History of the Jews during World War II

The history of the Jews during World War II is almost synonymous with the Jewish persecution and murder of unprecedented scale in modern times in political Europe inclusive of European North Africa (pro-Nazi Vichy-North Africa and Italian Libya). The massive scale of the Holocaust which happened during World War II heavily affected the Jewish nation and world public opinion, which only understood the dimensions of the Final Solution after the war. The genocide, known as HaShoah in Hebrew, aimed at the elimination of the Jewish people on the European continent. It was a broadly organized operation led by Nazi Germany, in which approximately six million Jews were murdered methodically and with horrifying cruelty. During the Holocaust in occupied Poland, more than one million Jews were murdered in gas chambers of the Auschwitz concentration camp alone. The murder of the Jews of Europe affected Jewish communities in Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Channel Islands, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine.[1]

Leading to World War II, nearly all Jewish firms in Nazi Germany had either collapsed under financial pressure and declining profits, or had been forced to sell out to the Nazi German government as part of the "Aryanization" policy inaugurated in 1937. As the war started, massacres of Jews took place originally as part of Operation Tannenberg against the Polish nation. The much larger and methodical mass killings of Jews began with the onset of Operation Barbarossa. Led by Einsatzkommandos and the Orpo battalions, the destruction of European Jews took place with the active participation of local Auxiliary Police including Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, and Ukrainian Schutzmannschaften.[1]

History

The following figures of the Federal Agency for Civic Education (Germany) show the annihilation of the Jewish population of Europe by (pre-war) country as percentage points:[2]
Country Estimated
Pre-War
Jewish
population
Estimated
killed
Percent
killed
Poland 3,400,000 3,000,000 88.25%
Russian SFSR 3,000,000 1,000,000 33.3%
Romania 757,000 287,000 38%
Hungary 445,000 270,000 60.7%
Czechoslovakia 357,000 260,000 73%
Germany 500,000 165,000 33%
Lithuania 150,000 145,000 96.7%
Netherlands 140,000 102,000 72.9%
France 300,000 76,000 25.33%
Latvia 93,500 70,000 74.9%
Austria 206,000 65,000 31.5%
Yugoslavia 68,500 60,000 87.6%
Greece 70,000 58,800 84%
Belgium 90,000 25,000 27.8%
Italy 46,000 7,500 16.3%
Luxembourg 3,600 1,200 33.3%
Estonia 4,300 1,000 23%
Norway 1,800 758 42.1%
Bulgaria 48,400 142 0.3%
Denmark 7,800 116 1.49%
Albania 200 100 50%
Finland 2200 7 0.32%
Total 9,689,500 5,594,623 57.74%

Before the onset of war, the first pogrom in Nazi Germany was Kristallnacht, often called Pogromnacht, or "night of broken glass," in which Jewish homes were ransacked in numerous German cities along with 11,000 Jewish shops, towns and villages,[3] as civilians and SA stormtroopers destroyed buildings with sledgehammers, leaving the streets covered in smashed windows — the origin of the name "Night of Broken Glass." Jews were beaten to death; 30,000 Jewish men were taken to concentration camps; and 1,668 synagogues ransacked with 267 set on fire. Following Operation Barbarossa launched on 22 June 1941, in the city of Lviv in the occupied territory of the General Government, Ukrainian nationalists organized two large pogroms in July 1941, in which around 6,000 Jews were murdered.[4][5]

In Lithuania, local militant groups engaged in anti-Jewish pogroms on July 25 and 26, 1941 around Kaunas even before the Nazi forces arrived, killing about 3,800 Jews and burning synagogues and Jewish shops.[6] Perhaps the deadliest of these Holocaust-era pogroms was the Iași pogrom in Romania, in which as many as 14,000 Jews were killed by Romanian citizens, police, and military officials.

By December 1941, Adolf Hitler decided to completely exterminate European Jews.[7] In January 1942, during the Wannsee conference, several Nazi leaders discussed the details of the "Final Solution of the Jewish question" (Endlösung der Judenfrage). Dr. Josef Bühler urged Reinhard Heydrich to proceed with the "Final Solution" in the General Government. They began to systematically deport Jewish populations from the ghettos and all occupied territories to the seven camps designated as Vernichtungslager, or extermination camps: Auschwitz, Birkenau was the Extermination Camp site Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibór and Treblinka II. Sebastian Haffner published the analysis in 1978 that Hitler from December 1941 accepted the failure of his goal to dominate Europe forever on his declaration of war against the United States, but that his withdrawal and apparent calm thereafter was sustained by the achievement of his second goal—the extermination of the Jews.

Even as the German Nazi war machine faltered in the last years of the war, precious military resources such as fuel, transport, munitions, soldiers, and industrial resources were still being heavily diverted away from the war and towards the death camps. By the end of the war, more than half of Jewish population of Europe had been killed in the Holocaust. Poland, home of the largest Jewish community in Europe before the war, had over 90% of its Jewish population, or about 3,000,000 Jews, murdered by the Nazis. Greece, Yugoslavia, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia, the Netherlands, and Latvia each had over 70% of their Jewish population killed.[1]

Hungary and Albania lost around half of their Jewish populations, the Soviet Union, Germany, Austria and Luxembourg lost over one third of its Jews, Belgium and France each saw around a quarter of their Jewish populations killed.[1]

During the war, Spain became an unlikely haven for several thousand Jews. They were mainly from Western Europe, fleeing deportation to concentration camps from occupied France, but also Sephardic Jews from Eastern Europe, especially in Hungary. Trudy Alexy refers to the "absurdity" and "paradox of refugees fleeing the Nazis' Final Solution to seek asylum in a country where no Jews had been allowed to live openly as Jews for over four centuries."[8]

Jews in the Allied Forces

Rosh Hashanah Evening (6158254119)
Servicemen of the 20th Air Force stationed in Guam during World War II participate in a Rosh Hashanah service.

Approximately 1.5 million Jews served in the regular Allied militaries during World War II.[9]

Approximately 550,000 American Jews served in the various branches of the United States armed services. Roughly 52,000 received U.S. military awards.[10] Another 500,000 served in the Red Army, and more than 160,000 earned citations, with over 150 receiving the Hero of the Soviet Union award. Some 100,000 Jews served in the Polish Army during the German invasion, and thousands served in the Free Polish Forces, including about 10,000 in Anders' Army. Over 60,000 Jews served in the British Armed Forces (excluding dominion or colonial personnel), including 14,000 in the Royal Air Force and 15,000 in the Royal Navy. About 30,000 Jews from Palestine also served in the British military.[11][12][13]

Jewish partisans also fought throughout occupied Europe and were organized into groups such as the Bielski partisans, United Partisan Organization and the Parczew partisans. Jewish Partisans took part in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the Warsaw uprising and many other battles throughout the war.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Lucy S. Dawidowicz (1976). A Holocaust Reader. Behrman House. p. 381 (table), 92–94. ISBN 0874412366.
  2. ^ "Unter der NS-Herrschaft ermordete Juden nach Land." / "Jews by country murdered under Nazi rule." Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung / Federal Agency for Civic Education (Germany), April 29th 2018
  3. ^ Gilbert, Martin. Kristallnacht: Prelude to Destruction. Harper Collins, 2006, p. 30.
  4. ^ Longerich, Peter (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5.
  5. ^ USHMM. "Lwów". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2015.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  6. ^ MacQueen, Michael (1998). "Nazi Policy towards the Jews in the Reichskommissariat Ostland, June–December 1941: From White Terror to Holocaust in Lithuania". In Gitelman, Zvi (ed.). Bitter Legacy: Confronting the Holocaust in the USSR. Indiana University Press. p. 97. ISBN 0-253-33359-8.
  7. ^ Bauer, Yehuda (2000). Rethinking the Holocaust. Yale University Press. p. 5. ISBN 0300093004.
  8. ^ Trudy Alexy, The Mezuzah in the Madonna's Foot, Simon & Schuster, 1993. ISBN 0-671-77816-1. p. 74.
  9. ^ "Jewish Soldiers in the Allied Armies". Yad Vashem.
  10. ^ Hartwick, Sharon (December 24, 2003) [Dec 24–30]. "Ours to Fight For: American Jews in the Second World War". The Villager. 73 (34). Retrieved November 28, 2010.
  11. ^ The Hebrew Impact on Western Civilization, Dagobert D. Runes
  12. ^ Noah Klieger (11 September 2006), Army was Polish, soldiers were Jews. Exhibition set to open next week salutes anonymous Jewish fighters who fought with Poland’s armies.
  13. ^ Yad Vashem, The Holocaust: Combat and Resistance. Jewish Soldiers in the Allied Armies.

External links

Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye

The Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (Yiddish: פֿאַראײניקטע פּאַרטיזאַנער אָרגאַניזאַציע‎; "United Partisan Organization"; referred to as FPO by its Yiddish initials) was a Jewish resistance organization based in the Vilna Ghetto that organized armed resistance against the Nazis during World War II. The clandestine organisation was established by Communist and Zionist partisans. Their leaders were writer Abba Kovner and Yitzhak Wittenberg.

Final Solution

The Final Solution or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question was a Nazi plan for the genocide of Jews during World War II. The "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" was the official code name for the murder of all Jews within reach, which was not restricted to the European continent. This policy of deliberate and systematic genocide starting across German-occupied Europe was formulated in procedural and geopolitical terms by Nazi leadership in January 1942 at the Wannsee Conference held near Berlin, and culminated in the Holocaust, which saw the killing of 90% of Polish Jews, and two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.The nature and timing of the decisions that led to the Final Solution is an intensely researched and debated aspect of the Holocaust. The program evolved during the first 25 months of war leading to the attempt at "murdering every last Jew in the German grasp". Most historians agree, wrote Christopher Browning, that the Final Solution cannot be attributed to a single decision made at one particular point in time. "It is generally accepted the decision-making process was prolonged and incremental." In 1940, following the Fall of France, Adolf Eichmann devised the Madagascar Plan to move Europe's Jewish population to the French colony, but the plan was abandoned for logistical reasons, mainly a naval blockade. There were also preliminary plans to deport Jews to Palestine and Siberia. In 1941, wrote Raul Hilberg, in the first phase of the mass murder of Jews, the mobile killing units began to pursue their victims across occupied eastern territories; in the second phase, stretching across all of German-occupied Europe, the Jewish victims were sent on death trains to centralized extermination camps built for the purpose of systematic implementation of the Final Solution.

