Hitler Cabinet

The Hitler Cabinet de jure formed the government of Nazi Germany between 30 January 1933 and 30 April 1945 upon the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of the German Reich by president Paul von Hindenburg. Contrived by the national conservative politician Franz von Papen, who reserved the office of the Vice-Chancellor for himself.[1] Originally, Hitler's first cabinet was called the Reich Cabinet of National Salvation,[2] which was a coalition of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) and the national conservative German National People's Party (DNVP), it became an exclusively Nazi cabinet when the DNVP was intimidated into dissolving itself.

The Enabling Act of 1933, passed two months after Hitler took office, gave the cabinet the power to make laws without legislative consent for four years. In effect, this power was vested in Hitler, and for all intents and purposes it made Hitler a dictator. After the Enabling Act's passage, serious deliberations more or less ended at cabinet meetings. It met only sporadically after 1934, and last met in full on 5 February 1938.[3] Nonetheless, it grew immensely in size on paper, due to the addition of the commanders of the armed services and several ministers without portfolio.

Hitler Cabinet
cabinet of the German Realm
(30 January 1933 – 1943)
cabinet of the Greater German Realm
(1943 – 30 April 1945)
30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H28422, Reichskabinett Adolf Hitler
First session of the cabinet, 1933
Date formed30 January 1933
Date dissolved30 April 1945
People and organisations
Head of governmentAdolf Hitler
Deputy head of governmentFranz von Papen
(30 January 1933 – 7 August 1934)
Hermann Göring
(10 February 1941 – 23 April 1945)
Member partiesNational Socialist German Workers Party
German National People's Party
(30 January 1933 – 27 June 1933; dissolved itself on 27 June 1933)
Status in legislatureNational Socialist German Workers Party – led coalition government
(30 January 1933 – 27 June 1933)
National Socialist German Workers Party dominate-party government
(27 June 1933 – 5 July 1933)
National Socialist German Workers Party one-party government
(5 July 1933 – 30 April 1945)
Opposition partiesCentre Party
(30 January 1933 – 5 July 1933; dissolved itself on 5 July 1933)
Communist Party of Germany
(30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945; officially banned on 6 March 1933)
Social Democratic Party of Germany
(30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945; officially banned on 23 June 1933)
Opposition leadersLudwig Kaas
(30 January 1933 – 5 July 1933)
Ernst Thälmann
(30 January 1933 – 18 August 1944)
Walter Ulbricht
(6 March 1933 – 30 April 1945; leader of the Communist Party of Germany in exile)
Arthur Crispien
(30 January 1933 – 23 June 1933)
Otto Wels
(30 January 1933 – 16 September 1939; chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany in exile from 23 June 1933 – 16 September 1939)
Hans Vogel
(30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945; chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany in exile from 23 June 1933 – 30 April 1945)
History
Election(s)Mar. 1933
Nov. 1933
1936
1938
Outgoing electionNov. 1932
Legislature term(s)7th legislature of the Diet of the Realm
1st legislature of the Greater-German Diet of the Realm
PredecessorVon Schleicher Cabinet
SuccessorGoebbels cabinet

Composition

The Reich cabinet consisted of the following Ministers:

Portfolio Minister Took office Left office Party
Chancellor of the German Reich Adolf Hitler30 January 193330 April 1945NSDAP
Vice-Chancellor of the German Reich Franz von Papen30 January 19337 August 1934Independent
 Hermann Göring10 February 194123 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister of Foreign Affairs Konstantin von Neurath30 January 19334 February 1938NSDAP
 Joachim von Ribbentrop4 February 193830 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick30 January 193324 August 1943NSDAP
 Heinrich Himmler24 August 194329 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister of Finance Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk30 January 193330 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister of Justice Franz Gürtner30 January 193329 January 1941NSDAP
 Franz Schlegelberger (acting)29 January 194124 August 1942NSDAP
 Otto Georg Thierack24 August 194230 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister of the Reichswehr
(from 1935, Reich Minister of War)
 Werner von Blomberg30 January 19335 February 1938Independent
 Wilhelm Keitel (as Chief of the OKW)5 February 193830 April 1945Independent
Reich Minister of Economics Alfred Hugenberg30 January 193329 June 1933DNVP
 Kurt Schmitt29 June 19333 August 1934NSDAP
 Hjalmar Schacht3 August 193426 November 1937Independent
 Hermann Göring26 November 193715 January 1938NSDAP
 Walther Funk5 February 193830 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister for Food and Agriculture Alfred Hugenberg30 January 193329 June 1933DNVP
 Richard Walther Darré29 June 193323 May 1942NSDAP
 Herbert Backe23 May 194230 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister for Labour Franz Seldte[4]30 January 193330 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister for Postal Affairs Paul Freiherr von Eltz-Rübenach30 January 19332 February 1937Independent
 Wilhelm Ohnesorge2 February 193730 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister for Transport Paul Freiherr von Eltz-Rübenach30 January 19332 February 1937Independent
 Julius Dorpmüller2 February 193730 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda Joseph Goebbels13 March 193330 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister of Aviation Hermann Göring27 April 193323 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Ministry of Science, Education and Culture Bernhard Rust1 May 193430 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister for Church Affairs Hanns Kerrl16 July 193515 December 1941NSDAP
 Hermann Muhs (acting)15 December 194130 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister for Armaments and Ammunition
(from 1943, for Armaments and War Production)
 Fritz Todt17 March 19408 February 1942NSDAP
 Albert Speer8 February 194230 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories Alfred Rosenberg17 November 194130 April 1945NSDAP
Reich Minister for Bohemia and Moravia Karl Hermann Frank20 August 194230 April 1945NSDAP
Ministers without portfolio Hermann Göring30 January 193327 April 1933NSDAP
 Ernst Röhm (SA Chief)1 December 19331 July 1934NSDAP
Reich Ministers without portfolio
(from 1938)
 Rudolf Hess (Deputy Führer)1 December 193310 May 1941NSDAP
 Hanns Kerrl16 April 193416 July 1935NSDAP
 Hans Frank (Governor-General from 1939)19 December 193430 April 1945NSDAP
 Hjalmar Schacht26 November 193722 January 1943NSDAP
 Otto Meissner (Chief of Presidential Chancellery)1 December 193730 April 1945NSDAP
 Hans Lammers (Chief of Reich Chancellery)1 December 193730 April 1945NSDAP
 Arthur Seyss-Inquart1 May 193930 April 1945NSDAP
 Martin Bormann (Chief of Nazi Party Chancellery)12 May 194130 April 1945NSDAP
 Wilhelm Frick (Reich Protector)24 August 194330 April 1945NSDAP
 Konstantin Hierl (Chief of the Reich Labour Service)24 August 194330 April 1945NSDAP

