The history of cosmetics spans at least 7,000 years and is present in almost every society on earth. Cosmetic body art is argued to have been the earliest form of a ritual in human culture. The evidence for this comes in the form of utilised red mineral pigments (red ochre) including crayons associated with the emergence of Homo sapiens in Africa.
Archaeological evidence of cosmetics certainly dates from ancient Egypt and Greece. According to one source, early major developments include the use of castor oil in ancient Egypt as a protective balm and skin creams made of beeswax, olive oil and rosewater described by the Romans. The Ancient Greeks also used cosmetics. Cosmetics are mentioned in the Old Testament—2 Kings 9:30 where Jezebel painted her eyelids—approximately 840 BC—and the book of Esther describes various beauty treatments as well.
Cosmetics were also used in ancient Rome, although much of Roman literature suggests that it was frowned upon. It is known that some women in ancient Rome invented make up including lead-based formulas, to whiten the skin, and kohl was used to line the eyes.
The use of cosmetics in Ancient Egypt is well documented. Kohl and lacewing flies have their roots in north Africa. Remedies to treat wrinkles containing ingredients such as gum of frankincense and fresh moringa. For scars and burns, a special ointment was made of red ochre, kohl, and sycamore juice. An alternative treatment was a poultice of carob grounds and honey, or an ointment made of knotgrass and powdered root of wormwood. To improve breath the ancient Africans chewed herbs, frankincense or licorice root stick, which is still in use today. Jars of what could be compared with setting lotion have been found to contain a mixture of beeswax and resin. These doubled as remedies for problems such as baldness and greying hair. They also used these products on their mummies, because they believed that it would make them irresistible in the after life.
Cosmetics were used in Persia and what today is Iran from ancient periods. Kohl is a black powder that is used widely across the Persian Empire. It is used as a powder or smeared to darken the edges of the eyelids similar to eyeliner. After Persian tribes converted to Islam and conquered those areas, in some areas cosmetics were only restricted if they were to disguise the real look in order to mislead or cause uncontrolled desire. In Islamic law, despite these requirements, there is no absolute prohibition on wearing cosmetics; the cosmetics must not be made of substances that harm one's body.
An early teacher in the 10th century was Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis, who wrote the 24-volume medical encyclopedia Al-Tasrif. A chapter of the 19th volume was dedicated to cosmetics. As the treatise was translated into Latin, the cosmetic chapter was used in the West. Al-Zahrawi considered cosmetics a branch of medicine, which he called "Medicine of Beauty" (Adwiyat al-Zinah). He deals with perfumes, scented aromatics and incense. There were perfumed sticks rolled and pressed in special molds, perhaps the earliest antecedents of present-day lipsticks and solid deodorants. He also used oily substances called Adhan for medication and beautification.
Chinese people began to stain their fingernails with gum arabic, gelatin, beeswax and egg white from around 3000 BC. The colors used represented social class: Chou dynasty (first millennium BC) royals wore gold and silver; later royals wore black or red. The lower classes were forbidden to wear bright colors on their nails.
Flowers play an important decorative role in China. Legend has it that once on the 7th day of the 1st lunar month, while Princess Shouyang (壽陽公主), daughter of Emperor Wu of Liu Song (劉宋武帝), was resting under the eaves of Hanzhang Palace near the plum trees after wandering in the gardens, a plum blossom drifted down onto her fair face, leaving a floral imprint on her forehead that enhanced her beauty further. The court ladies were said to be so impressed, that they started decorating their own foreheads with a small delicate plum blossom design. This is also the mythical origin of the floral fashion, meihua zhuang (梅花妝; literally "plum blossom makeup"), that originated in the Southern Dynasties (420–589) and became popular amongst ladies in the Tang (618–907) and Song (960–1279) dynasties.
Women of royal families painted red spots on the center of their cheeks, right under their eyes. However, it is a mystery why.
In Japan, geisha wore lipstick made of crushed safflower petals to paint the eyebrows and edges of the eyes as well as the lips, and sticks of bintsuke wax, a softer version of the sumo wrestlers' hair wax, were used by geisha as a makeup base. Rice powder colors the face and back; rouge contours the eye socket and defines the nose. Ohaguro (black paint) colours the teeth for the ceremony, called Erikae, when maiko (apprentice geisha) graduate and become independent.The geisha would also sometimes use bird droppings to compile a lighter color.