History of the Jews in Belarus

The Jews in Belarus were the third largest ethnic group in the country in the first half of the 20th century. Before World War II, the Jewish population had dropped from roughly 910,000 to 375,000 due to mass migrations, but Jews were still the third among the ethnic groups in Belarus and comprised more than 40% of the population in cities and towns. The population of cities such as Minsk, Pinsk, Mahiliou, Babrujsk, Viciebsk, and Homiel was more than 50% Jewish. In 1926 and 1939 there were between 375,000 and 407,000 Jews in Belarus or 6.7-8.2% of the total population which was down from roughly 13.6% of the total population in 1897. Some 246,000 Jews of 375,000—66% of the Jewish population—were killed in Belarus during the Holocaust. According to the 2009 national census, there were 12,926 self-identifying Jews in Belarus. The Jewish Agency estimates the community of Jews in Belarus at 20,000. However, the number of Belarusians with Jewish descent is assumed to be higher.

History of the Jews in Estonia

The history of the Jews in Estonia starts with individual reports of Jews in what is now Estonia from as early as the 14th century. However, the process of permanent Jewish settlement in Estonia began in the 19th century, especially after they were granted the official right to enter the region by a statute of Russian Tsar Alexander II in 1865. This allowed the so-called Jewish "Nicholas soldiers" (often former cantonists) and their descendants, First Guild merchants, artisans, and Jews with higher education to settle in Estonia and other parts of the Russian Empire outside their Pale of Settlement. The "Nicholas soldiers" and their descendants, and artisans were, basically, the ones who founded the first Jewish congregations in Estonia. The Tallinn congregation, the largest in Estonia, was founded in 1830. The Tartu congregation was established in 1866 when the first fifty families settled there. Synagogues were built, the largest of which were constructed in Tallinn in 1883 and Tartu in 1901. Both of these were subsequently destroyed by fire in World War II.

The Jewish population spread to other Estonian cities where houses of prayer (at Valga, Pärnu and Viljandi) were erected and cemeteries were established. Schools were opened to teach Talmud, and elementary schools were organised in Tallinn in the 1880s. The majority of the Jewish population at that time consisted of small tradesmen and artisans; very few knew science, hence Jewish cultural life lagged. This began to change at the end of the 19th century when several Jews entered the University of Tartu and later contributed significantly to enliven Jewish culture and education. 1917 even saw the founding of the Jewish Drama Club in Tartu.

History of the Jews in Latvia

The History of the Jews in Latvia dates back to the first Jewish colony established in Piltene in 1571. Jews contributed to Latvia's development until the Northern War (1700–1721), which decimated Latvia's population. The Jewish community reestablished itself in the 18th century, mainly through an influx from Prussia, and came to play a principal role in the economic life of Latvia.Under an independent Latvia, Jews formed political parties and participated as members of parliament. The Jewish community flourished. Jewish parents had the right to send their children to schools using Hebrew as the language of instruction, as part of a significant network of minority schools.World War II ended the prominence of the Jewish Community. Under Stalin, Jews, who formed only 5% of the population, constituted 12% of the deportees. In comparison to the Holocaust, which killed 90% of Latvia's Jewish population.Today's Jewish community traces its roots to survivors of the Holocaust, Jews who fled to the USSR to escape the Nazi invasion and later returned, and mostly to Jews newly immigrated to Latvia from the Soviet Union. The Latvian Jewish community today is small but active.

Index of World War II articles (H)

H-hour (D-day)

H. A. Sinclair de Rochemont

H. E. Bates

H. Emory Widener Jr.

H. H. Kung

H. Keith Thompson

H. L. N. Salmon

H. Montgomery Hyde

H. Ryan Price

H. Stuart Hughes

H. W. Whillock

Höcker Album

Höfle Telegram

Hôtel-Dieu de Paris

Hôtel Biron

Hôtel Carnavalet

Hôtel Continental

Hôtel Costes

Hôtel d'Evreux

Hôtel de Castries

Hôtel de Cluny

Hôtel de Crillon

Hôtel de Lauzun

Hôtel de Rambouillet

Hôtel de Salm

Hôtel de Sens

Hôtel de Soubise

Hôtel de Toulouse

Hôtel de Ville (Paris Métro)

Hôtel de Ville, Paris

Hôtel des Invalides

Hôtel Grimod de La Reynière

Hôtel Lambert

Hôtel Lutetia

Hôtel Matignon

Hôtel Méridien Montparnasse

Hôtel particulier

Hôtel Ritz Paris

Hôtel Salomon de Rothschild

H2S radar

H2X radar

Ha'avara Agreement

HA. 19 (Japanese Midget Submarine)

Haakon Hansen (boxer)

Haakon VII of Norway

Haane Manahi

Haavara Agreement

Habib Bamogo

Raja Habib ur Rahman Khan

Hachirō Arita

Hadamar Clinic

Hadrien Feraud

Hafthohlladung

Hagushi

Hai (midget submarine)

Haig Acterian

HAIG L-15

Haijiu-class submarine chaser

Haika Grossman

Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia

Hailstorm Over Truk Lagoon

Hainan Island Operation

Hainewalde concentration camp

Hainichen concentration camp

Haiqing-class submarine chaser

Hajile

Hajime Sugiyama

Hajo Herrmann

Hajo Holborn

Hakim Saci

Hakko ichiu

Hal Clement

Hal Far Fighter Flight

Hal Gould

Hal Holbrook

Hal Lahar

Hal Turner

Hal Van Every

Hala Gorani

Halberstadt C.V

Halberstadt CL.II

Halberstadt CL.IV

Halberstadt D.I

Halberstadt D.II

Halcyon-class minesweeper

Hale Boggs

Halina Birenbaum

Halina Szymańska

Hall Overton

Halle concentration camp

Halls of Montezuma (film)

Halswell House

Hamazasp Babadzhanian

Hamburg Ravensbrück Trials

Hamilton Air Force Base

Hamilton H. Howze

Hamish Forbes

Hammerskins

Hammond Innes

Hampshire County Division

Han Deqin

Han Xianchu

Hana Brady

Hana Greenfield

Hana Mašková

Handan Campaign

Handley Page Heyford

Hanford MacNider

Hanford Site

Hangmen Also Die!

Hank Bauer

Hank Gowdy

Hank Greenberg

Hank Ketcham

Hank Soar

Hank Stram

Hank Thompson (baseball)

Hank Thompson (musician)

Hanna Reitsch

Hanna Yablonka

Hannah Arendt

Hannah Billig

Hannah Szenes

Hannes Messemer

Hannes Trautloft

Hannie Schaft

Hannover CL.II

Hannover CL.III

Hannover CL.IV

Hannover CL.V

Hanns-Martin Schleyer

Hanns Albin Rauter

Hanns Eisler

Hanns Johst

Hanns Kerrl

Hanns Ludin

Hanns Scharff

Hanover Street (film)

Hans-Adolf Prützmann

Hans-Arnold Stahlschmidt

Hans-Dieter Weihs

Hans-Dietrich Genscher

Hans-Erich Voss

Hans-Georg von Friedeburg

Hans-Hartwig Trojer

Hans-Heinz Augenstein

Hans-Jürgen Stumpff

Hans-Jürgen von Arnim

Hans-Jürgen von Blumenthal

Hans-Joachim Jabs

Hans-Joachim Marseille

Hans-Jochen Vogel

Hans-Karl Freiherr von Esebeck

Hans-Karl Stepp

Hans-Oscar Wöhlermann

Hans-Rudolf Rösing

Hans-Ulrich Rudel

Hans-Ulrich Wehler

Hans-Valentin Hube

Hans "Assi" Hahn

Hans Adolf Krebs

Hans Aumeier

Hans Baur

Hans Beißwenger

Hans Bernd Gisevius

Hans Bernd von Haeften

Hans Bethe

Hans Biebow

Hans Bühler

Hans Candrian

Hans Conrad Leipelt

Hans Coppi

Hans Dammers

Hans Dorr

Hans Egon Holthusen

Hans Ekkehard Bob

Hans F. K. Günther

Hans Felber

Hans Frank

Hans Frankenthal

Hans Fritzsche

Hans Götz

Hans Georg Calmeyer

Hans Georg Dehmelt

Hans Georg Klamroth

Hans Globke

Hans Gollnick

Hans Graf von Sponeck

Hans Grünberg

Hans Grundig

Hans Gruneberg

Hans Gál

Hans Guido Mutke

Hans Hartung

Hans Heilbronn

Hans Heinrich von Twardowski

Hans Hinkel

Hans Howaldt

Hans Jacob Nielsen

Hans Jeschonnek

Hans Jüttner

Hans John

Hans Jordan

Hans Josephsohn

Hans Kammler

Hans Kempin

Hans Koning

Hans Krebs (SS general)

Hans Krebs (Wehrmacht general)

Hans Kreysing

Hans Krüger

Hans Kroh

Hans Krása

Hans Källner

Hans Lammers

Hans Langsdorff

Hans Larive

Hans Litten

Hans Loritz

Hans Münch

Hans Modrow

Hans Mommsen

Hans Multhopp

Hans Nieland

Hans Nordvik

Hans Oster

Hans P. Kraus

Hans Philipp

Hans Plenk

Hans Pulver

Hans Röhrig

Hans Refior

Hans Reidar Holtermann

Hans Reiter

Hans Ritter von Seisser

Hans Rose

Hans Rothfels

Hans Schemm

Hans Schleef

Hans Scholl

Hans Seidemann

Hans Speidel

Hans Thomsen

Hans Ulrich Klintzsch

Hans van den Broek

Hans von Adam

Hans von Dohnanyi

Hans von Halban

Hans von Herwarth

Hans von Luck

Hans von Obstfelder

Hans von Ohain

Hans von Salmuth

Hans von Tschammer und Osten

Hans Waldmann (fighter pilot)