Changes

  • March 1933: Joseph Goebbels enters the cabinet as Reich Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda.
  • April 1933: Franz Seldte becomes a member of the Nazi Party; Göring takes a portfolio as Reich Minister of Aviation.
  • June 1933: Kurt Schmitt succeeds Hugenberg as Reich Minister of Economics. Richard Walther Darré succeeds Hugenberg as Reich Minister for Food and Agriculture.
  • December 1933: Ernst Röhm and Rudolf Hess enter the Cabinet as Ministers without portfolio.
  • May 1934: Bernhard Rust enters the Cabinet as Reich Minister of Science and Education.
  • June 1934: Hanns Kerrl enters the Cabinet as a Minister without portfolio. Röhm, Minister without portfolio, is murdered.
  • July 1934: Göring takes another portfolio as Reich Minister of Forestry.
  • August 1934: Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen leaves the cabinet. A new Vice-Chancellor is not installed. Hjalmar Schacht succeeds Schmitt as Reich Minister of Economics.
  • December 1934: Hans Frank enters the Cabinet as Minister without Portfolio.
  • March 1935: Göring takes yet another portfolio as Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe.
  • May 1935: The title of Reich Minister of Defense is replaced by that of Reich Minister of War. Blomberg retains the office.
  • July 1935: Hanns Kerrl takes a portfolio as Reich Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs.
  • April 1936: Werner von Fritsch, Commander-in-Chief of the Army, and Erich Raeder, Commander in Chief of the Navy, join the Cabinet.
  • February 1937: Wilhelm Ohnesorge succeeds Eltz as Reich Minister of Posts. Julius Dorpmüller succeeds Eltz as Reich Minister of Transport.
  • November 1937: Hermann Göring succeeds Schacht as Reich Minister of Economics. Schacht becomes Minister without portfolio.
  • December 1937: Otto Meissner enters the Cabinet as Reich Minister of State and Head of the Chancellery.
  • January 1938: Walther Funk succeeds Göring as Reich Minister of Economics.
  • February 1938: Joachim von Ribbentrop replaces Neurath as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Neurath becomes Minister without portfolio. Blomberg resigns as Reich Minister of War and his office is abolished. His role is taken by General Wilhelm Keitel as Director of the High Command of the Armed Forces. Walther von Brauchitsch succeeds Fritsch as Commander-in-Chief of the Army.
  • May 1939: Arthur Seyss-Inquart enters the Cabinet as Minister without portfolio.
  • March 1940: Fritz Todt becomes Reich Minister of Armaments and Ammunition.
  • January 1941: Franz Schlegelberger succeeds Gürtner as Reich Minister of Justice.
  • May 1941: Rudolf Hess is dismissed from the Cabinet.
  • July 1941: Alfred Rosenberg enters the Cabinet as Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories.
  • December 1941: Hanns Kerrl, the Reich Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs, dies. He is not replaced. Hitler himself takes up the position of Commander-in-Chief of the Army.
  • February 1942: Albert Speer succeeds Todt as Reich Minister of Armaments and Ammunition.
  • May 1942: Herbert Backe succeeds Darré as Reich Minister of Food.
  • August 1942: Otto Georg Thierack succeeds Schlegelberger as Reich Minister of Justice.
  • January 1943: Karl Dönitz succeeds Raeder as Commander-in-Chief of the Navy.
  • January 1943: Hans Lammers appointed President of Reich Cabinet (Cabinet President in Hitler's absence)
  • January 1943: Hjalmar Schacht departs the Cabinet.
  • June 1943: Albert Speer's ministerial authority is extended to cover the entire German war industry, and is elevated to Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production.
  • August 1943: Heinrich Himmler succeeds Frick as Reich Minister of the Interior.
  • August 1943: Konstantin Hierl enters the Cabinet as Reich Minister without portfolio.

End of cabinet

The last meeting of Hitler's cabinet took place on 5 February 1938. As the Third Reich government was disintegrating at the end of the Second World War and following Hitler's death on 30 April 1945, it was succeeded by the short-lived Cabinet of Schwerin von Krosigk commonly known as the Flensburg government.

References

  1. ^ Kershaw, Ian (2010). Hitler: A Biography. New York: Norton. p. 253. ISBN 9780393075625.
  2. ^ The Brown Plague: Travels in Late Weimar & Early Nazi Germany
  3. ^ Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin Books. p. 645. ISBN 0-14-303790-0.
  4. ^ Stackelberg, Roderick (2002). Hitler's Germany: Origins, Interpretations, Legacies. New York: Routledge. p. 109. ISBN 9780203005415.
Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] (listen); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP). He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and later Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939. He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust.

Hitler was born in Austria—then part of Austria-Hungary—and was raised near Linz. He moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party (DAP), the precursor of the NSDAP, and was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted to seize power in a failed coup in Munich and was imprisoned. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. He frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.

By November 1932, the Nazi Party had the most seats in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, and no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.

Hitler sought Lebensraum ("living space") for the German people in Eastern Europe, and his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and, on 1 September 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. These gains were gradually reversed after 1941, and in 1945 the Allied armies defeated the German army. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun. Less than two days later, on 30 April 1945, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army; their corpses were burned.

Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims who he and his followers deemed Untermenschen (subhumans) or socially undesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 28.7 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during World War II was unprecedented in warfare, and the casualties constitute the deadliest conflict in history.