In the Roman Empire, the use of cosmetics was common among prostitutes and rich women. Such adornment was sometimes lamented by certain Roman writers, who thought it to be against the castitas required of women by what they considered traditional Roman values; and later by Christian writers who expressed similar sentiments in a slightly different context. Pliny the Elder mentioned cosmetics in his Naturalis Historia, and Ovid wrote a book on the topic.
In the Middle Ages it was thought sinful and immoral to wear makeup by Church leaders, but many women still did so. From the Renaissance up until the 20th century the lower classes had to work outside, in agricultural jobs and the typically light-colored European's skin was darkened by exposure to the sun. The higher a person was in status, the more leisure time he or she had to spend indoors, which kept their skin pale. Thus, the highest class of European society were pale resulting in European men and mostly women attempting to lighten their skin directly, or using white powder on their skin to look more aristocratic. A variety of products were used, including white lead paint which also may have contained arsenic, which also poisoned women and killed many. Queen Elizabeth I of England was one well-known user of white lead, with which she created a look known as "the Mask of Youth". Portraits of the queen by Nicholas Hilliard from later in her reign are illustrative of her influential style.
Pale faces were a trend during the European Middle Ages. In the 16th century, women would bleed themselves to achieve pale skin. Spanish prostitutes wore pink makeup to contract pale skin. 13th century Italian women wore red lipstick to show that they were upperclass.
During the early 1900s, makeup was not excessively popular. In fact, women hardly wore makeup at all. Make-up at this time was still mostly the territory of prostitutes, those in cabarets and on the black & white screen. Face enamelling (applying actual paint to the face) became popular among the rich at this time in an attempt to look paler. This practice was dangerous due to the main ingredient often being arsenic. Pale skin was associated with wealth because it meant that one was not out working in the sun and could afford to stay inside all day. Cosmetics were so unpopular that they could not be bought in department stores; they could only be bought at theatrical costume stores. A woman’s "makeup routine" often only consisted of using papier poudré, a powdered paper/oil blotting sheet, to whiten the nose in the winter and shine their cheeks in the summer. Rouge was considered provocative, so was only seen on "women of the night." Some women used burnt matchsticks to darken eyelashes, and geranium and poppy petals to stain the lips. Vaseline became high in demand because it was used on chapped lips, as a base for hair tonic, and soap. Toilet waters were introduced in the early 1900s, but only lavender water or refined cologne was admissible for women to wear. Cosmetic deodorant was invented in 1888, by an unknown inventor from Philadelphia and was trademarked under the name Mum (deodorant). Roll-on deodorant was launched in 1952, and aerosol deodorant in 1965.
Around 1910, make-up became fashionable in the United States of America and Europe owing to the influence of ballet and theatre stars such as Mathilde Kschessinska and Sarah Bernhardt. Colored makeup was introduced in Paris upon the arrival of the Russian Ballet in 1910, where ochers and crimsons were the most typical shades. The Daily Mirror beauty book showed that cosmetics were now acceptable for the literate classes to wear. With that said, men often saw rouge as a mark of sex and sin, and rouging was considered an admission of ugliness. In 1915, a Kansas legislature proposed to make it a misdemeanor for women under the age of forty-four to wear cosmetics "for the purpose of creating a false impression." The Daily Mirror was one of the first to suggest using a pencil line (eyeliner) to elongate the eye and an eyelash curler to accentuate the lashes. Eyebrow darkener was also presented in this beauty book, created from gum Arabic, Indian ink, and rosewater. George Burchett developed cosmetic tattooing during this time period. He was able to tattoo on pink blushes, red lips, and dark eyebrows. He also was able to tattoo men disfigured in the First World War by inserting skin tones in damaged faces and by covering scars with colors more pleasing to the eye. Max Factor opened up a professional makeup studio for stage and screen actors in Los Angeles in 1909. Even though his store was intended for actors, ordinary women came in to purchase theatrical eye shadow and eyebrow pencils for their home use.