Hans Walter

Hans Weik

Hans Wind

Hans Ziegler (physicist)

Hansa-Brandenburg B.I

Hansa-Brandenburg C.I

Hansa-Brandenburg CC

Hansa-Brandenburg D.I

Hansa-Brandenburg G.I

Hansa-Brandenburg GW

Hansa-Brandenburg KDW

Hansa-Brandenburg W.11

Hansa-Brandenburg W.12

Hansa-Brandenburg W.13

Hansa-Brandenburg W.19

Hansa-Brandenburg W.27

Hansa-Brandenburg W.29

Hansa-Brandenburg W.33

Hansa-Brandenburg W

Hansa (Swedish ship)

Hansa Bay

Hanson Victor Turner

Hanyang 88

Hanyang Arsenal

Hao Mengling

Happy Sam Sawyer

Happy Valley, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Harald Edelstam

Harald Feller

Harald Grønningen

Harald Hagen

Harald Langhelle

Harald Mors

Harald Natvig

Harald Quandt

Harald Riipalu

Harald Weinrich

Harbaville Triptych

Harbin SH-5

Harbin Z-5

Harbin Z-9

Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays

Harbour Defence Motor Launch

Hardy Brown

Harl Pease

Harlan Lane

Harlem Désir

Harley-Davidson WLA

Harlo Jones

Harlon Block

Harm's Way (novel)

Harold "Barehands" Bates

Harold A. Garman

Harold Abrahams

Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis

Harold Annison

Harold Augustus Wernher

Harold Auten

Harold Ball

Harold Brownlow Martin

Harold Burrough

Harold C. Agerholm

Harold Chester Thomas

Harold Clarke

Harold Comte

Harold Covington

Harold E. Martin

Harold E. Wilson

Harold Eric Barrowclough

Harold Farncomb

Harold G. Epperson

Harold G. Hoffman

Harold G. Kiner

Harold G. Schrier

Harold Gonsalves

Harold Gould

Harold H. Moon Jr.

Harold Himmel Velde

Harold James (historian)

Harold Jensen Christopher

Harold John Ellison

Harold John Mack

Harold Keith Johnson

Harold Little

Harold MacMichael

Harold Maguire

Harold Mahony

Harold Marcus Ervine-Andrews

Harold Marshall (Canadian sniper)

Harold O. Messerschmidt

Harold Osborn

Harold P. Hamilton

Harold Rainsford Stark

Harold Rawdon Briggs

Harold Redman

Harold Reginald Newgass

Harold Robert Aaron

Harold Russell

Harold Sebring

Harold Soref

Harold Stassen

Harold Taft

Harold Turner (German SS commander)

Harold Urey

Harold W. Bauer

Harold Ware

Harold Washington

Harold Wilson (rower)

Harris-class attack transport

Harris George Rogers

Harris Hull

Harrison C. Summers

Harrison Glancy

Harrison Thyng

Harro Schulze-Boysen

Harry's New York Bar

Harry "Wings" Day

Harry A. "Paddy" Flint

Harry B. Liversedge

Harry Brinkley Bass

Harry Broos

Harry Carey Jr.

Harry Cator

Harry Corner

Harry Crerar

Harry D. Felt

Harry Daniels

Harry DeBaecke

Harry DeWolf

Harry Dénis

Harry E. Yarnell

Harry Edward de Robillard Wetherall

Harry Elmer Barnes

Harry F. Byrd Jr.

Harry Frank Guggenheim

Harry G. Haskell Jr.

Harry George Armstrong

Harry Gill (RAF officer)

Harry Gold

Harry Harrison

Harry Ice

Harry J. Collins

Harry J. Michael

Harry James Lowe Jr.

Harry Daghlian

Harry K. Fukuhara

Harry Kenneth Dimoline

Harry L. Martin

Harry Lee (athlete)

Harry Llewellyn

Harry Magdoff and espionage

Harry Mallin

Harry Mitchell (boxer)

Harry Newcombe

Harry Nicholls

Harry O'Neill (catcher)

Harry Pennell

Harry Pregerson

Harry R. Harr

Harry Reasoner

Harry Rée

Harry S. Truman

Harry Schell

Harry Schmidt (USMC)

Harry Secombe

Harry Steel

Harry Sundberg

Harry T. Mangurian Jr.

Harry T. Moore

Harry Thürk

Harry Turtledove's Darkness

Harry Wyld

Hart's War

Hartford-Brainard Airport

Hartland Molson

Hartley Shawcross, Baron Shawcross

Hartmann Lauterbacher

Harukichi Hyakutake

Haruko Okamoto

Harvard Army Airfield

Harvey C. Couch

Harvey Emerson Oswald

Harvey Lipschultz (TV character)

Harvey Lord

Harvey Parnell

Harvey Possinger

Harwood Harrison

Hasegawa Yoshimichi

Hashim al-Atassi

Hashirajima

Haskell-class attack transport

Hassan Ahamada

Hasso von Boehmer

Hasso von Manteuffel

Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay

Hatazō Adachi

Hatbox Field

Hate-Monger

Hatsuharu-class destroyer

Hauptamt SS-Gericht

Hauptamt Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle

Hauptscharführer

Hauptsturmführer

Haupttruppführer

Haus der Kunst

Haussmann's renovation of Paris

Haussmann – Saint-Lazare (Paris RER)

Havana Conference of 1940

Haven-class hospital ship

Haviva Reik

Havre - Caumartin (Paris Métro)

Hawker Sea Fury

Hawker Sea Hawk

Hawker Tempest

Hawker Tornado

Hawker Typhoon

Hawkins grenade

Haxhi Lleshi

Haxo (Paris Métro)

Hayabusa-class torpedo boat

Hayao Kinugasa

Hayao Tada

Haydarpaşa Cemetery

Hayward Executive Airport

Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman

Hazel Ying Lee

He-Umezu Agreement

He Long

He Yingqin

He Zhuguo

Hełm wz. 31

Head in the Clouds

Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps

Heart Mountain War Relocation Center

Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon

Hearts of Iron II: Doomsday

Hearts of Iron II

Hearts of Iron

Heathcote Howard Hammer

Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison (novel)

Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison

Hebei-Chahar Political Council

Hebei-Rehe-Chahar Campaign

Hec Kilrea

Hector Bertram Gray

Hector Bianciotti

Hector Boece

Hector MacLean

Hector Monro, Baron Monro of Langholm

Hector P. Garcia

Hector Waller

Hedgehog (weapon)

Hedley Hazelden

Hedley Verity

Hedwiga Rosenbaumová

Hedy Epstein

German Army (Wehrmacht)

Heeresgeschichtliches Museum

Hehalutz

Heidemarie Steiner

Heidi Lee Morgan

Heikki Liimatainen (athlete)

Heiligenbeil concentration camp

Heiligenbeil Pocket

Heilungkiang National Salvation Army

Heimatvertriebene

Heimkehr

Hein ter Poorten

Heinie Elder

Heinkel HD 17

Heinkel HD 23

Heinkel HD 25

Heinkel HD 26

Heinkel HD 28

Heinkel HD 32

Heinkel HD 36

Heinkel HD 37

Heinkel HD 38

Heinkel HD 55

Heinkel HE 1

Heinkel He 100

Heinkel He 111

Heinkel He 112 operational service

Heinkel He 112

Heinkel He 113

Heinkel He 114

Heinkel He 115

Heinkel He 118

Heinkel He 119

Heinkel He 162

Heinkel He 176

Heinkel He 177

Heinkel He 178

Heinkel HE 2

Heinkel He 219

Heinkel He 274

Heinkel He 277

Heinkel He 280

Heinkel He 343

Heinkel He 42

Heinkel He 45

Heinkel He 46

Heinkel HE 5

Heinkel He 50

Heinkel He 51

Heinkel He 59

Heinkel He 60

Heinkel He 62

Heinkel He 70

Heinkel He 72

Heinkel He 74

Heinkel HE 8

Heinkel Lerche

Heino von Heimburg

Heinrich Bartels

Heinrich Behmann

Heinrich Bleichrodt

Heinrich Blum

Heinrich Boere

Heinrich Bär

Heinrich Eberbach

Heinrich Ehrler

Heinrich Fehlis

Heinrich Freiherr von Lüttwitz

Heinrich Freiherr von Stackelberg

Heinrich George

Heinrich Graf von Einsiedel

Heinrich Graf von Lehndorff-Steinort

Heinrich Graf zu Dohna-Schlobitten

Heinrich Gross

Heinrich Höfemeier

Heinrich Harrer

Heinrich Himmler

Heinrich Hoffmann (photographer)

Heinrich Kreipe

Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock

Heinrich Liebe

Heinrich Messner

Heinrich Müller (Gestapo)

Heinrich Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein

Heinrich Rau

Heinrich Rischtoff

Heinrich Schwarz

Heinrich Severloh

Heinrich Sturm

Heinrich Thoma

Heinrich Trettner

Heinrich von Vietinghoff

Heinz-Georg Lemm

Heinz-Gerhard Vogt

Heinz-Wilhelm Eck

Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer

Heinz Arnold

Heinz Auerswald

Heinz Barth

Heinz Brücher

Heinz Dörmer

Heinz Drossel

Heinz Ebeling

Heinz Galinski

Heinz Günther Guderian

Heinz Guderian

Heinz Harmel

Heinz Hellmich

Heinz Hitler

Heinz Kapelle

Heinz Lange

Heinz Linge

Heinz Lorenz

Heinz Macher

Heinz Marquardt

Heinz Müller (SS officer)

Heinz Nixdorf

Heinz Pernet

Heinz Rökker

Heinz Reinefarth

Heinz Sachsenberg

Heinz Schmidt

Heinz Spanknobel

Heinz Strüning

Heinz von Randow

Heinz Waaske

Heisuke Hironaka

Heisuke Yanagawa

Heitarō Kimura

Helen Duncan

Helen Gwynne-Vaughan

Helen L. Seaborg

Helen Meany

Helen of Greece and Denmark

Helen Wainwright

Helen Wills Moody

Helena Macher

Helena Nordheim

Helene Moszkiewiez

Helenio Herrera

Helfer

Helga Deen

Helge Auleb

Hell in the Pacific

Hell Is for Heroes (film)

