMS Capetown (D88)

HMS Caradoc (D60)

HMS Cardiff (D58)

HMS Carinthia

HMS Carisbrooke Castle (K379)

HMS Carlisle (D67)

HMS Castleton (I23)

HMS Cavalier (R73)

HMS Centurion (1911)

HMS Ceres (D59)

HMS Ceylon (30)

HMS Charity (R29)

HMS Charlestown (I21)

HMS Charybdis (88)

HMS Chaser (D32)

HMS Clacton (J151)

HMS Clare (I14)

HMS Cleopatra (33)

HMS Codrington (D65)

HMS Colombo (D89)

HMS Colossus (R15)

HMS Conn (K509)

HMS Cornwall (56)

HMS Cosby (K559)

HMS Cossack (F03)

HMS Courageous (50)

HMS Coventry (D43)

HMS Cricket (1915)

HMS Cromer Castle

HMS Cumberland (57)

HMS Curacoa (D41)

HMS Curlew (D42)

HMS Dainty (H53)

HMS Danae (D44)

HMS Daring (H16)

HMS Dauntless (D45)

HMS Deane (K551)

HMS Decoy (H75)

HMS Defender (H07)

HMS Delhi (D47)

HMS Delight (H38)

HMS Denbigh Castle (K696)

HMS Despatch (D30)

HMS Devonshire (39)

HMS Diadem (84)

HMS Diamond (H22)

HMS Diana (H49)

HMS Dido (37)

HMS Diomede (D92)

HMS Dominica (K507)

HMS Dorsetshire (40)

HMS Dragon (D46)

HMS Duchess (H64)

HMS Duke of York (17)

HMS Dulverton (L63)

HMS Duncan (D99)

HMS Dundalk

HMS Dundee (L84)

HMS Dunedin (D93)

HMS Dunoon

HMS Durban (D99)

HMS Eagle (1918)

HMS Edinburgh (16)

HMS Effingham (D98)

HMS Egret (L75)

HMS Electra (H27)

HMS Emerald (D66)

HMS Emperor (D98)

HMS Empress (D42)

HMS Engadine (1911)

HMS Engadine (1941)

HMS Enterprise (D52)

HMS Erebus (I02)

HMS Erne (U03)

HMS Eskimo (F75)

HMS Euryalus (42)

HMS Exeter (68)

HMS Express (H61)

HMS Faulknor (H62)

HMS Felixstowe (J126)

HMS Fencer (D64)

HMS Fiji (58)

HMS Flint Castle (K383)

HMS Folkestone (L22)

HMS Foresight (H68)

HMS Forfar (F30)

HMS Formidable (67)

HMS Fowey (L15)

HMS Foylebank

HMS Furious (47)

HMS Fury (H76)

HMS Galatea (71)

HMS Gallant (H59)

HMS Gambia (48)

HMS Garland (H37)

HMS Gentian (K90)

HMS Gipsy (H63)

HMS Gladiolus (K34)

HMS Glasgow (C21)

HMS Glorious

HMS Glory (R62)

HMS Gloucester (62)

HMS Glowworm (H92)

HMS Gnat (T60)

HMS Goodson (K480)

HSwMS Gotland (1933)

HMS Grafton (H89)

HMS Grampus (N56)

HMS Graph (P715)

HMS Grenade (H86)

HMS Grenville (H03)

HMS Grenville (R97)

HMS Greyhound (H05)

HMS Griffin (H31)

HMS Guardian (1932)

HMS Gurkha (F20)

HMS Gurkha (G63)

HMS H6

HMS Halcyon (J42)

HMS Hardy (1936)

HMS Hasty (H24)

HMS Havelock (H88)

HMS Havock (H43)

HMS Heartsease (K15)

HMS Heather (K69)

HMS Hebe (J24)

HMS Hedingham Castle (K529)

HMS Hereward (H93)

HMS Hermes (95)

HMS Hermione (74)

HMS Hero (H99)

HMS Hesperus (H57)

HMS Hollyhock (K64)

HMS Hood (51)

HMS Hostile (H55)

HMS Hotspur (H01)