Hitler's actions and ideology are almost universally regarded as evil. According to historian Ian Kershaw, "never in history has such ruination—physical and moral—been associated with the name of one man."

Adolf Hitler's Munich apartment

Adolf Hitler's Munich apartment was an apartment owned by Adolf Hitler, located at Prinzregentenplatz 16 in the German city of Munich, the birthplace and capital of the Nazi Party which was formed in Munich in 1920.

Brown House, Munich

The Brown House (German: Braunes Haus) was the name given to the Munich mansion located between the Karolinenplatz and Königsplatz, known before as the Palais Barlow, which was purchased in 1930 for the Nazis. They converted the structure into the headquarters of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP). Its namesake was the result of the early Nazi Party uniforms, which were brown. Many leading Nazis, including Hitler, maintained offices there throughout the Party's existence. It was destroyed by Allied bombing raids during the Second World War.

Conservatism in Germany

Conservatism in Germany has encompassed a wide range of theories and ideologies in the last three hundred years, but most historical conservative theories supported the monarchical/hierarchical political structure.

Davud Monshizadeh

Davud Monshizadeh (Davoud Monchi-Zadeh) (Persian: داوود منشی‌زاده‎; 29 August 1915 in Tehran – 13 July 1989 in Uppsala, Sweden) was scholar in Iranian Studies, Professor in Iranian Languages at Uppsala University, Sweden and the founder of SUMKA (the "Iranian National Socialist Workers Party") and a supporter of Nazi ideology in Germany during World War II and in Iran after the war.

Eastern Pact

The Eastern Pact was a proposed mutual-aid treaty, intended to bring France, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania together in opposition to Nazi Germany.

The idea of the Eastern Pact was advanced early in 1934 by the French minister of foreign affairs, Louis Barthou, and was actively supported by the Soviet government. In May and June 1934, the Soviet Union and France agreed to conclude a bilateral treaty providing for France's guaranteeing of the Eastern Pact and the guaranteeing of the Locarno Treaties of 1925 by the Soviet Union. On 14 June 1934 the government of the USSR invited all interested states to participate in the Eastern Pact. Czechoslovakia (2 July), Latvia and Estonia (29 July), and Lithuania (3 August) declared their readiness to adhere to the pact. However, Estonia and Latvia made the adherence of Germany and Poland a condition of their own participation. The government of Finland avoided expressing its attitude toward the Eastern Pact. Barthou appealed to the British government in the name of the government of France, but the British, while formally approving the idea of the Eastern Pact, made their support conditional on Germany's inclusion both in the regional mutual-aid treaty and in the Franco-Soviet treaty, so that Soviet and French guarantees would be extended to Germany. The governments of the Soviet Union and France agreed to this. However, Hitler Cabinet (11 September 1934) and subsequently the government of Poland (27 September 1934) refused to participate in the Eastern Pact.

After the assassination of Barthou by Vlado Chernozemski on 9 October 1934, the French diplomacy together with the British turned away from the Soviet Union and adopted the Appeasement policy towards Nazi Germany. The proposed Eastern Pact was never implemented.

Franz Seldte

Franz Seldte (29 June 1882 – 1 April 1947) was co-founder of the German Stahlhelm paramilitary organization, a Nazi politician, and Minister for Labour of the German Reich from 1933 to 1945.

Geli Raubal

Angela Maria "Geli" Raubal ([ˈɡeːliː ˈʀaʊ̯bal]; 4 June 1908 – 18 September 1931) was Adolf Hitler's half-niece. Born in Linz, Austria-Hungary, she was the second child and eldest daughter of Leo Raubal Sr. and Hitler's half-sister, Angela Raubal. Raubal lived in close contact to her uncle from 1925 until her presumed suicide in 1931.

German National People's Party

The German National People's Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei, DNVP) was a national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. Before the rise of the Nazi Party, it was the major conservative and nationalist party in Weimar Germany. It was an alliance of nationalists, reactionary monarchists, völkisch and antisemitic elements supported by the Pan-German League.It was formed in late 1918 after Germany's defeat in World War I and the November Revolution that toppled the German monarchy. It combined remnants of the German Conservative Party, Free Conservative Party, German Fatherland Party and right-wing elements of the National Liberal Party. The party strongly rejected the republican Weimar Constitution of 1919 and the Treaty of Versailles which it viewed as a national disgrace, signed by traitors. The party instead aimed at a restoration of monarchy, a repeal of the dictated peace treaty and reacquisition of all lost territories and colonies.