Hell ship

Hell to Eternity

Hellfire Pass

Hellmer Hermandsen

Hellmuth Heye

Hellmuth Mäder

Hellmuth Reymann

Helmbrechts concentration camp

Helmer Swenholt

Helmet for My Pillow

Helmut Baudach

Helmut Bennemann

Helmut Bruckner

Helmut Dörner

Helmut Gröttrup

Helmut Hamann

Helmut Kapp

Helmut Knochen

Helmut Kunz

Helmut Lennartz

Helmut Lent

Helmut Lipfert

Helmut Poppendick

Helmut Schmidt

Helmut Thumm

Helmut Vetter

Helmut Wick

Helmut Wirnsberger

Helmut Woltersdorf

Helmuth Ehrhardt

Helmuth Hübener

Helmuth James Graf von Moltke

Helmuth Stieff

Helmuth von Pannwitz

Helmuth von Ruckteschell

Helmuth Weidling

Heloise (abbess)

Hemp for Victory

Hendrik Elias

Hendrik Nicolaas Werkman

Hendrik Offerhaus

Hendrik Timmer (tennis)

Hendrik van Heuckelum

Hendrik van Riessen

Hendrikus Colijn

Henk de Best

Henk Feldmeijer

Henk Sneevliet

Henneicke Column

Henner Henkel

Henning von Tresckow

Henri-Cardin-Jean-Baptiste d'Aguesseau

Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery and Memorial

Henri-Jacques de Caumont, duc de La Force

Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau

Henri-Robert Petit

Henri Alekan

Henri Amouroux

Henri Auguste Barbier

Henri Barbusse

Henri Bergson

Henri Braquenié

Henri Béraud

Henri Caillavet

Henri Cartan

Henri Claude

Henri Cochet

Henri Curiel

Henri d'Astier de la Vigerie

Henri d'Orléans, duc d'Aumale

Henri Daniel-Rops

Henri de Man

Henri de Massue, 1st Earl of Galway

Henri de Régnier

Henri Deloge

Henri Dentz

Henri Dericourt

Henri Donnedieu de Vabres

Henri Dumat

Henri Duparc (composer)

Henri Désiré Landru

Henri Fantin-Latour

Henri Frenay

Henri Galau

Henri Giraud

Henri Gouhier

Henri Helle

Henri Honoré d'Estienne d'Orves

Henri Hérouin

Henri Krasucki

Henri Landwirth

Henri Laurent

Henri Lauvaux

Henri Lucien Doucet

Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville

Henri Martin (historian)

Henri Maspero

Henri Masson

Henri Meilhac

Henri Menier

Henri Michel

Henri Mineur

Henri Moissan

Henri Navarre

Henri Oreiller

Henri Pieck

Henri Pitot

Henri Poincaré

Henri Regnault

Henri Reynders

Henri Rol-Tanguy

Henri Tauzin

Henri Troyat

Henri Victor Regnault

Henri Wallon (psychologist)

Henri Wernli

Henri Winkelman

Henri, comte de Chambord

Henricus Tromp

Henrietta Maria of France

Henrik Agerbeck

Henrik Kauffmann

Henrik Robert

Henrik Sillem

Henry A. Commiskey Sr.

Henry A. Courtney Jr.

Henry A. Miley Jr.

Henry A. Schade

Henry Ashby Turner

Henry Bailey (sport shooter)

Henry Bellmon

Henry Bentinck, 11th Earl of Portland

Henry Blagrove

Henry Botterell

Henry Browne, Farmer

Henry Cabot Lodge Bohler

Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.

Henry Cattan

Henry Clausen

Henry Cohen (civil servant)

Henry Corbin

Henry Coston

Henry d'Avigdor-Goldsmid

Henry de Montherlant

Henry DeWolf Smyth

Henry E. Erwin

Henry Eric Harden

Henry Everard

Henry F. Warner

Henry Fancourt

Henry Fonda

Henry Friedlander

Henry Gurke

Henry Harwood

Henry Herbert Reed

Henry Houssaye

Henry Hugh Gordon Stoker

Henry Hurwitz Jr.

Henry Huttleston Rogers Coe

Henry Hyde

Henry I. Hodes

Henry Jamison Handy

Henry L. Stimson

Henry Leach

Henry Lerolle

Henry M. Britt

Henry M. Mullinnix

Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson

Henry Mancini

Henry Margenau

Henry Millicer

Henry Morgentaler

Henry Morgenthau Jr.

Henry Mucci

Henry Oliver Hansen

Henry Oliver Rinnan

Henry Orenstein

Henry Percy, 9th Duke of Northumberland

Henry Poole MacKeen

Henry Ries

Henry Robert Bowreman Foote

Henry Rowland (actor)

Henry Royds Pownall

Henry Ruthven Moore

Henry Schauer

Henry Scrimgeour

H. B. Stallard

Henry Sydney, 1st Earl of Romney

Henry T. Elrod

Henry T. King

Henry Terry

Henry W. Hahn

Henry Wade

Henry Wallace McLeod

Henry Wascow

Henry Wellesley, 6th Duke of Wellington

Henry Wells (author)

Henry Welsford

Henry Wilhelm Kristiansen

Henry Wise Jr.

Henryk Breit

Henryk Chmielewski

Henryk Cybulski

Henryk de Kwiatkowski

Henryk Dobrzański

Henryk Iwański

Henryk Jabłoński

Henryk Leon Strasburger

Henryk Mandelbaum

Henryk Pietrzak

Henryk Sławik

Henryk Sucharski

Henryk Szatkowski

Henryk Woliński

Henryk Zygalski

Henschel Hs 123

Henschel Hs 124

Henschel Hs 126

Henschel Hs 127

Henschel Hs 129

Henschel Hs 130

Henschel Hs 132

Henschel Hs 293

Henschel Hs 294

Hera Borghese

Herb Sargent

Herb Siegert

Herb Trawick

Herbert A. Calcaterra

Herbert Annesley Packer

Herbert B. Powell

Herbert B. Warburton

Herbert Bachnick

Herbert Backe

Herbert Baum

Herbert Beckington

Herbert C. Jones

Herbert Cecil Duncan

Herbert Emery Schonland

Herbert F. Christian

Herbert Gerdes

Herbert Gruber

Herbert H. Burr

Herbert Hans Haupt

Herbert Hasler

Herbert Huber

Herbert Hudson Taylor

Herbert Hugo Menges

Herbert Ihlefeld

Herbert J. Sweet

Herbert John Leslie Barefoot

Bert Walker

Herbert Johnston

Herbert Joseph Thomas

Herbert Kappler

Herbert L. Anderson

Herbert Lange

Herbert Lloyd

Herbert Lumsden

Herbert Massey

Herbert Morrison

Herbert Nicol

Herbert Norkus

Herbert Otto Gille

Herbert Perry (sport shooter)

Herbert Schultze

Herbert Sobel

Herbert von Bose

Herbert von Petersdorff

Herbert Wallace Le Patourel

Herbert Wells (soccer)

Herbert Windt

Herbert Wohlfarth

Herbert York

Herberts Cukurs

Herbertus Bikker

Herbie Kronowitz

Herbie Roberts

Herdt

Here Is Germany

Hereford Army Airfield

Herington Regional Airport

Heritage Front

Herk Harvey

Herman Auerbach

Herman Bodson

Herman Bottcher

Herman C. Wallace

Herman H. Hanneken

Herman Keiser

Herman T. Schneebeli

Herman Talmadge

Herman von Klempt

Herman Wouk

Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke

Hermann-Friedrich Joppien

Hermann-Heinrich Behrend

Hermann Balck

Hermann Barrelet

Hermann Bauer

Hermann Braun

Hermann Breith

Hermann Broch

Hermann Buchner

Hermann Buchner

Hermann de Pourtalès

Hermann Ehrhardt

Hermann Eilts

Hermann Esser

Hermann Fegelein

Hermann Florstedt

Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Hermann Göring

Hermann Görtz

Hermann Gauch

Hermann Gehri

Hermann Giesler

Hermann Graf

Hermann Höfle

Hermann Hackmann

Hermann Hogeback

Hermann Hohn

Hermann Hoth

Hermann Kriebel

Hermann Langbein

Hermann Maas

Hermann Muhs

Hermann Niehoff

Hermann Oberth

Hermann Obrecht

Hermann Prieß

Hermann Rauschning

Hermann Recknagel

Hermann Scherchen

Hermann van Pels

Hermann von Oppeln-Bronikowski

Hermann Wilker

Hermann Wraschtil

Hermanus Brockmann

Hermine Braunsteiner

Herménégilde Chiasson

Hero of the Soviet Union

Herr Engelbert Von Smallhausen

Herr Kleiser

Herr Meets Hare

Herr Otto Flick

Herschel F. Briles

Herschel Green

Herschel Grynszpan

Herschel Johnson

Herschel Schacter

Hersh Lyons

Hershel W. Williams

Herta Bothe

Herta Ehlert

Herta Oberheuser

Hervey Machen

Hervé Le Tellier

Herzogenbusch

Heshui Campaign

Hetzer

Heuschrecke 10

Heydebreck-Cosel

Heywood-class attack transport

Heywood Hale Broun

Heywood L. Edwards

Hibakusha

Hidden & Dangerous 2

Hidden & Dangerous

Hideki Tojo

Hideki Yukawa

Hideo Iwakuro

Hideo Sasaki

Hideyoshi Obata

Hieronim Dekutowski

Higashikuni Morihiro

Higgins Industries

High Command Trial

High Flux Isotope Reactor

High Seas Fleet Badge

High Standard HDM

Highballing to Victory

Higher Than a Kite

Higinio Morínigo

HIJMS Shinano Maru (1904)