HMS Howe (32)

HMS Hunter (D80)

HMS Hunter (H35)

HMS Hurricane (H06)

HMS Hursley (L84)

HMS Hurst Castle (K416)

HMS Hyperion (H97)

HMS Hythe (J194)

HMS Ibis (U99)

HMS Icarus (D03)

HMS Ilex (D61)

HMS Illustrious (87)

HMS Imogen (D44)

HMS Imperial (D09)

HMS Implacable (R86)

HMS Impulsive (D11)

HMS Inconstant (H49)

HMS Indefatigable (R10)

HMS Indomitable (92)

HMS Inglefield (D02)

HMS Intrepid (D10)

HMS Isis (D87)

HMS Ithuriel (H05)

HMS Ivanhoe (D16)

HMS Jackal (F22)

HMS Jaguar (F34)

HMS Jamaica (44)

HMS Janus (F53)

HMS Javelin (F61)

HMS Jersey (F72)

HMS Jervis (F00)

HMS Jervis Bay (F40)

HMS Juniper (T123)

HMS Juno (F46)

HMS Jupiter (F85)

HMS Justice (W-140)

HMS Kandahar (F28)

HMS Kashmir (F12)

HMS Keith (H06)

HMS Kelly (F01)

HMS Kelvin (F37)

HMS Kempenfelt (I18)

HMS Kempthorne (K483)

HMS Kenilworth Castle (K420)

HMS Kent (54)

HMS Kenya (14)

HMS Khedive (D62)

HMS Kimberley (F50)

HMS King George V (41)

HMS Kingston (F64)

HMS Kite (U87)

HMS Knaresborough Castle (K389)

HMS La Malouine (K46)

HMS Ladybird (1916)

HMS Laforey (G99)

HMS Lance (G87)

HMS Largs

HMS Launceston Castle (K397)

HMS Lawford (K514)

HMS Ledbury (L90)

HMS Leeds Castle (K384)

HMS Legion (G74)

HMS Leith (U36)

HMS Liverpool (C11)

HMS Loch Achray (K426)

HMS Loch Alvie (K428)

HMS Loch Dunvegan (K425)

HMS Loch Eck (K422)

HMS Loch Fada (K390)

HMS Loch Fyne (K429)

HMS Loch Glendhu (K639)

HMS Loch Insh (K433)

HMS Loch Killin (K391)

HMS Loch Killisport (K628)

HMS Loch Lomond (K437)

HMS Loch More (K369)

HMS Locust (1939)

HMS London (69)

HMS Lookout (G32)

HMS Lord Hailsham

HMS Lotus (K130)

HMS Magpie (1943)

HMS Malaya

HMS Malcolm (D19)

HMS Mallow (K81)

HMS Manchester (15)

HMS Maori (F24)

HMS Marigold (K87)

HMS Marne (G35)

HMS Mashona (F59)

HMS Matabele (F26)

HMS Mauritius (80)

HMS Medway (F25)

HMS Mohawk (F31)

HMS Montrose (D01)

HMS Nabberley

HMS Nabbington

HMS Nabob (D77)

HMS Nabthorpe

HMS Naiad (93)

HMS Nairana (D05)

HMS Narwhal (N45)

HMS Nelson (28)

HMS Neptune (20)

HMS Newcastle (C76)

HMS Newfoundland (59)

HMS Nigeria (60)

HMS Norfolk (78)

HMS Nubian (F36)

HMS Odin (N84)

HMS Offa (G29)

HMS Olympus (N35)

HMS Onslow (G17)

HMS Oribi (G66)

HMS Orion (85)

HMS Orwell (G98)

HMS Otway

HMS Oxford Castle (K692)

HMS Oxley

HMS P222

HMS P311

HMS P32 (1940)

HMS P33 (1941)

HMS P36 (submarine)

HMS P38 (1941)

HMS P39

HMS P47

HMS P48 (1942)

HMS P611

HMS Paladin (G69)

HMS Palomares

HMS Panther (G41)

HMS Parthian (N75)

HMS Patroller (D07)

HMS Penelope (97)

HMS Penn (G77)