In the 1920s, the film industry in Hollywood had the most influential impact on cosmetics. Stars such as Theda Bara had a substantial effect on the makeup industry. Helena Rubinstein was Bara’s makeup artist; she created mascara for the actress, relying on her experiments with kohl. Others who saw the opportunity for the mass-market of cosmetics during this time were Max Factor, Sr., and Elizabeth Arden. Many of the present day makeup manufacturers were established during the 1920s and 1930s. Lipsticks were one of the most popular cosmetics of this time, more so than rouge and powder, because they were colorful and cheap. In 1915, Maurice Levy invented the metal container for lipstick, which gave license to its mass production. The Flapper style also influenced the cosmetics of the 1920s, which embraced dark eyes, red lipstick, red nail polish, and the suntan, invented as a fashion statement by Coco Chanel. The eyebrow pencil became vastly popular in the 1920s, in part because it was technologically superior to what it had been, due to a new ingredient: hydrogenated cottonseed oil (also the key constituent of another wonder product of that era Crisco Oil). The early commercial mascaras, like Maybelline, were simply pressed cakes containing soap and pigments. A woman would dip a tiny brush into hot water, rub the bristles on the cake, remove the excess by rolling the brush onto some blotting paper or a sponge, and then apply the mascara as if her eyelashes were a watercolor canvas. Eugene Schueller, founder of L'Oréal, invented modern synthetic hair dye in 1907 and he also invented sunscreen in 1936. The first patent for a nail polish was granted in 1919. Its color was a very faint pink. It's not clear how dark this rose was, but any girl whose nails were tipped in any pink darker than a baby's blush risked gossip about being "fast." Previously, agricultural workers had only sported suntans, while fashionable women kept their skins as pale as possible. In the wake of Chanel's adoption of the suntan, dozens of new fake tan products were produced to help both men and women achieve the "sun-kissed" look. In Asia, skin whitening continued to represent the ideal of beauty, as it does to this day.
In the time period after the First World War, there was a boom in cosmetic surgery. During the 1920s and 1930s, facial configuration and social identity dominated a plastic surgeon’s world. Face-lifts were performed as early as 1920, but it wasn’t until the 1960s when cosmetic surgery was used to reduce the signs of aging. During the twentieth century, cosmetic surgery mainly revolved around women. Men only participated in the practice if they had been disfigured by the war. Silicone implants were introduced in 1962. In the 1980s, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons made efforts to increase public awareness about plastic surgery. As a result, in 1982, the United States Supreme Court granted physicians the legal right to advertise their procedures. The optimistic and simplified nature of narrative advertisements often made the surgeries seem hazard-free, even though they were anything but. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery reported that more than two million Americans elected to undergo cosmetic procedures, both surgical and non-surgical, in 1998, liposuction being the most popular. Breast augmentations ranked second, while numbers three, four, and five went to eye surgery, face-lifts, and chemical peels.
During the 1920s, numerous African Americans participated in skin bleaching in an attempt to lighten their complexion as well as hair straightening to appear whiter. Skin bleaches and hair straighteners created fortunes worth millions and accounted for a massive thirty to fifty percent of all advertisements in the black press of the decade. Oftentimes, these bleaches and straighteners were created and marketed by African American women themselves. Skin bleaches contained caustic chemicals such as hydroquinone, which suppressed the production of melanin in the skin. These bleaches could cause severe dermatitis and even death in high dosages. Many times these regimens were used daily, increasing an individual’s risk. In the 1970s, at least 5 companies started producing make-up for African American women. Before the 1970s, makeup shades for Black women were limited. Face makeup and lipstick did not work for dark skin types because they were created for pale skin tones. These cosmetics that were created for pale skin tones only made dark skin appear grey. Eventually, makeup companies created makeup that worked for richer skin tones, such as foundations and powders that provided a natural match. Popular companies like Astarté, Afram, Libra, Flori Roberts and Fashion Fair priced the cosmetics reasonably due to the fact that they wanted to reach out to the masses.
From 1939 to 1945, during the Second World War, cosmetics were in short supply. Petroleum and alcohol, basic ingredients of many cosmetics, were diverted into war supply. Ironically, at this time when they were restricted, lipstick, powder, and face cream were most desirable and most experimentation was carried out for the post war period. Cosmetic developers realized that the war would result in a phenomenal boom afterwards, so they began preparing. Yardley, Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein, and the French manufacturing company became associated with "quality" after the war because they were the oldest established. Pond’s had this same appeal in the lower price range. Gala cosmetics were one of the first to give its products fantasy names, such as the lipsticks in "lantern red" and "sea coral."