Hikari Kikan

Hikōtai Transport Unit

Hilaire Belloc

Hilan Ebert

Hilary Corke

Hilde Coppi

Hildegard Lächert

Hildegard Neumann

Hill 112

Hill 400, Bergstein

Hill 62 Memorial

Hillel Zeitlin

Hillsborough Army Airfield

Hilmar Wictorin

Hilmer von Bülow-Bothkamp

Himeyuri Students

Hindustan Field Force

Hinrich Lohse

Hinrich Schuldt

Hinzert concentration camp

HIPO Corps

Hippolyte-Jules Pilet de La Mesnardière

Hippolyte Delaroche

Hippolyte Taine

Hirabayashi v. United States

Hiram Wesley Evans

Hiranuma Kiichirō

Hiroaki Abe

Hirohito

Hiromichi Yahara

Hiroo Onoda

Hiroshi Ōshima

Hiroshi Imazato

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

Hiroshima (book)

Hiroshima (film)

Hiroshima City Ebayama Museum of Meteorology

Hiroshima Maidens

Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park

Hiroshima Peace Memorial

Hiroshima Witness

Hiroshima

Hiroyoshi Nishizawa

Hisaichi Terauchi

Hisakazu Tanaka

Hisao Tani

Hisaye Yamamoto

Hispanic Americans in World War II

Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca

Historical Advanced Squad Leader module

Historical revisionism (negationism)

Historikerstreit

Historiography of World War II

History (novel)

History of Blacks in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust

History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1941–1945)

History of children in the Holocaust

History of gay men in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust

History of German settlement in Central and Eastern Europe

History of Germany during World War II

History of Germany since 1945

History of Gibraltar

History of Greenland during World War 2

History of Greenland during World War II

History of Paris

History of Poland (1939–1945)

History of the Armée de l'Air (1909-1942)

History of the Armée de l'Air (colonial presence 1939-1962)

History of the European Union

History of the Jews during World War II

History of the Jews in Guernsey

History of the Jews in Jersey

History of the Jews in Monastir

History of the Jews in the Dominican Republic

History of the People's Liberation Army

History of the Second World War

History of the world

History of United States Naval Operations in World War II

Hitler's Letters and Notes

Hitler's Pope

Hitler's SS: Portrait in Evil

Hitler's Terror Weapons

Hitler's War (game)

Hitler's War

Hitler's Willing Executioners

Hitler and the Occult (book)

Hitler Has Only Got One Ball

Hitler Line

Hitler Myth

Hitler oath

Hitler Youth knife

Hitler Youth Quex

Hitler Youth: Growing Up in Hitler's Shadow

Hitler Youth

Hitler, Beast of Berlin

Hitler: A Film from Germany

Hitler: Speeches and Proclamations

Hitler: The Last Ten Days

Hitlerjunge

Hitlers Bombe

Hitoshi Imamura

Hiwi (volunteer)

Hiyō-class aircraft carrier

Hjördis Töpel

Hjalmar Mäe

Hjalmar Schacht

Hjalmar Siilasvuo

HKP 562 forced labor camp

Hlinka Guard

HM Prison Dhurringile

HM Trawler Force

HMAS Adelaide (1918)

HMAS Ararat (K34)

HMAS Armidale (J240)

HMAS Arunta (I30)

HMAS Australia (D84)

HMAS Ballarat (J184)

HMAS Bataan (I91)

HMAS Bathurst (J158)

HMAS Benalla (J323)

HMAS Bendigo (J187)

HMAS Bowen

HMAS Broome (J191)

HMAS Bunbury (J241)

HMAS Bundaberg (J231)

HMAS Burnie

HMAS Cairns (J183)

HMAS Canberra (D33)

HMAS Castlemaine

HMAS Cessnock (J175)

HMAS Colac

HMAS Cootamundra

HMAS Cowra

HMAS Deloraine

HMAS Diamantina (K377)

HMAS Dubbo (J251)

HMAS Echuca

HMAS Fremantle (J246)

HMAS Gascoyne (K354)

HMAS Gawler (J188)

HMAS Geelong (J201)

HMAS Geraldton (J178)

HMAS Gladstone (J324)

HMAS Glenelg (J236)

HMAS Goulburn

HMAS Gympie

HMAS Hawkesbury (K363)

HMAS Hobart (1939)

HMAS Horsham

HMAS Inverell

HMAS Ipswich (J186)

HMAS Junee

HMAS K9

HMAS Kalgoorlie

HMAS Kanimbla (1936)

HMAS Kapunda

HMAS Katoomba

HMAS Kiama

HMAS Kookaburra

HMAS Kuru

HMAS Latrobe

HMAS Launceston (J179)

HMAS Lismore (J145)

HMAS Lithgow (J206)

HMAS Macquarie (K532)

HMAS Manoora (1935)

HMAS Maryborough (J195)

HMAS Mavie

HMAS Mildura

HMAS Napier (G97)

HMAS Nepal (G25)

HMAS Nestor (G02)

HMAS Nizam (G38)

HMAS Norman (G49)

HMAS Parkes

HMAS Parramatta (U44)

HMAS Patricia Cam

HMAS Perth (D29)

HMAS Pirie (J189)

HMAS Platypus (1917)

HMAS Quadrant (G11)

HMAS Quality (G62)

HMAS Queenborough (G70)

HMAS Quiberon (G81)

HMAS Quickmatch (G92)

HMAS Rockhampton

HMAS Shepparton (J248)

HMAS Stawell

HMAS Strahan

HMAS Stuart (D-00/100)

HMAS Sydney (1934)

HMAS Tamworth (J191)

HMAS Toowoomba (J157)

HMAS Townsville (J205)

HMAS Vampire (D68)

HMAS Vendetta (D69)

HMAS Voyager (D31)

HMAS Wagga

HMAS Wallaroo

HMAS Warramunga (I44)

HMAS Warrnambool (J202)

HMAS Waterhen (D22)

HMAS Westralia (1939)

HMAS Whyalla (J153)

HMAS Wollongong (J172)

HMAS Yarra (U77)

HMCS Alberni (K103)

HMCS Asbestos (K358)

HMCS Assiniboine (I18)

HMCS Athabaskan (G07)

HMCS Buctouche (K179)

HMCS Calgary (K231)

HMCS Charlottetown (1941)

HMCS Chignecto (J160)

HMCS Cowichan (J146)

HMCS Digby (J267)

HMCS Esquimalt (J272)

HMCS Fraser (H48)

HMCS Granby (J264)

HMCS Haida (G63)

HMCS Halifax (K237)

HMCS Huron (G24)

HMCS Iroquois (G89)

HMCS Kapuskasing (J326)

HMCS Kenogami (K125)

HMCS Kitchener (K225)

HMCS Kootenay (H75)

HMCS Long Branch (K487)

HMCS Margaree (H49)

HMCS Miramichi (J169)

HMCS Moncton (K139)

HMCS Moosejaw (K164)

HMCS Nipigon (J154)

HMCS Nootka (R96)

HMCS Oakville (K178)

HMCS Ottawa (H60)

HMCS Pictou (K146)

HMCS Prince David (F89)

HMCS Quebec (C66)

HMCS Red Deer (J255)

HMCS Regina (K234)

HMCS Rimouski (K121)

HMCS Rivière du Loup (K357)

HMCS Sackville (K181)

HMCS Saguenay (D79)

HMCS Sarnia (J309)

HMCS Sioux (R64)

HMCS Skeena (D59)

HMCS Snowberry (K166)

HMCS St. Laurent (H83)

HMCS Stratford (J310)

HMCS Sudbury (K162)

HMCS Suderoy

HMCS Summerside (K141)

HMCS Ungava (J149)

HMCS Vegreville (J257)

HMCS Windflower (K155)

HMHS Newfoundland

HMIS Bombay (1941)

HMNZS Achilles (70)

HMNZS Arabis (K385)

HMNZS Arbutus (K403)

HMNZS Kiwi (T102)

HMNZS Leander

HMNZS Moa (T233)

HMNZS Monowai (F59)

HMNZS Tui (1970)

HMNZS Tui (T234)

HMNZS Wakakura (T00)

HMS Abelia (K184)

HMS Abercrombie (F109)

HMS Acasta (H09)

HMS Achates (H12)

HMS Acheron (H45)

HMS Active (H14)

HMS Activity (D94)

HMS Adamant (1940)

HMS Adventure (M23)

HMS Affleck (K462)

HMS Afridi (F07)

HMS Ajax (22)

HMS Allington Castle (K689)

HMS Alnwick Castle (K405)

HMS Amazon (D39)

HMS Amberley Castle (K386)

HMS Ambuscade (D38)

HMS Ameer (D01)

HMS Amethyst (F116)

HMS Anchusa (K186)

HMS Anson (79)

HMS Antelope (H36)

HMS Aphis (1915)

HMS Arbiter (D31)

HMS Arbutus (K86)

HMS Archer (D78)

HMS Ardent (H41)

HMS Ardrossan (J131)

HMS Arethusa (26)

HMS Argonaut (61)

HMS Argus (I49)

HMS Ark Royal (91)

HMS Arrow (H42)

HMS Ashanti (F51)

HMS Atheling (D51)

HMS Attacker (D02)

HMS Audacity (D10)

HMS Aurora (12)

HMS Avenger (D14)

HMS Aylmer (K463)

HMS Azalea (K25)

HMS Balfour (K464)

HMS Bamborough Castle (K412)

HMS Bangor (J00)

HMS Barfleur (D80)

HMS Barham (04)

HMS Barnard Castle (K694)

HMS Basilisk (H11)

HMS Battler (D18)

HMS Bayntun (K310)

HMS Bazely (K311)

HMS Beagle (H30)

HMS Bedouin (F67)

HMS Bee (1915)

HMS Begum (D38)

HMS Belfast (C35)

HMS Bellona (63)

HMS Bentinck (K314)

HMS Bentley (K465)

HMS Bergamot (K189)

HMS Berkeley Castle (K387)

HMS Bermuda (52)

HMS Berwick (65)

HMS Bickerton (K466)

HMS Birmingham (C19)

HMS Biter (D97)

HMS Bittern (L07)

HMS Black Prince (81)

HMS Black Swan (L57)

HMS Blanche (H47)

HMS Bligh (K467)

HMS Bluebell (K80)

HMS Boadicea (H65)

HMS Bonaventure (31)

HMS Boreas (H77)

HMS Boxer (F121)

HMS Braithwaite (K468)

HMS Bramham (L51)

HMS Brazen (H80)

HMS Brilliant (H84)

HMS Britomart (J22)