HMS Perseus (N36)

HMS Petard (G56)

HMS Peterhead (J59)

HMS Pevensey Castle (K449)

HMS Pheasant (U49)

HMS Phoebe (43)

HMS Picotee (K63)

HMS Pioneer (R76)

HMS Porpoise (N14)

HMS Portchester Castle (K362)

HMS Poseidon (1929)

HMS Premier (D23)

HMS Pretoria Castle (F61)

HMS Prince of Wales (53)

HMS Puncher (D79)

HMS Punjabi (F21)

HMS Pursuer (D73)

HMS Pylades (J401)

HMS Quail (G45)

HMS Quality (G62)

HMS Queen (D19)

HMS Queen Elizabeth (1913)

HMS Queen Emma

HMS Quentin (G78)

HMS Quilliam (G09)

HMS Quorn (L66)

HMS Raider (H15)

HMS Rajah (D10)

HMS Ramillies (07)

HMS Ranee (D03)

HMS Rapid (H32)

HMS Ravager (D70)

HMS Rawalpindi

HMS Reaper (D82)

HMS Relentless (H85)

HMS Renown (1916)

HMS Repulse (1916)

HMS Resolution (09)

HMS Revenge (06)

HMS Roberts (F40)

HMS Rocket (H92)

HMS Rodney (29)

HMS Roebuck (H95)

HMS Rorqual (N74)

HMS Rotherham (H09)

HMS Royal Oak (08)

HMS Royal Sovereign (05)

HMS Royal Ulsterman

HMS Royalist (89)

HMS Ruler (D72)

HMS Rushen Castle (K372)

HMS Rye (J76)

HMS Safari (P211)

HMS Saga (P257)

HMS Sahib (P212)

HMS Salmon (N65)

HMS Samphire (K128)

HMS Sanguine (P266)

HMS Saracen (P247)

HMS Satyr (P214)

HMS Saumarez (G12)

HMS Sceptre (P215)

HMS Scorcher (P258)

HMS Scotsman (P243)

HMS Scylla (98)

HMS Scythian (P237)

HMS Sea Devil (P244)

HMS Sea Nymph (P223)

HMS Sea Rover (P218)

HMS Sea Scout (P253)

HMS Seadog (P216)

HMS Seagull (J85)

HMS Seahorse (98S)

HMS Seal (N37)

HMS Sealion (72S)

HMS Searcher (D40)

HMS Seawolf (47S)

HMS Selene (P254)

HMS Seneschal (P255)

HMS Sentinel (P256)

HMS Seraph (P219)

HMS Shah (D21)

HMS Shakespeare (P221)

HMS Shalimar (P242)

HMS Shark (54S)

HMS Sheffield (C24)

HMS Shropshire (73)

HMS Sibyl (P217)

HMS Sickle (P224)

HMS Sidon (P259)

HMS Sikh (F82)

HMS Simoom (P225)

HMS Sirdar (P226)

HMS Sirius (82)

HMS Skate (1917)

HMS Sleuth (P261)

HMS Slinger (D26)

HMS Smiter (D55)

HMS Snapper (39S)

HMS Solent (P262)

HMS Somali (F33)

HMS Southampton (83)

HMS Spark (P236)

HMS Spartan (95)

HMS Speaker (D90)

HMS Spearfish (69S)

HMS Spearhead (P263)

HMS Speedy (J17)

HMS Spirit (P245)

HMS Spiteful (P227)

HMS Splendid (P228)

HMS Sportsman (P229)

HMS Springer (P264)

HMS Spur

HMS Stalker (D91)

HMS Starfish (19S)

HMS Starling (U66)

HMS Statesman (P246)

HMS Sterlet (2S)

HMS Stoic (P231)

HMS Stonehenge (P232)

HMS Storm (P233)

HMS Stratagem (P234)

HMS Striker (D12)

HMS Strongbow (P235)

HMS Stubborn (P238)

HMS Sturdy (P248)

HMS Sturgeon (73S)

HMS Stygian (P249)

HMS Subtle (P251)

HMS Suffolk (55)

HMS Sunfish (81S)