During the 1960s and 1970s, many women in the western world influenced by feminism decided to go without any cosmetics. In 1968 at the feminist Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can." This included cosmetics, which were among items the protestors called "instruments of female torture" and accouterments of what they perceived to be enforced femininity.
Cosmetics in the 1970s were divided into a "natural look" for day and a more sexualized image for evening. Non-allergic makeup appeared when the bare face was in fashion as women became more interested in the chemical value of their makeup. Modern developments in technology, such as the High-shear mixer facilitated the production of cosmetics which were more natural looking and had greater staying power in wear than their predecessors. The prime cosmetic of the time was eye shadow, though; women also were interested in new lipstick colors such as lilac, green, and silver. These lipsticks were often mixed with pale pinks and whites, so women could create their own individual shades. "Blush-ons" came into the market in this decade, with Revlon giving them wide publicity. This product was applied to the forehead, lower cheeks, and chin. Contouring and highlighting the face with white eye shadow cream also became popular. Avon introduced the lady saleswoman. In fact, the whole cosmetic industry in general opened opportunities for women in business as entrepreneurs, inventors, manufacturers, distributors, and promoters.
Beauty products are now widely available from dedicated internet-only retailers, who have more recently been joined online by established outlets, including the major department stores and traditional bricks and mortar beauty retailers.
Like most industries, cosmetic companies resist regulation by government agencies. In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not approve or review cosmetics, although it does regulate the colors that can be used in the hair dyes. The cosmetic companies are not required to report injuries resulting from use of their products.
Although modern makeup has been used mainly by women traditionally, gradually an increasing number of males are using cosmetics usually associated to women to enhance their own facial features. Concealer is commonly used by cosmetic-conscious men. Cosmetics brands are releasing cosmetic products especially tailored for men, and men are using such products increasily more commonly. There is some controversy over this, however, as many feel that men who wear make-up are neglecting traditional gender, and do not view men wearing cosmetics in a positive light. Others, however, view this as a sign of ongoing gender equality and feel that men also have rights to enhance their facial features with cosmetics if women could.
Today the market of cosmetics has a different dynamic compared to the 20th century. Some countries are driving this economy:
Japan is the second largest market in the world. Regarding the growth of this market, cosmetics in Japan have entered a period of stability. However, the market situation is quickly changing. Now consumers can access a lot of information on the Internet and choose many alternatives, opening up many opportunities for newcomers entering the market, looking for chances to meet the diverse needs of consumers.The size of the cosmetics market for 2010 was 2286 billion yen on the basis of the value of shipments by brand manufacturer. With a growth rate of 100.1%, the market was almost unchanged from the previous year.
One of the most interesting emerging markets, the 5th largest in the world in 2012, the Russian perfumery and cosmetics market has shown the highest growth of 21% since 2004, reaching USD 13.5 billion.
For example, the Huadian or forehead decoration was said to have originated in the South Dynasty, when the Shouyang Princess was taking a walk in the palace in early spring and a light breeze brought a plum blossom onto her forehead. The plum blossom for some reason could not be washed off or removed in any way. Fortunately, it looked beautiful on her, and all of a sudden became all the rage among the girls of the commoners. It is therefore called the "Shouyang makeup" or the "plum blossom makeup." This makeup was popular among the women for a long time in the Tang and Song Dynasties.