During the mid-1920s, the DNVP moderated its profile, accepting republican institutions in practice (while still calling for a return to monarchy in its manifesto) and participating in centre-right coalition governments on federal and state levels. It broadened its voting base—winning as many as 20.5% in the December 1924 election—and supported the election of Paul von Hindenburg as President of Germany (Reichspräsident) in 1925. Under the leadership of the populist media entrepreneur Alfred Hugenberg from 1928, the party re-radicalised its nationalist and anti-republican rhetoric and changed its strategy to mass mobilisation, plebiscites and support of authoritarian rule by the President instead of work by parliamentary means. At the same time, it lost many votes to Adolf Hitler's rising Nazi Party. Several prominent Nazis began their careers in the DNVP.

After 1929, the DNVP co-operated with the Nazis, joining forces in the Harzburg Front of 1931, forming coalition governments in some states and finally supporting Hitler's appointment as Chancellor (Reichskanzler) in January 1933. Initially, the DNVP had a number of ministers in Hitler's government, but the party quickly lost influence and eventually dissolved itself in June 1933, giving way to the Nazis' single-party dictatorship. The Nazis allowed former DNVP members in the Reichstag, the civil service, and the police to continue with their jobs and left the rest of the party membership generally in peace.

During the Second World War, several prominent former DNVP members, such as Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, were involved in the German resistance against the Nazis and took part in the 20 July assassination plot against Hitler in 1944.

Goebbels cabinet

The Josef Goebbels Cabinet was named by Adolf Hitler in his political testament of 30 April 1945. To replace himself, Hitler named Admiral Karl Dönitz as Reichspräsident. The cabinet was shortlived, and was followed on 2 May 1945 by the Flensburg Government. This was caused when Josef Goebbels took his own life on 1 May and Martin Bormann did likewise the following day.

Hanns Kerrl

Hanns Kerrl (11 December 1887 – 15 December 1941) was a German Nazi politician. His most prominent position, from July 1935, was that of Reichsminister of Church Affairs. He was also President of the Prussian Landtag (1932–1934) and head of the Zweckverband Reichsparteitag Nürnberg and in that capacity edited a number of Nuremberg rally yearbooks.

Johann Georg Hiedler

Johann Georg Hiedler (baptised 28 February 1792 – 9 February 1857) was considered the officially accepted paternal grandfather of Adolf Hitler by Nazi Germany. Whether Johann Georg was in fact Hitler's biological paternal grandfather is disputed by modern historians.

Kaiserslautern

Kaiserslautern (German pronunciation: [ˌkaɪzɐsˈlaʊtɐn] (listen)) is a city in southwest Germany, located in the Bundesland (State) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) at the edge of the Palatinate Forest (Pfälzerwald). The historic centre dates to the 9th century. It is 459 kilometres (285 miles) from Paris, 117 km (73 miles) from Frankfurt am Main, and 159 km (99 miles) from Luxembourg.

Kaiserslautern is home to about 100,000 people. Additionally, approximately 45,000 NATO military personnel inhabit the city and its surrounding district (Landkreis Kaiserslautern), and contribute approximately US$1 billion annually to the local economy. The city is also home to football club 1. FC Kaiserslautern that has won the German championship four times.

November 1932 German federal election

Federal elections were held in Germany on 6 November 1932. They saw a four percent drop in votes for the Nazi Party and slight increases for the Communists and the national conservative DNVP. It was the last free and fair all-German election before the Nazi seizure of power on 30 January 1933, as the following elections of March 1933 were already accompanied by massive suppression, especially against Communist and Social Democratic politicians.

The results of the November 1932 election were a great disappointment for the Nazis. Although they emerged once more as the largest party by far, they had fewer seats than before, and failed to form a government coalition in the Reichstag parliament.