HMS Superb (25)

HMS Supreme (P252)

HMS Surf (P239)

HMS Sussex (96)

HMS Swiftsure (08)

HMS Swordfish (61S)

HMS Syrtis (P241)

HMS Talisman (N78)

HMS Tamar (1863)

HMS Tarpon (N17)

HMS Tartar (F43)

HMS Teazer (R23)

HMS Tempest (N86)

HMS Tenacious (R45)

HMS Termagant (R89)

HMS Terpsichore (R33)

HMS Terror (I03)

HMS Tetrarch (N77)

HMS Thane (D48)

HMS Thetis (N25)

HMS Thorn (N11)

HMS Tigris (N63)

HMS Tracker (D24)

HMS Traveller (N48)

HMS Triad (N53)

HMS Trinidad (46)

HMS Triton (N15)

HMS Triumph (N18)

HMS Trooper (N91)

HMS Troubridge (R00)

HMS Trouncer (D85)

HMS Trumpeter (D09)

HMS Tulip (K29)

HMS Tumult (R11)

HMS Turbulent (N98)

HMS Tuscan (R56)

HMS Tyrian (R67)

HMS Uganda (66)

HMS Ulster (R83)

HMS Ultimatum (P34)

HMS Ultor (P53)

HMS Ulysses (novel)

HMS Ulysses (R69)

HMS Umbra (P35)

HMS Umpire (N82)

HMS Una (N87)

HMS Unbeaten (N93)

HMS Unbending (P37)

HMS Unbroken (P42)

HMS Undaunted (N55)

HMS Undaunted (R53)

HMS Undine (N48)

HMS Undine (R42)

HMS Unicorn (I72)

HMS Union (N56)

HMS Unique (N95)

HMS Unison (P43)

HMS United (P44)

HMS Unity (N66)

HMS Universal (P57)

HMS Unrivalled (P45)

HMS Unruffled (P46)

HMS Unruly (P49)

HMS Unseen (P51)

HMS Unshaken (P54)

HMS Unsparing (P55)

HMS Unswerving (P63)

HMS Untamed (P58)

HMS Untiring (P59)

HMS Upholder (P37)

HMS Upright (N89)

HMS Uproar (P31)

HMS Upstart (P65)

HMS Urania (R05)

HMS Urchin (R99)

HMS Urge (N17)

HMS Ursa (R22)

HMS Ursula (N59)

HMS Usk (N65)

HMS Usurper (P56)

HMS Uther (P62)

HMS Utmost (N19)

HMS Valiant (1914)

HMS Vampire (P72)

HMS Vandal (P64)

HMS Varangian (P61)

HMS Vengeance (R71)

HMS Venturer (P68)

HMS Venus (R50)

HMS Verulam (R28)

HMS Victorious (R38)

HMS Vidette (D48)

HMS Vigilant (R93)

HMS Vindex (D15)

HMS Virago (R75)

HMS Vitality

HMS Volage (R41)

HMS Wakeful (R59)

HMS Walney (Y04)

HMS Warspite (03)

HMS Wellington (U65)

HMS Whaddon (L45)

HMS Whirlwind (R87)

HMS Whitshed (D77)

HMS Wild Goose (U45)

HMS Wild Swan (D62)

HMS Wizard (R72)

HMS Wolverine (D78)

HMS Woodpecker (U08)

HMS Wrangler (R48)

HMS Wryneck (D21)

HMS York (90)

HMS Zealous (R39)

HMS Zest (R02)

HMS Zinnia (K98)

HMS Zulu (F18)

HMT Dunera

HMT Rohna

HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen (1936)

HNLMS Abraham van der Hulst (1937)

HNLMS Abraham van der Hulst (1946)

HNLMS De Gelderland

HNLMS De Ruyter (1935)

HNLMS Eland Dubois (1937)

HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerk

HNLMS Jan van Amstel (1937)

HNLMS Jan van Gelder

HNLMS Kortenaer (1927)

HNLMS Pieter de Bitter (1937)

HNLMS Pieter Florisz (1937)

HNLMS Tromp (1937)