Annatto ( or ) is an orange-red condiment and food coloring derived from the seeds of the achiote tree (Bixa orellana) native to tropical regions from Mexico to Brazil. It is often used to impart a yellow or orange color to foods, but sometimes also for its flavor and aroma. Its scent is described as "slightly peppery with a hint of nutmeg" and flavor as "slightly nutty, sweet and peppery".The color of annatto comes from various carotenoid pigments, mainly bixin and norbixin, found in the reddish waxy coating of the seeds. The condiment is typically prepared by grinding the seeds to a powder or paste. Similar effects can be obtained by extracting some of the color and flavor principles from the seeds with hot water, oil, or lard, which are then added to the food.Annatto and its extracts are now widely used in an artisanal or industrial scale as a coloring agent in many processed food products, such as cheeses, dairy spreads, butter and margarine, custards, cakes and other baked goods, potatoes, snack foods, breakfast cereals, smoked fish, sausages, and more. In these uses, annatto is a natural alternative to synthetic food coloring compounds, but it has been linked to rare cases of food-related allergies. Annatto is of particular commercial value in the United States because the Food and Drug Administration considers colorants derived from it to be "exempt of certification".Brihans Natural Products
Brihans Natural Products Ltd. is an Indian natural cosmetics and consumer products company based in Shaniwar Peth, Pune, Maharashtra, India. The company manufactures skin care, hair care and health care products.Chypre
Chypre (pronounced [ʃipʁ] or [ʃipχ]) is the name of a family (or concept) of perfumes that are characterised by an accord composed of citrus topnotes, a middle centered on cistus labdanum, and a mossy-animalic set of basenotes derived from oakmoss. Chypre perfumes fall into numerous classes according to their modifier notes, which include but are not limited to leather, florals, fruits, and amber.Clinique
Clinique Laboratories, LLC () is an American manufacturer of skincare, cosmetics, toiletries and fragrances, usually sold in high end department stores. It is a subsidiary of the Estée Lauder Companies.Cosmetics in ancient Rome
Cosmetics, first used in ancient Rome for ritual purposes, were part of daily life for women, especially prostitutes and the wealthy. Some fashionable cosmetics, such as those imported from China, Germany and Gaul, were so expensive that the Lex Oppia tried to limit their use in 189 BCE. These "designer brands" spawned cheap knock-offs that were sold to poorer women. Working-class women could afford the cheaper varieties, but may not have had the time (or slaves) to apply the makeup as the use of makeup was a time-consuming affair because cosmetics needed to be reapplied several times a day due to weather conditions and poor composition.Cosmetics were applied in private, usually in a small room where men did not enter. Cosmetae, female slaves that adorned their mistresses, were especially praised for their skills. They would beautify their mistresses with cultus, the Latin word encompassing makeup, perfume and jewelry.Scent was also an important factor of beauty. Women who smelled good were presumed to be healthy. Due to the stench of many of the ingredients used in cosmetics at the time, women often drenched themselves in copious amounts of perfume.Christian women tended to avoid cosmetics with the belief that they should praise what God gave them. Some men, especially cross-dressers, did use cosmetics, although it was viewed as effeminate and improper.All cosmetic ingredients were also used as medicines to treat various ailments. Lead, although known to be poisonous, was still widely used.Elizabeth Arden
Florence Nightingale Graham (December 31, 1878 – October 18, 1966), who went by the business name Elizabeth Arden, was a Canadian American businesswoman who founded what is now Elizabeth Arden, Inc., and built a cosmetics empire in the United States. By 1929 she owned 150 upscale salons across the United States and Europe. Her 1000 products were found in the luxury market in 22 countries. She was the sole owner, and at the peak of her career she was one of the wealthiest women in the world.Elizabeth Arden, Inc.
Elizabeth Arden, Inc. is a major American cosmetics, skin care and fragrance company founded by Elizabeth Arden. As of September 7, 2016, the company is a wholly owned subsidiary of Revlon, Inc.Estée Lauder Companies
The Estée Lauder Companies Inc. ( stylized as ESTĒE LAUDER) is a multinational manufacturer and marketer of prestige skincare, makeup, fragrance and hair care products, based in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The company owns a diverse portfolio of brands, distributed internationally through both digital commerce and retail channels.Helene Curtis Industries, Inc.