Previously, Chancellor Franz von Papen, a former member of the Catholic Centre Party, had governed without parliamentary support relying on legislative decrees promulgated by Reich President Paul von Hindenburg according to Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution. However, on 12 September 1932 Papen had to ask Hindenburg to dissolve the parliament in order to preempt a motion of no confidence tabled by the Communist Party, which was expected to pass (since the Nazis were expected to vote in favour, as they also desired new elections). Following this dissolution of parliament in September, the election of November 1932 was held. The DNVP, which had backed Papen, gained 15 seats as a result.

After the election, Chancellor Papen urged Hindenburg to continue to govern by emergency decrees. Nevertheless, on 3 December he was superseded by his Defence Minister Kurt von Schleicher who in talks with the left wing of the Nazi Party led by Gregor Strasser tried to build up a Third Position (Querfront) strategy. These plans failed when in turn Hitler disempowered Strasser and approached Papen for coalition talks. Papen obtained Hindenburg's consent to form the Hitler Cabinet on 30 January 1933.

The next free elections were not held until 1949 in West Germany and March 1990 in East Germany; by the time of the first postwar elections in East Germany in May 1949, a Communist regime was rapidly consolidating. The next free all-German elections took place in December 1990 after reunification.

Von Schleicher Cabinet

The Von Schleicher Cabinet de jure formed the government of Weimar Germany between 3 December 1932 and 28 January 1933 upon the resignation of Franz von Papen. The cabinet was made up of holdovers from Papen's which featured many right-wing independents or German National People's Party (DNVP). The government was followed by the Hitler Cabinet after Schleicher's own resignation. This was to be the last Weimar government before the rise of Nazi Germany.

Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (German: Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪmaʁɐ ʁepuˈbliːk] (listen)) is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although commonly translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself. The Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany.

Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm, and became a de jure republic in February 1919 when the position of President of Germany was created. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for Germany was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism (with paramilitaries—both left- and right-wing) as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. Resentment in Germany towards the Treaty of Versailles was strong especially on the political right where there was great anger towards those who had signed the Treaty and submitted to fulfill the terms of it. The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never completely met its disarmament requirements and eventually paid only a small portion of the war reparations (by twice restructuring its debt through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan). Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the western borders of the country by abandoning irredentist claims on France and Belgium, but continued to dispute the eastern borders and sought to persuade German-speaking Austria to join Germany as one of Germany's states.

From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher. The Great Depression, exacerbated by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government. The Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the "éminence grise" who would keep Hitler under control, using his close personal connection to Hindenburg. Within months, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency: it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitler's seizure of power (Machtergreifung) was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation. These events brought the republic to an end – as democracy collapsed, the founding of a single-party state began the dictatorship of the Nazi era.

Wilhelm Frick

Wilhelm Frick (12 March 1877 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent German politician of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), who served as Reich Minister of the Interior in the Hitler Cabinet from 1933 to 1943 and as the last governor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. After World War II, he was tried and convicted of war crimes at the Nuremberg Trials and executed by hanging.

Wilhelm Ohnesorge

Wilhelm Ohnesorge (8 June 1872 – 1 February 1962) was a German politician in the Third Reich who sat in the Hitler Cabinet. From 1937 to 1945, he also acted as the minister and official of the Reichspost, the German postal service, having succeeded Paul Freiherr von Eltz-Rübenach as minister. Along with his ministerial duties, Ohnesorge also significantly delved into research relating to propagation and promotion of the Nazi Party through the radio, and the development of a proposed German atomic bomb.

Zweites Buch

The Zweites Buch (pronounced [ˈtsvaɪ̯təs buːχ], "Second Book"), published in English as Hitler's Secret Book and later as Hitler's Second Book, is an unedited transcript of Adolf Hitler's thoughts on foreign policy written in 1928; it was written after Mein Kampf and was not published in his lifetime. The Zweites Buch was not published in 1928 because Mein Kampf did not sell well at that time and Hitler's publisher, Franz-Eher-Verlag, told Hitler that a second book would hinder sales even more.

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