HNLMS Willem van Ewijck (1937)

HNoMS Æger (1936)

HNoMS Brage (1878)

HNoMS Brand (1898)

HNoMS Draug (1908)

HNoMS Eidsvold

HNoMS Frøya

HNoMS Fridtjof Nansen (1930)

HNoMS Garm (1913)

HNoMS Glommen (1916)

HNoMS Gor (1884)

HNoMS Gyller (1938)

HNoMS Harald Haarfagre

HNoMS Heimdal OPV (1892)

HNoMS Hitra

HNoMS Honningsvåg

HNoMS King Haakon VII

HNoMS Kjell

HNoMS Laugen (1918)

HNoMS Nor (1878)

HNoMS Nordkapp OPV (1937)

HNoMS Norge

HNoMS Odin (1939)

HNoMS Olav Tryggvason

HNoMS Otra (1939)

HNoMS Pol III

HNoMS Rauma (1939)

HNoMS Sæl

HNoMS Sleipner (1936)

HNoMS Stegg (1921)

HNoMS Stord (G26)

HNoMS Storm (1898)

HNoMS Svenner (G03)

HNoMS Thorodd

HNoMS Tor (1939)

HNoMS Tordenskjold

HNoMS Troll (1910)

HNoMS Trygg (1919)

HNoMS Tyr (1887)

HNoMS Ula (1943)

HNoMS Uller (1876)

HNoMS Uredd (P-41)

HNoMS Vale (1874)

HNoMS Vidar (1878)

Hütter Hü 136

Hütter Hü 211

Ho-Ri

Ho Chi Minh

Hobart's Funnies

Hobart Baumann Amstutz

Hobart Cenotaph

Hobart R. Gay

Hoche (Paris Métro)

Hocine Ragued

Hodding Carter

Hoechst AG

Hogan's Heroes

Holger Danske (resistance group)

Holland House

Holland Smith

Hollis Alpert

Hollister brothers

Hollywood Boulevard (Walt Disney Studios Park)

Hollywood Canteen

Hollywood Victory Caravan

Hollywood Victory Committee

Holmfrid Olsson

Holocaust (resources)

Holocaust (TV miniseries)

Holocaust and Genocide Studies

Holocaust denial

Holocaust Educational Trust

Holocaust Encyclopedia

Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Lithuania

Holocaust in Norway

Holocaust in Poland

Holocaust in Romania

Holocaust Memorial Center

Holocaust Memorial Day (UK)

Holocaust Memorial Day and Genocide Remembrance Act

Holocaust Memorial on Miami Beach

Holocaust memorials

Holocaust Museum Houston

Holocaust teaching controversy of 2007

Holocaust trains

Holocaust trials in Soviet Estonia

Holocaust trivialization debate

Holocaust victims

Holocaust

Holy Cross Mountains Brigade

Home Army and V1 and V2

Home Defence Executive

Home front during World War II

Homer A. McCrerey

Homer L. Wise

Homer Litzenberg

Homer N. Wallin

Homeward Bound (Turtledove novel)

Homomonument

Hondo Municipal Airport

Honey, I Shrunk the Audience

Hong Kong 1941

Hong Sa-ik

Hong Xuezhi

Hongdu JL-8

Honkawa Elementary School Peace Museum

Honorary Aryan

Honorat de Bueil, seigneur de Racan

Honoré de Balzac

Honour Cross for Combatants

Honours of Winston Churchill

Hope and Glory (film)

Horace A. Jones

Horace M. Thorne

Horace S. Carswell Jr.

Horacio Rivero Jr.