Helene Curtis Industries, Inc. was an American cosmetics and beauty parlor products firm based in Chicago. The company acquired a hair-coloring line through the acquisition of a competitor business. Later the retailer diversified into the field of personal care products, manufacturing Degree, among other items.Lancôme
Lancôme is a French luxury perfumes and cosmetics house that distributes products internationally. Lancôme is part of the L'Oréal Luxury Products division, which is its parent company and offers skin care, fragrances, and makeup at higher-end prices.Love Cosmetics
Love Cosmetics (1969 - 1980) was introduced by Menley & James Laboratories on March 1, 1969. By the summer of 1970 the company was marketing and promoting Fresh Lemon bath products and Soft Eyes items to beautify the eyes. Advertising was coordinated by Wells, Rich, Greene advertising agency (1967 - 1990), a company founded by Mary Wells Lawrence. Love's advertising budget surpassed $7 million. There was an emphasis on a long-term building operation, with advertisements on television and
in women's magazines. A 4-page spread appeared in the February 1969 Harper's Bazaar. The headline theme was This is the way Love is in 1969. The opening continued with Love today is different than it's ever been. It's freer, more natural, more honest-more out in the open. So are the girls who fall in love these days. Singer Andy Williams hosted a mid-March 1969 Andy Williams Love Special. Love Cosmetics is credited with introducing the lemon craze.MAC Cosmetics
MAC Cosmetics, stylized as M·A·C, is a cosmetics manufacturer founded in Toronto, Canada in 1984 by Frank Toskan and Frank Angelo. The company is headquartered in New York City and became part of the Estée Lauder Companies in 1998. MAC is an acronym for Make-up Art Cosmetics.Mary Kay
Mary Kay Inc. is an American privately owned multi-level marketing company. According to Direct Selling News, Mary Kay was the sixth largest network marketing company in the world in 2018, with a wholesale volume of US$3.25 billion. Mary Kay is based in Addison, Texas, outside Dallas. The company was founded by Mary Kay Ash in 1963. Richard Rogers, Mary Kay's son, is the chairman, and David Holl is president and was named CEO in 2006.Nail polish
Nail polish (also known as nail varnish or nail enamel) is a lacquer that can be applied to the human fingernail or toenails to decorate and protect the nail plates. The formulation has been revised repeatedly to enhance its decorative effects, and to suppress cracking or flaking. Nail polish consists of a mix of an organic polymer and several other components, depending on the brand.Olay
Olay, previously Oil of Olay or Oil of Ulay, is an American skin care line. It is one of Procter & Gamble's multibillion-dollar brands. For the 2009 fiscal year, which ended on June 30, Olay accounted for an estimated $2.8 billion of P&G's $79 billion in revenue.Oriflame
Oriflame Holding AG is a beauty company selling direct founded in 1967 by the brothers Jonas af Jochnick and Robert af Jochnick and their friend Bengt Hellsten. Oriflame has a presence in more than 60 countries and its wide portfolio of Swedish, nature-inspired, beauty products is marketed through approximately 3 million independent Oriflame Consultants, generating annual sales of around €1.3 billion in 2018. Today, Oriflame’s business model largely comprises an online model, with around 96% of all orders placed online. Respect for people and nature underlies Oriflame’s operating principles and is reflected in its social and environmental policies. Oriflame supports numerous charities worldwide and is a Co-founder of the World Childhood Foundation.
The brand was created as a reference to Oriflamme, a royal banner of medieval France.Oriflame is a Swiss company group listed on the Nasdaq Stockholm Exchange.Parfums Christian Dior
Parfums Christian Dior is the perfumery and cosmetics (makeup and skincare) line of the French fashion house, Christian Dior S.A.. However, the line belongs to the perfumes and cosmetics portfolio of the world's largest luxury group, the LVMH Group. Nevertheless, both Christian Dior S.A. and LVMH are headed by chairman Bernard Arnault, and Christian Dior S.A. is the major shareholder of LVMH.Stila
Stila Cosmetics is an American cosmetics company founded in 1994. The cosmetics line was created by makeup artist Jeanine Lobell. The name Stila (pronounced STEE-la) was derived from the Swedish word "stil," which can mean "style". Stila's official website is quoted as saying that they chose that name because they believe "every woman’s makeup should be as individual as her own signature". Jeanine Lobell writes on her blog that, "We kind of just made up the name, ‘Stila.’ It sounds sort of like stil in Swedish, which means style." Lobell grew up in Sweden.Estée Lauder Companies bought Stila in 1999 and sold it to Sun Capital Partners, Inc in the spring of 2006. In 2009, Stila became a Lynn Tilton company when it was sold to the private equity fund Patriarch Partners, LLC.Venetian ceruse
Venetian ceruse, also known as blanc de ceruse de Venise and Spirits of Saturn, was a 16th-century cosmetic used as a skin whitener. It was in great demand and considered the best available at that time. It is similar to the regular ceruse, although it was marketed as better, more exclusive and expensive than the regular ceruse variant.The cosmetic's use of white lead as a pigment caused lead poisoning, damaging the skin and causing hair loss. A 1688 record detailed a recipe, which described the cosmetics as a mixture of water, vinegar, and lead. Usage over an extended period could cause death.