Then, Albert Einstein in 1905, in order to explain the photoelectric effect previously reported by Heinrich Hertz in 1887, postulated consistently with Max Planck's quantum hypothesis that light itself is made of individual quantum particles, which in 1926 came to be called photons by Gilbert N. Lewis. The photoelectric effect was observed upon shining light of particular wavelengths on certain materials, such as metals, which caused electrons to be ejected from those materials only if the light quantum energy was greater than the work function of the metal's surface.
In 1900, the German physicist Max Planck reluctantly introduced the idea that energy is quantized in order to derive a formula for the observed frequency dependence of the energy emitted by a black body, called Planck's law, that included a Boltzmann distribution (applicable in the classical limit). Planck's law can be stated as follows: where:
I(ν,T) is the energy per unit time (or the power) radiated per unit area of emitting surface in the normal direction per unit solid angle per unit frequency by a black body at temperature T;
Moreover, the application of Planck's quantum theory to the electron allowed Ștefan Procopiu in 1911–1913, and subsequently Niels Bohr in 1913, to calculate the magnetic moment of the electron, which was later called the "magneton"; similar quantum computations, but with numerically quite different values, were subsequently made possible for both the magnetic moments of the proton and the neutron that are three orders of magnitude smaller than that of the electron.
The emission of electrons from a metal plate caused by light quanta (photons) with energy greater than the work function of the metal.
In 1905, Einstein explained the photoelectric effect by postulating that light, or more generally all electromagnetic radiation, can be divided into a finite number of "energy quanta" that are localized points in space. From the introduction section of his March 1905 quantum paper, "On a heuristic viewpoint concerning the emission and transformation of light", Einstein states:
"According to the assumption to be contemplated here, when a light ray is spreading from a point, the energy is not distributed continuously over ever-increasing spaces, but consists of a finite number of 'energy quanta' that are localized in points in space, move without dividing, and can be absorbed or generated only as a whole."
This statement has been called the most revolutionary sentence written by a physicist of the twentieth century. These energy quanta later came to be called "photons", a term introduced by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1926. The idea that each photon had to consist of energy in terms of quanta was a remarkable achievement; it effectively solved the problem of black-body radiation attaining infinite energy, which occurred in theory if light were to be explained only in terms of waves. In 1913, Bohr explained the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom, again by using quantization, in his paper of July 1913 On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules.
These theories, though successful, were strictly phenomenological: during this time, there was no rigorous justification for quantization, aside, perhaps, from Henri Poincaré's discussion of Planck's theory in his 1912 paper Sur la théorie des quanta. They are collectively known as the old quantum theory.
The phrase "quantum physics" was first used in Johnston's Planck's Universe in Light of Modern Physics (1931).
With decreasing temperature, the peak of the blackbody radiation curve shifts to longer wavelengths and also has lower intensities. The blackbody radiation curves (1862) at left are also compared with the early, classical limit model of Rayleigh and Jeans (1900) shown at right. The short wavelength side of the curves was already approximated in 1896 by the Wien distribution law.
In 1923, the French physicist Louis de Broglie put forward his theory of matter waves by stating that particles can exhibit wave characteristics and vice versa. This theory was for a single particle and derived from special relativity theory. Building on de Broglie's approach, modern quantum mechanics was born in 1925, when the German physicists Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan developed matrix mechanics and the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger invented wave mechanics and the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation as an approximation to the generalised case of de Broglie's theory. Schrödinger subsequently showed that the two approaches were equivalent.
Heisenberg formulated his uncertainty principle in 1927, and the Copenhagen interpretation started to take shape at about the same time. Starting around 1927, Paul Dirac began the process of unifying quantum mechanics with special relativity by proposing the Dirac equation for the electron. The Dirac equation achieves the relativistic description of the wavefunction of an electron that Schrödinger failed to obtain. It predicts electron spin and led Dirac to predict the existence of the positron. He also pioneered the use of operator theory, including the influential bra–ket notation, as described in his famous 1930 textbook. During the same period, Hungarian polymath John von Neumann formulated the rigorous mathematical basis for quantum mechanics as the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces, as described in his likewise famous 1932 textbook. These, like many other works from the founding period, still stand, and remain widely used.