Horatio Fitch

Horatio Nelson Lay (admiral)

Horatio Pettus Mackintosh Berney-Ficklin

Horia Agarici

Horia Macellariu

Horia Sima

Horia, Cloşca şi Crişan Division

Hornet Flight

Horrie Knight

Horst-Günther von Fassong

Horst Ademeit

Horst Floth

Horst Freiherr Treusch von Buttlar-Brandenfels

Horst Günther

Horst Hörnlein

Horst Kopkow

Horst Mahler

Horst Niemack

Horst Queck

Horst Schumann

Horst Tappert

Horst von Möllendorff

Horten Ho 229

Horten Ho XVIII

Hortense de Beauharnais

Hosea Williams

Hosoya Jūdayū

Hossbach Memorandum

Hostages Trial

Hotchkiss H35

Hotchkiss M1914 machine gun

Hotel Concorde La Fayette

Hotel George V, Paris

Hotel Metropole, Vienna

Hotel Meurice

Hotel Polski

Hotsumi Ozaki

Houbei-class missile boat

Hougham Battery

Hour of Victory

House of Responsibility

Hovhannes Bagramyan

Howard Aiken

Howard Brodie

Howard Cosell

Howard D. Wardle

Howard E. Woodford

Howard Franklin Clark

Howard Graham (Canadian Army officer)

Howard Hayes

Howard Kingsbury

Howard Kippenberger

Howard Peter "Cowboy" Blatchford

Howard R. Healy

Howard Thomas Markey

Howard Unruh

Howard W. Gilmore

Howard Zinn

Howell Appling Jr.

Howell Heflin

Howitzer Motor Carriage M8

Hoxton Park Airport

Hoylake and West Kirby War Memorial

Hristijan Todorovski Karpoš

Hristo Yanev

Hu Kexian

Hu Lancheng

Hu Zongnan

Huaihai Campaign

Huairen Air Base

Huaiyin-Huai'an Campaign

Huang Chieh

Huang Qixiang

Huang Yiguang

Huangpu-class gunboat

Hubert-Erwin Meierdress

Hubert Curien

Hubert D. Stephens

Hubert Klausner

Hubert Lagardelle

Hubert Lefèbvre

Hubert Lyautey

Hubert Lynes

Hubert Meyer

Hubert Miller

Hubert Paul Chatelain

Hubert Pierlot

Hubert Rance

Hubert Schiffer

Hubert Van Innis

Hubert William Lewis

Hubert Yockey

Hubert Zemke

Hubertine Auclert

Hubertus Strughold

Hubertus von Bonin

Huff-Duff

Hugh Aloysius Drum

Hugh B. Hester

Hugh Capet

Hugh Culverhouse

Hugh David Black

Hugh Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding

Hugh Dundas

Hugh Elles

Hugh Falkus

Hugh Francis Redmond

Hugh Fraser (British politician)

Hugh Gallarneau

Hugh Gordon Malcolm

Hugh Griffiths, Baron Griffiths

Hugh Hefner

Hugh John Casey

Hugh Lister

Hugh Meade

Hugh O'Brian

Hugh O'Flaherty

Hugh of Châteauneuf

Hugh P. Harris

Hugh Randall Syme

Hugh Scott

Hugh Seagrim

Hugh Trefusis Brassey

Hugh Trevor-Roper

Hughie Edwards

Hughie Green

Hugo Black

Hugo Bleicher

Hugo Boss AG

Hugo Butler

Hugo Curioni

Hugo Drax

Hugo Gryn

Hugo Johansson

Hugo Jury

Hugo Kraas

Hugo Launicke

Hugo Leal

Hugo Lilliér

Hugo Primozic

Hugo Rüster

Hugo Sperrle

Huhtiniemi mass grave

Hukbalahap

Hull note

Hulon B. Whittington

Human torpedo

Humber Armoured Car

Humber Light Reconnaissance Car

Humber Scout Car

Humber Super Snipe

Humberto Coelho

Humberto Tomasina

Hummel (artillery)

Humphrey Atkins

Humphrey de Verd Leigh

Humphrey Lyttelton

Hundred Regiments Offensive

Hungarian Gold Train

Hungarian National Socialist Party

Hungarian Second Army

Hungarian Volunteers in the Winter War

Hungary during the Second World War

Hungary during World War II

Hunger Plan

Hunt-class minesweeper (1916)

Hunter Harris Jr.