HMS Broke (D83)

HMS Bryony (K192)

HMS Bulldog (H91)

HMS Bullen (K469)

HMS Burnham (H82)

HMS Byard (K315)

HMS BYMS-2026 (J 826)

HMS BYMS-2203 (J 1003)

HMS Byron (K508)

HMS Cachalot (N83)

HMS Cairo (D87)

HMS Caistor Castle (K690)

HMS Calcutta (D82)

HMS Calder (K349)

HMS Caledon (D53)

HMS Calypso (D61)

HMS Camellia (K31)

HMS Campania (D48)

HMS Campbeltown (I42)

HMS Capetown (D88)

HMS Caradoc (D60)

HMS Cardiff (D58)

HMS Carinthia

HMS Carisbrooke Castle (K379)

HMS Carlisle (D67)

HMS Castleton (I23)

HMS Cavalier (R73)

HMS Centurion (1911)

HMS Ceres (D59)

HMS Ceylon (30)

HMS Charity (R29)

HMS Charlestown (I21)

HMS Charybdis (88)

HMS Chaser (D32)

HMS Clacton (J151)

HMS Clare (I14)

HMS Cleopatra (33)

HMS Codrington (D65)

HMS Colombo (D89)

HMS Colossus (R15)

HMS Conn (K509)

HMS Cornwall (56)

HMS Cosby (K559)

HMS Cossack (F03)

HMS Courageous (50)

HMS Coventry (D43)

HMS Cricket (1915)

HMS Cromer Castle

HMS Cumberland (57)

HMS Curacoa (D41)

HMS Curlew (D42)

HMS Dainty (H53)

HMS Danae (D44)

HMS Daring (H16)

HMS Dauntless (D45)

HMS Deane (K551)

HMS Decoy (H75)

HMS Defender (H07)

HMS Delhi (D47)

HMS Delight (H38)

HMS Denbigh Castle (K696)

HMS Despatch (D30)

HMS Devonshire (39)

HMS Diadem (84)

HMS Diamond (H22)

HMS Diana (H49)

HMS Dido (37)

HMS Diomede (D92)

HMS Dominica (K507)

HMS Dorsetshire (40)

HMS Dragon (D46)

HMS Duchess (H64)

HMS Duke of York (17)

HMS Dulverton (L63)

HMS Duncan (D99)

HMS Dundalk

HMS Dundee (L84)

HMS Dunedin (D93)

HMS Dunoon

HMS Durban (D99)

HMS Eagle (1918)

HMS Edinburgh (16)

HMS Effingham (D98)

HMS Egret (L75)

HMS Electra (H27)

HMS Emerald (D66)

HMS Emperor (D98)

HMS Empress (D42)

HMS Engadine (1911)

HMS Engadine (1941)

HMS Enterprise (D52)

HMS Erebus (I02)

HMS Erne (U03)

HMS Eskimo (F75)

HMS Euryalus (42)

HMS Exeter (68)

HMS Express (H61)

HMS Faulknor (H62)

HMS Felixstowe (J126)

HMS Fencer (D64)

HMS Fiji (58)

HMS Flint Castle (K383)

HMS Folkestone (L22)

HMS Foresight (H68)

HMS Forfar (F30)

HMS Formidable (67)

HMS Fowey (L15)

HMS Foylebank

HMS Furious (47)

HMS Fury (H76)

HMS Galatea (71)

HMS Gallant (H59)

HMS Gambia (48)

HMS Garland (H37)

HMS Gentian (K90)

HMS Gipsy (H63)

HMS Gladiolus (K34)

HMS Glasgow (C21)

HMS Glorious

HMS Glory (R62)

HMS Gloucester (62)

HMS Glowworm (H92)

HMS Gnat (T60)

HMS Goodson (K480)

HSwMS Gotland (1933)

HMS Grafton (H89)

HMS Grampus (N56)

HMS Graph (P715)

HMS Grenade (H86)

HMS Grenville (H03)

HMS Grenville (R97)

HMS Greyhound (H05)

HMS Griffin (H31)

HMS Guardian (1932)

HMS Gurkha (F20)

HMS Gurkha (G63)

HMS H6

HMS Halcyon (J42)

HMS Hardy (1936)

HMS Hasty (H24)

HMS Havelock (H88)

HMS Havock (H43)

HMS Heartsease (K15)

HMS Heather (K69)

HMS Hebe (J24)

HMS Hedingham Castle (K529)

HMS Hereward (H93)

HMS Hermes (95)

HMS Hermione (74)

HMS Hero (H99)

HMS Hesperus (H57)

HMS Hollyhock (K64)

HMS Hood (51)

HMS Hostile (H55)

HMS Hotspur (H01)

HMS Howe (32)

HMS Hunter (D80)

HMS Hunter (H35)

HMS Hurricane (H06)

HMS Hursley (L84)

HMS Hurst Castle (K416)

HMS Hyperion (H97)

HMS Hythe (J194)

HMS Ibis (U99)

HMS Icarus (D03)

HMS Ilex (D61)

HMS Illustrious (87)

HMS Imogen (D44)

HMS Imperial (D09)

HMS Implacable (R86)

HMS Impulsive (D11)

HMS Inconstant (H49)

HMS Indefatigable (R10)

HMS Indomitable (92)

HMS Inglefield (D02)

HMS Intrepid (D10)

HMS Isis (D87)

HMS Ithuriel (H05)

HMS Ivanhoe (D16)

HMS Jackal (F22)

HMS Jaguar (F34)

HMS Jamaica (44)

HMS Janus (F53)

HMS Javelin (F61)

HMS Jersey (F72)

HMS Jervis (F00)

HMS Jervis Bay (F40)

HMS Juniper (T123)

HMS Juno (F46)

HMS Jupiter (F85)

HMS Justice (W-140)

HMS Kandahar (F28)

HMS Kashmir (F12)

HMS Keith (H06)

HMS Kelly (F01)

HMS Kelvin (F37)

HMS Kempenfelt (I18)

HMS Kempthorne (K483)

HMS Kenilworth Castle (K420)

HMS Kent (54)

HMS Kenya (14)

HMS Khedive (D62)

HMS Kimberley (F50)

HMS King George V (41)

HMS Kingston (F64)

HMS Kite (U87)

HMS Knaresborough Castle (K389)

HMS La Malouine (K46)

HMS Ladybird (1916)

HMS Laforey (G99)

HMS Lance (G87)

HMS Largs

HMS Launceston Castle (K397)

HMS Lawford (K514)

HMS Ledbury (L90)

HMS Leeds Castle (K384)

HMS Legion (G74)

HMS Leith (U36)

HMS Liverpool (C11)

HMS Loch Achray (K426)

HMS Loch Alvie (K428)

HMS Loch Dunvegan (K425)

HMS Loch Eck (K422)

HMS Loch Fada (K390)

HMS Loch Fyne (K429)

HMS Loch Glendhu (K639)

HMS Loch Insh (K433)

HMS Loch Killin (K391)

HMS Loch Killisport (K628)

HMS Loch Lomond (K437)

HMS Loch More (K369)

HMS Locust (1939)

HMS London (69)

HMS Lookout (G32)

HMS Lord Hailsham

HMS Lotus (K130)

HMS Magpie (1943)

HMS Malaya

HMS Malcolm (D19)

HMS Mallow (K81)

HMS Manchester (15)

HMS Maori (F24)

HMS Marigold (K87)

HMS Marne (G35)

HMS Mashona (F59)

HMS Matabele (F26)

HMS Mauritius (80)

HMS Medway (F25)

HMS Mohawk (F31)

HMS Montrose (D01)

HMS Nabberley

HMS Nabbington

HMS Nabob (D77)

HMS Nabthorpe

HMS Naiad (93)

HMS Nairana (D05)

HMS Narwhal (N45)

HMS Nelson (28)

HMS Neptune (20)

HMS Newcastle (C76)

HMS Newfoundland (59)

HMS Nigeria (60)

HMS Norfolk (78)

HMS Nubian (F36)

HMS Odin (N84)

HMS Offa (G29)

HMS Olympus (N35)

HMS Onslow (G17)

HMS Oribi (G66)

HMS Orion (85)

HMS Orwell (G98)

HMS Otway

HMS Oxford Castle (K692)

HMS Oxley

HMS P222

HMS P311

HMS P32 (1940)

HMS P33 (1941)

HMS P36 (submarine)

HMS P38 (1941)

HMS P39

HMS P47

HMS P48 (1942)

HMS P611

HMS Paladin (G69)

HMS Palomares

HMS Panther (G41)

HMS Parthian (N75)

HMS Patroller (D07)

HMS Penelope (97)

HMS Penn (G77)

HMS Perseus (N36)

HMS Petard (G56)

HMS Peterhead (J59)

HMS Pevensey Castle (K449)

HMS Pheasant (U49)

HMS Phoebe (43)

HMS Picotee (K63)

HMS Pioneer (R76)

HMS Porpoise (N14)

HMS Portchester Castle (K362)

HMS Poseidon (1929)

HMS Premier (D23)

HMS Pretoria Castle (F61)

HMS Prince of Wales (53)

HMS Puncher (D79)

HMS Punjabi (F21)

HMS Pursuer (D73)

HMS Pylades (J401)

HMS Quail (G45)

HMS Quality (G62)

HMS Queen (D19)

HMS Queen Elizabeth (1913)

HMS Queen Emma

HMS Quentin (G78)

HMS Quilliam (G09)

HMS Quorn (L66)

HMS Raider (H15)

HMS Rajah (D10)

HMS Ramillies (07)

HMS Ranee (D03)

HMS Rapid (H32)

HMS Ravager (D70)

HMS Rawalpindi

HMS Reaper (D82)

HMS Relentless (H85)

HMS Renown (1916)

HMS Repulse (1916)

HMS Resolution (09)

HMS Revenge (06)

HMS Roberts (F40)

HMS Rocket (H92)

HMS Rodney (29)

HMS Roebuck (H95)

HMS Rorqual (N74)

HMS Rotherham (H09)

HMS Royal Oak (08)

HMS Royal Sovereign (05)

HMS Royal Ulsterman

HMS Royalist (89)