Ernest Rutherford's gold foil experiment disproved the plum pudding model of the atom which suggested that the mass and positive charge of the atom are almost uniformly distributed. This led to the planetary model of the atom (1911).
^Max Born, My Life: Recollections of a Nobel Laureate, Taylor & Francis, London, 1978. ("We became more and more convinced that a radical change of the foundations of physics was necessary, i.e., a new kind of mechanics for which we used the term quantum mechanics. This word appears for the first time in physical literature in a paper of mine...")
^M. Planck (1914). The theory of heat radiation, second edition, translated by M. Masius, Blakiston's Son & Co, Philadelphia, pp. 22, 26, 42–43.
^Folsing, Albrecht (1997), Albert Einstein: A Biography, trans. Ewald Osers, Viking
McCormmach, Russell (Spring 1967), "Henri Poincaré and the Quantum Theory", Isis, 58 (1): 37–55, doi:10.1086/350182
^ abDavid Edwards,The Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Synthese, Volume 42, Number 1/September, 1979, pp. 1–70.
^ abD. Edwards, The Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory: Fermions, Gauge Fields, and Super-symmetry, Part I: Lattice Field Theories, International J. of Theor. Phys., Vol. 20, No. 7 (1981).
Hanle, P.A. (December 1977), "Erwin Schrodinger's Reaction to Louis de Broglie's Thesis on the Quantum Theory.", Isis, 68 (4): 606–09, doi:10.1086/351880
^S. Auyang, How is Quantum Field Theory Possible?, Oxford University Press, 1995.
Jammer, Max (1974), The philosophy of quantum mechanics: The interpretations of quantum mechanics in historical perspective, New York: Wiley, ISBN 0-471-43958-4, OCLC969760
F. Bayen, M. Flato, C. Fronsdal, A. Lichnerowicz and D. Sternheimer, Deformation theory and quantization I,and II, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.), 111 (1978) pp. 61-151.
D. Cohen, An Introduction to Hilbert Space and Quantum Logic, Springer-Verlag, 1989. This is a thorough and well-illustrated introduction.
Finkelstein, D. (1969), "Matter, Space and Logic", Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, V: 1969, doi:10.1007/978-94-010-3381-7_4, ISBN 978-94-010-3383-1.
A. Gleason. Measures on the Closed Subspaces of a Hilbert Space, Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics, 1957.
R. Kadison. Isometries of Operator Algebras, Annals of Mathematics, Vol. 54, pp. 325–38, 1951
G. Ludwig. Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Springer-Verlag, 1983.
G. Mackey. Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, W. A. Benjamin, 1963 (paperback reprint by Dover 2004).
R. Omnès. Understanding Quantum Mechanics, Princeton University Press, 1999. (Discusses logical and philosophical issues of quantum mechanics, with careful attention to the history of the subject).
N. Papanikolaou. Reasoning Formally About Quantum Systems: An Overview, ACM SIGACT News, 36(3), pp. 51–66, 2005.
C. Piron. Foundations of Quantum Physics, W. A. Benjamin, 1976.
Hermann Weyl. The Theory of Groups and Quantum Mechanics, Dover Publications, 1950.
A. Whitaker. The New Quantum Age: From Bell's Theorem to Quantum Computation and Teleportation, Oxford University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-19-958913-5
Stephen Hawking. The Dreams that Stuff is Made of, Running Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-76-243434-3
A. Douglas Stone. Einstein and the Quantum, the Quest of the Valiant Swabian, Princeton University Press, 2006.
Richard P. Feynman. QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. Princeton University Press, 2006. Print.
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