Huo Kuizhang

Huon Peninsula campaign

Hurja-class motor torpedo boat

Husband E. Kimmel

Hussar's Picture Book

Huta Pieniacka massacre

Hutton Gibson

Huub Huizenaar

Huzagol 35M

Hvidstengruppen

HX convoys

Hyacinthe-Louis De Quelen

Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz

Hydra-class minelayer

Hyman G. Rickover

Héctor Méndez (boxer)

Héctor Scarone

Hélder Cristóvão

Hélder de Souza

Hélie de Saint Marc

Hélène de Pourtalès

Hélène Berr

Hélène Carrère d'Encausse

Hélène Prévost

Interwar naval service of Erich Raeder

Erich Johann Albert Raeder (24 April 1876 – 6 November 1960) was a naval leader in Germany before and during World War II. This article covers Raeder's life as the Großadmiral (Grand Admiral) up to the start of World War II. Raeder attained this naval rank, the highest possible, in 1939, becoming the first person to hold that rank since Alfred von Tirpitz. Raeder led the Kriegsmarine (German War Navy) for the first half of the war; he resigned in 1943 and was replaced by Karl Dönitz. He was sentenced to life in prison at the Nuremberg Trials, but was released early due to failing health. Raeder is also well known for dismissing Reinhard Heydrich from the Reichsmarine in April 1931 for "conduct unbecoming to an officer and a gentleman".

Josef Mayr-Nusser

Blessed Josef Mayr-Nusser (27 December 1910 – 24 February 1945) was an Italian Roman Catholic who served as the President of the Saint Vincent de Paul Conference of the Bolzano division as well as a member of Catholic Action. He is known best for refusing to recite the Hitler oath after he was drafted as a Nazi soldier and was sentenced to death at the Dachau concentration camp. He died en route to the camp in 1945. He is known as the "Martyr of the First Commandment".Mayr-Nusser was hailed for living his life according to the tenets of the Gospel and of Saint Vincent de Paul and his cause of sainthood was introduced in 2005 upon local demand; he had the title Servant of God once the cause was initiated. Pope Francis approved his beatification on 8 July 2016 and he was beatified in Bolzano on 18 March 2017 as announced on the very same day.

Nazism and the Wehrmacht

The relationship between the Wehrmacht, the regular combined armed forces of Nazi Germany, and the regime it served has been the subject of a voluminous historiographical debate. Broadly speaking, there have been two camps. The myth of the Clean Wehrmacht claims that the Wehrmacht had minimal participation in war crimes and genocide. More recently, scholarship has emerged demonstrating that the Wehrmacht was complicit in the Holocaust.

Oath of allegiance

An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges a duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to monarch or country. In republics, modern oaths specify allegiance to the country in general, or to the country's constitution. For example, officials in the United States, a republic, take an oath of office that includes swearing allegiance to the United States Constitution. However, in a constitutional monarchy, such as in the United Kingdom, Australia and other Commonwealth realms, oaths are sworn to the monarch. Armed forces typically require a military oath.

In feudal times a person would also swear allegiance to his feudal superiors. To this day the oath sworn by freemen of the City of London contains an oath of obedience to the Lord Mayor of the City of London.

Oaths of allegiance are commonly required of newly naturalised citizens (see Oath of Citizenship), members of the armed forces, and those assuming public (particularly parliamentary and judicial) office. Clergy in the Church of England are required to take an Oath of Supremacy acknowledging the authority of the British monarch.

A typical example of an oath of allegiance is that sworn by Members of Parliament in the Netherlands:

I swear (affirm) allegiance to the King, to the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and to the Constitution. I swear (affirm) that I will faithfully perform the duties my office lays upon me. So help me God almighty! (This I declare and affirm)

In many Commonwealth realms all that is required is an oath to the monarch, and not the constitution or state. There have been moves in some of the realms to make the oath of citizenship sworn by new citizens refer to the country rather than the monarch. However, the oaths sworn by judges, members of parliament, etc., have not been changed. All of these moves have not succeeded as the Queen is the personification of the Canadian, British, or Australian state (or that of any other Commonwealth realm). Allegiance sworn to the monarch is the same as to the country, its constitution or flag. The New Zealand Oath of Allegiance still refers to the Queen of New Zealand. The European Court of Human Rights ruled in 1999 that the oath of allegiance to a reigning monarch is "reasonably viewed as an affirmation of loyalty to the constitutional principles which support... the workings of representative democracy in the respondent State."