HMS Ruler (D72)

HMS Rushen Castle (K372)

HMS Rye (J76)

HMS Safari (P211)

HMS Saga (P257)

HMS Sahib (P212)

HMS Salmon (N65)

HMS Samphire (K128)

HMS Sanguine (P266)

HMS Saracen (P247)

HMS Satyr (P214)

HMS Saumarez (G12)

HMS Sceptre (P215)

HMS Scorcher (P258)

HMS Scotsman (P243)

HMS Scylla (98)

HMS Scythian (P237)

HMS Sea Devil (P244)

HMS Sea Nymph (P223)

HMS Sea Rover (P218)

HMS Sea Scout (P253)

HMS Seadog (P216)

HMS Seagull (J85)

HMS Seahorse (98S)

HMS Seal (N37)

HMS Sealion (72S)

HMS Searcher (D40)

HMS Seawolf (47S)

HMS Selene (P254)

HMS Seneschal (P255)

HMS Sentinel (P256)

HMS Seraph (P219)

HMS Shah (D21)

HMS Shakespeare (P221)

HMS Shalimar (P242)

HMS Shark (54S)

HMS Sheffield (C24)

HMS Shropshire (73)

HMS Sibyl (P217)

HMS Sickle (P224)

HMS Sidon (P259)

HMS Sikh (F82)

HMS Simoom (P225)

HMS Sirdar (P226)

HMS Sirius (82)

HMS Skate (1917)

HMS Sleuth (P261)

HMS Slinger (D26)

HMS Smiter (D55)

HMS Snapper (39S)

HMS Solent (P262)

HMS Somali (F33)

HMS Southampton (83)

HMS Spark (P236)

HMS Spartan (95)

HMS Speaker (D90)

HMS Spearfish (69S)

HMS Spearhead (P263)

HMS Speedy (J17)

HMS Spirit (P245)

HMS Spiteful (P227)

HMS Splendid (P228)

HMS Sportsman (P229)

HMS Springer (P264)

HMS Spur

HMS Stalker (D91)

HMS Starfish (19S)

HMS Starling (U66)

HMS Statesman (P246)

HMS Sterlet (2S)

HMS Stoic (P231)

HMS Stonehenge (P232)

HMS Storm (P233)

HMS Stratagem (P234)

HMS Striker (D12)

HMS Strongbow (P235)

HMS Stubborn (P238)

HMS Sturdy (P248)

HMS Sturgeon (73S)

HMS Stygian (P249)

HMS Subtle (P251)

HMS Suffolk (55)

HMS Sunfish (81S)

HMS Superb (25)

HMS Supreme (P252)

HMS Surf (P239)

HMS Sussex (96)

HMS Swiftsure (08)

HMS Swordfish (61S)

HMS Syrtis (P241)

HMS Talisman (N78)

HMS Tamar (1863)

HMS Tarpon (N17)

HMS Tartar (F43)

HMS Teazer (R23)

HMS Tempest (N86)

HMS Tenacious (R45)

HMS Termagant (R89)

HMS Terpsichore (R33)

HMS Terror (I03)

HMS Tetrarch (N77)

HMS Thane (D48)

HMS Thetis (N25)

HMS Thorn (N11)

HMS Tigris (N63)

HMS Tracker (D24)

HMS Traveller (N48)

HMS Triad (N53)

HMS Trinidad (46)

HMS Triton (N15)

HMS Triumph (N18)

HMS Trooper (N91)

HMS Troubridge (R00)

HMS Trouncer (D85)

HMS Trumpeter (D09)

HMS Tulip (K29)

HMS Tumult (R11)

HMS Turbulent (N98)

HMS Tuscan (R56)

HMS Tyrian (R67)

HMS Uganda (66)

HMS Ulster (R83)

HMS Ultimatum (P34)

HMS Ultor (P53)

HMS Ulysses (novel)

HMS Ulysses (R69)

HMS Umbra (P35)

HMS Umpire (N82)

HMS Una (N87)

HMS Unbeaten (N93)

HMS Unbending (P37)

HMS Unbroken (P42)

HMS Undaunted (N55)

HMS Undaunted (R53)

HMS Undine (N48)

HMS Undine (R42)

HMS Unicorn (I72)

HMS Union (N56)

HMS Unique (N95)

HMS Unison (P43)

HMS United (P44)

HMS Unity (N66)

HMS Universal (P57)

HMS Unrivalled (P45)

HMS Unruffled (P46)

HMS Unruly (P49)

HMS Unseen (P51)

HMS Unshaken (P54)

HMS Unsparing (P55)

HMS Unswerving (P63)

HMS Untamed (P58)

HMS Untiring (P59)

HMS Upholder (P37)

HMS Upright (N89)

HMS Uproar (P31)

HMS Upstart (P65)

HMS Urania (R05)

HMS Urchin (R99)

HMS Urge (N17)

HMS Ursa (R22)

HMS Ursula (N59)

HMS Usk (N65)

HMS Usurper (P56)

HMS Uther (P62)

HMS Utmost (N19)

HMS Valiant (1914)

HMS Vampire (P72)

HMS Vandal (P64)

HMS Varangian (P61)

HMS Vengeance (R71)

HMS Venturer (P68)

HMS Venus (R50)

HMS Verulam (R28)

HMS Victorious (R38)

HMS Vidette (D48)

HMS Vigilant (R93)

HMS Vindex (D15)

HMS Virago (R75)

HMS Vitality

HMS Volage (R41)

HMS Wakeful (R59)

HMS Walney (Y04)

HMS Warspite (03)

HMS Wellington (U65)

HMS Whaddon (L45)

HMS Whirlwind (R87)

HMS Whitshed (D77)

HMS Wild Goose (U45)

HMS Wild Swan (D62)

HMS Wizard (R72)

HMS Wolverine (D78)

HMS Woodpecker (U08)

HMS Wrangler (R48)

HMS Wryneck (D21)

HMS York (90)

HMS Zealous (R39)

HMS Zest (R02)

HMS Zinnia (K98)

HMS Zulu (F18)

HMT Dunera

HMT Rohna

HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen (1936)

HNLMS Abraham van der Hulst (1937)

HNLMS Abraham van der Hulst (1946)

HNLMS De Gelderland

HNLMS De Ruyter (1935)

HNLMS Eland Dubois (1937)

HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerk

HNLMS Jan van Amstel (1937)

HNLMS Jan van Gelder

HNLMS Kortenaer (1927)

HNLMS Pieter de Bitter (1937)

HNLMS Pieter Florisz (1937)

HNLMS Tromp (1937)

HNLMS Willem van Ewijck (1937)

HNoMS Æger (1936)

HNoMS Brage (1878)

HNoMS Brand (1898)

HNoMS Draug (1908)

HNoMS Eidsvold

HNoMS Frøya

HNoMS Fridtjof Nansen (1930)

HNoMS Garm (1913)

HNoMS Glommen (1916)

HNoMS Gor (1884)

HNoMS Gyller (1938)

HNoMS Harald Haarfagre

HNoMS Heimdal OPV (1892)

HNoMS Hitra

HNoMS Honningsvåg

HNoMS King Haakon VII

HNoMS Kjell

HNoMS Laugen (1918)

HNoMS Nor (1878)

HNoMS Nordkapp OPV (1937)

HNoMS Norge

HNoMS Odin (1939)

HNoMS Olav Tryggvason

HNoMS Otra (1939)

HNoMS Pol III

HNoMS Rauma (1939)

HNoMS Sæl

HNoMS Sleipner (1936)

HNoMS Stegg (1921)

HNoMS Stord (G26)

HNoMS Storm (1898)

HNoMS Svenner (G03)

HNoMS Thorodd

HNoMS Tor (1939)

HNoMS Tordenskjold

HNoMS Troll (1910)

HNoMS Trygg (1919)

HNoMS Tyr (1887)

HNoMS Ula (1943)

HNoMS Uller (1876)

HNoMS Uredd (P-41)

HNoMS Vale (1874)

HNoMS Vidar (1878)

Hütter Hü 136

Hütter Hü 211

Ho-Ri

Ho Chi Minh

Hobart's Funnies

Hobart Baumann Amstutz

Hobart Cenotaph

Hobart R. Gay

Hoche (Paris Métro)

Hocine Ragued

Hodding Carter

Hoechst AG

Hogan's Heroes

Holger Danske (resistance group)

Holland House

Holland Smith

Hollis Alpert

Hollister brothers

Hollywood Boulevard (Walt Disney Studios Park)

Hollywood Canteen

Hollywood Victory Caravan

Hollywood Victory Committee

Holmfrid Olsson

Holocaust (resources)

Holocaust (TV miniseries)

Holocaust and Genocide Studies

Holocaust denial

Holocaust Educational Trust

Holocaust Encyclopedia

Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Lithuania

Holocaust in Norway

Holocaust in Poland

Holocaust in Romania

Holocaust Memorial Center

Holocaust Memorial Day (UK)

Holocaust Memorial Day and Genocide Remembrance Act

Holocaust Memorial on Miami Beach

Holocaust memorials

Holocaust Museum Houston

Holocaust teaching controversy of 2007

Holocaust trains

Holocaust trials in Soviet Estonia

Holocaust trivialization debate

Holocaust victims

Holocaust

Holy Cross Mountains Brigade

Home Army and V1 and V2

Home Defence Executive

Home front during World War II

Homer A. McCrerey

Homer L. Wise

Homer Litzenberg

Homer N. Wallin

Homeward Bound (Turtledove novel)

Homomonument

Hondo Municipal Airport

Honey, I Shrunk the Audience

Hong Kong 1941

Hong Sa-ik

Hong Xuezhi

Hongdu JL-8

Honkawa Elementary School Peace Museum

Honorary Aryan

Honorat de Bueil, seigneur de Racan

Honoré de Balzac

Honour Cross for Combatants

Honours of Winston Churchill

Hope and Glory (film)

Horace A. Jones

Horace M. Thorne

Horace S. Carswell Jr.

Horacio Rivero Jr.

Horatio Fitch

Horatio Nelson Lay (admiral)

Horatio Pettus Mackintosh Berney-Ficklin

Horia Agarici

Horia Macellariu

Horia Sima

Horia, Cloşca şi Crişan Division

Hornet Flight

Horrie Knight

Horst-Günther von Fassong

Horst Ademeit

Horst Floth

Horst Freiherr Treusch von Buttlar-Brandenfels

Horst Günther

Horst Hörnlein

Horst Kopkow

Horst Mahler

Horst Niemack

Horst Queck

Horst Schumann

Horst Tappert

Horst von Möllendorff

Horten Ho 229

Horten Ho XVIII

Hortense de Beauharnais

Hosea Williams

Hosoya Jūdayū

Hossbach Memorandum

Hostages Trial

Hotchkiss H35

Hotchkiss M1914 machine gun

Hotel Concorde La Fayette

Hotel George V, Paris

Hotel Metropole, Vienna

Hotel Meurice

Hotel Polski

Hotsumi Ozaki

Houbei-class missile boat

Hougham Battery

Hour of Victory

House of Responsibility

Hovhannes Bagramyan

Howard Aiken

Howard Brodie

Howard Cosell

Howard D. Wardle

Howard E. Woodford

Howard Franklin Clark

Howard Graham (Canadian Army officer)

Howard Hayes

Howard Kingsbury

Howard Kippenberger

Howard Peter "Cowboy" Blatchford

Howard R. Healy

Howard Thomas Markey

Howard Unruh

Howard W. Gilmore

Howard Zinn

Howell Appling Jr.

Howell Heflin

Howitzer Motor Carriage M8

Hoxton Park Airport

Hoylake and West Kirby War Memorial

Hristijan Todorovski Karpoš

Hristo Yanev

Hu Kexian

Hu Lancheng

Hu Zongnan

Huaihai Campaign

Huairen Air Base

Huaiyin-Huai'an Campaign

Huang Chieh

Huang Qixiang

Huang Yiguang

Huangpu-class gunboat

Hubert-Erwin Meierdress

Hubert Curien

Hubert D. Stephens

Hubert Klausner

Hubert Lagardelle

Hubert Lefèbvre

Hubert Lyautey

Hubert Lynes

Hubert Meyer

Hubert Miller

Hubert Paul Chatelain

Hubert Pierlot

Hubert Rance

Hubert Schiffer

Hubert Van Innis

Hubert William Lewis

Hubert Yockey

Hubert Zemke

Hubertine Auclert

Hubertus Strughold

Hubertus von Bonin

Huff-Duff

Hugh Aloysius Drum

Hugh B. Hester

Hugh Capet

Hugh Culverhouse

Hugh David Black

Hugh Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding

Hugh Dundas

Hugh Elles

Hugh Falkus

Hugh Francis Redmond

Hugh Fraser (British politician)

Hugh Gallarneau

Hugh Gordon Malcolm

Hugh Griffiths, Baron Griffiths

Hugh Hefner

Hugh John Casey

Hugh Lister

Hugh Meade

Hugh O'Brian

Hugh O'Flaherty

Hugh of Châteauneuf

Hugh P. Harris

Hugh Randall Syme

Hugh Scott

Hugh Seagrim

Hugh Trefusis Brassey

Hugh Trevor-Roper

Hughie Edwards

Hughie Green

Hugo Black

Hugo Bleicher

Hugo Boss AG

Hugo Butler

Hugo Curioni

Hugo Drax

Hugo Gryn

Hugo Johansson

Hugo Jury

Hugo Kraas

Hugo Launicke

Hugo Leal

Hugo Lilliér

Hugo Primozic

Hugo Rüster

Hugo Sperrle

Huhtiniemi mass grave

Hukbalahap

Hull note

Hulon B. Whittington

Human torpedo

Humber Armoured Car

Humber Light Reconnaissance Car

Humber Scout Car

Humber Super Snipe

Humberto Coelho

Humberto Tomasina

Hummel (artillery)

Humphrey Atkins

Humphrey de Verd Leigh

Humphrey Lyttelton

Hundred Regiments Offensive

Hungarian Gold Train

Hungarian National Socialist Party

Hungarian Second Army

Hungarian Volunteers in the Winter War

Hungary during the Second World War

Hungary during World War II

Hunger Plan

Hunt-class minesweeper (1916)

Hunter Harris Jr.

Huo Kuizhang

Huon Peninsula campaign

Hurja-class motor torpedo boat

Husband E. Kimmel

Hussar's Picture Book

Huta Pieniacka massacre

Hutton Gibson

Huub Huizenaar

Huzagol 35M

Hvidstengruppen

HX convoys

Hyacinthe-Louis De Quelen

Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz

Hydra-class minelayer

Hyman G. Rickover

Héctor Méndez (boxer)

Héctor Scarone

Hélder Cristóvão

Hélder de Souza

Hélie de Saint Marc

Hélène de Pourtalès

Hélène Berr

Hélène Carrère d'Encausse

Hélène Prévost

Jewish history

Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures. Although Judaism as a religion first appears in Greek records during the Hellenistic period (323 BCE – 31 BCE) and the earliest mention of Israel is inscribed on the Merneptah Stele dated 1213–1203 BCE, religious literature tells the story of Israelites going back at least as far as c. 1500 BCE. The Jewish diaspora began with the Assyrian captivity and continued on a much larger scale with the Babylonian captivity. Jews were also widespread throughout the Roman Empire, and this carried on to a lesser extent in the period of Byzantine rule in the central and eastern Mediterranean. In 638 CE the Byzantine Empire lost control of the Levant. The Arab Islamic Empire under Caliph Omar conquered Jerusalem and the lands of Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt. The Golden Age of Jewish culture in Spain coincided with the Middle Ages in Europe, a period of Muslim rule throughout much of the Iberian Peninsula. During that time, Jews were generally accepted in society and Jewish religious, cultural, and economic life blossomed.

During the Classical Ottoman period (1300–1600), the Jews, together with most other communities of the empire, enjoyed a certain level of prosperity. In the 17th century, there were many significant Jewish populations in Western Europe. During the period of the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, significant changes occurred within the Jewish community. Jews began in the 18th century to campaign for emancipation from restrictive laws and integration into the wider European society. During the 1870s and 1880s the Jewish population in Europe began to more actively discuss emigration back to Israel and the re-establishment of the Jewish Nation in its national homeland. The Zionist movement was founded officially in 1897. Meanwhile, the Jews of Europe and the United States gained success in the fields of science, culture and the economy. Among those generally considered the most famous were scientist Albert Einstein and philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. A large number of Nobel Prize winners at this time were Jewish, as is still the case.In 1933, with the rise to power of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in Germany, the Jewish situation became more severe. Economic crises, racial anti-Semitic laws, and a fear of an upcoming war led many Jews to flee from Europe to Palestine, to the United States and to the Soviet Union. In 1939 World War II began and until 1941 Hitler occupied almost all of Europe, including Poland—where millions of Jews were living at that time—and France. In 1941, following the invasion of the Soviet Union, the Final Solution began, an extensive organized operation on an unprecedented scale, aimed at the annihilation of the Jewish people, and resulting in the persecution and murder of Jews in political Europe, inclusive of European North Africa (pro-Nazi Vichy-North Africa and Italian Libya). This genocide, in which approximately six million Jews were methodically exterminated, is known as The Holocaust or Shoah (Hebrew term). In Poland, three million Jews were killed in gas chambers in all concentration camps combined, with one million at the Auschwitz concentration camp alone.

In 1945 the Jewish resistance organizations in Palestine unified and established the Jewish Resistance Movement, which attacked the British authorities. David Ben-Gurion proclaimed on May 14, 1948, the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel to be known as the State of Israel. Immediately afterwards all neighbouring Arab states attacked, yet the newly formed IDF resisted. In 1949 the war ended and the state of Israel started building the state and absorbing massive waves of hundreds of thousands of Jews from all over the world. Today (2019), Israel is a parliamentary democracy with a population of over 9 million people, of whom about 7 million are Jewish. The largest Jewish communities are in Israel and the United States, with major communities in France, Argentina, Russia, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and Germany. For statistics related to modern Jewish demographics see Jewish population.

Jewish settlement in the Japanese Empire

Shortly prior to and during World War II, and coinciding with the Second Sino-Japanese War, tens of thousands of Jewish refugees were resettled in the Japanese Empire. The onset of the European war by Nazi Germany involved the lethal mass persecutions and genocide of Jews, later known as the Holocaust, resulting in thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing east. Many ended up in Japanese-occupied China.

Jews escaping from German-occupied Europe

After Adolf Hitler came into power in 1933, Jews began to escape German-occupied Europe.

Jews escaping from German-occupied Europe to the United Kingdom

After Adolf Hitler came into power in 1933, Jews began to escape German-occupied Europe and Britain was one of the destinations. Some came on transit visas, which meant that they stayed in Britain temporarily, while waiting to be accepted by another country. Others entered the country by having obtained employment or a guarantor, or via Kindertransport. There were about 70,000 Jewish refugees who were accepted in Britain by the start of World War II on September 1, 1939, and an additional 10,000 people who made it to Britain during the war.

Moshe Bejski

Moshe Bejski (Hebrew: משה בייסקי, December 29, 1921 – March 6, 2007) was a Polish-born Israeli Supreme Court Justice and President of Yad Vashem's Righteous Among the Nations Commission. After surviving the Holocaust with the help of Oskar Schindler, Bejski immigrated to Israel. In 1961, he testified about his experiences during the Holocaust during the trial of Adolf Eichmann. He served on the Tel Aviv-Jaffa district court from 1968 to 1979 and was appointed to the Supreme Court of Israel, where he served from 1979 to 1991. As President of the Righteous Commission from 1975 to 1991, Bejski helped honor thousands of Holocaust rescuers. He also headed the Bejski Commission in the aftermath of the 1983 Israel bank stock crisis, which led to the nationalization of most of Israel’s major banks.

Outline of World War II

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to World War II:

World War II, or the Second World War – global military conflict from 1939 to 1945, which was fought between the Allied powers of the United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union against the Axis powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan, with their respective allies. Over 60 million people, the majority of them civilians, were killed, making it the deadliest conflict in human history.

Antiquity
Middle Ages
Modern

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