Otto Krayer

Otto Hermann Krayer (October 22, 1899 in Köndringen, Baden – March 18, 1982 in Tucson, Arizona) was a German-American physician, pharmacologist and university professor.

He was the only German scientist who refused on moral grounds to succeed a colleague who had been dismissed from his professorial chair by the National-Socialist government for anti-semitic reasons. Krayer voiced his opinion publicly and aggressively. The medical historian Udo Schagen entitled his historical analysis of Krayer: "Widerständiges Verhalten im Meer von Begeisterung, Opportunismus und Antisemitismus" or 'Resistant Behaviour in a Sea of Enthusiasm, Opportunism and Antisemitism'.

Reichswehr

The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).

Reichswehreid

The Reichswehreid and from August 1934 Führereid was the name for three different versions of the oath of allegiance of the German Armed Forces, called Reichswehr from 1919 to 1935, and then Wehrmacht until 1945.

Schwurhand

The Schwurhand (German pronunciation: [ˈʃvuːɐ̯hant]) is a heraldic charge depicting the hand gesture that is used in Germanic Europe and neighboring countries, when swearing an oath in court, in office or in swearing-in. The right hand is raised, with the index finger and middle finger extended upwards; the last two digits are curled downwards against the palm. The thumb is shown slightly curled or raised.

Timeline of the Holocaust

A timeline of the Holocaust is detailed in the events listed below. Also referred to as the Shoah (in Hebrew), the Holocaust was a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Nazi Germany and its World War II collaborators. About 1.5 million of the victims were children. Two-thirds of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe were murdered. The following timeline has been compiled from a variety of sources including the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

Wehrmacht

The Wehrmacht (German pronunciation: [ˈveːɐ̯maxt] (listen), lit. defence force) was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer (army), the Kriegsmarine (navy) and the Luftwaffe (air force). The designation "Wehrmacht" replaced the previously used term Reichswehr, and was the manifestation of the Nazi regime's efforts to rearm Germany to a greater extent than the Treaty of Versailles permitted.After the Nazi rise to power in 1933, one of Adolf Hitler's most overt and audacious moves was to establish the Wehrmacht, a modern offensively-capable armed force, fulfilling the Nazi regime's long-term goals of regaining lost territory as well as gaining new territory and dominating its neighbors. This required the reinstatement of conscription, and massive investment and defense spending on the arms industry.The Wehrmacht formed the heart of Germany's politico-military power. In the early part of the Second World War, the Wehrmacht employed combined arms tactics (close cover air-support, tanks, and infantry) to devastating effect in what became known as a Blitzkrieg (lightning war). Its campaigns in France (1940), the Soviet Union (1941), and North Africa (1941/42) are regarded as acts of boldness. At the same time, the far-flung advances strained the Wehrmacht's capacity to the breaking point, culminating in the first major defeat in the Battle of Moscow (1941); by late 1942, Germany was losing the initiative in all theatres. The operational art was no match to the war-making abilities of the Allied coalition, making the Wehrmacht's weaknesses in strategy, doctrine, and logistics readily apparent.Closely cooperating with the SS and the Einsatzgruppen, the German armed forces committed numerous war crimes and atrocities, despite later denials and promotion of the myth of the Clean Wehrmacht. The majority of the war crimes were committed in the Soviet Union, Poland, Yugoslavia, Greece and Italy, as part of the war of annihilation against the Soviet Union, the Holocaust and Nazi security warfare.

During the war about 18 million men served in the Wehrmacht. By the time the war ended in Europe in May 1945, German forces (consisting of the Army, Navy and Luftwaffe, the Waffen-SS, the Volkssturm and foreign collaborateur units) had lost approximately 11,300,000 men, about half of whom were missing or killed during the war. Only a few of the Wehrmacht's upper leadership were tried for war crimes, despite evidence suggesting that more were involved in illegal actions. The majority of the three million Wehrmacht soldiers who invaded the USSR participated in committing war crimes.

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