History of York

The history of York as a city dates to the beginning of the first millennium AD but archaeological evidence for the presence of people in the region of York dates back much further to between 8000 and 7000 BC. As York was a town in Roman times, its Celtic name is recorded in Roman sources (as Eboracum and Eburacum); after 400, Angles took over the area and adapted the name by folk etymology to Old English Eoforwīc or Eoforīc, which means "wild-boar town" or "rich in wild-boar". The Vikings, who took over the area later, in turn adapted the name by folk etymology to Norse Jórvík meaning "horse bay." The modern Welsh name is Efrog.

After the Anglian settlement of the North of England, Anglian York was first capital of Deira and later Northumbria, and by the early 7th century, York was an important royal centre for the Northumbrian kings. Following the Norman Conquest of 1066 York was substantially damaged, but in time became an important urban centre as the administrative centre of the county of Yorkshire. York prospered during much of the later medieval era; the later years of the 14th and the earlier years of the 15th centuries were characterised by particular prosperity. During the English Civil War, the city was regarded as a Royalist stronghold and was besieged and eventually captured by Parliamentary forces under Lord Fairfax in 1644. After the war, York retained its pre-eminence in the North, and, by 1660, was the third-largest city in England after London and Norwich.

Modern York has 34 Conservation Areas, 2,084 Listed buildings and 22 Scheduled Ancient Monuments in its care. Every year, thousands of tourists come to see the surviving medieval buildings, interspersed with Roman and Viking remains and Georgian architecture.

EnglandYork
York within England

Prehistoric settlement

Archaeological evidence suggests that mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 8000 and 7000 BC, although it is not known if these were permanent or temporary settlements. During the neolithic period polished stone axes indicate the presence of people in the area where the City of York is now, especially on the south-west bank of the River Ouse, just outside the city centre near the area where Scarborough bridge is now. Evidence for people continues into the Bronze Age with a hoard of flint tools and weapons found by Holgate Beck between the railway and the River Ouse, burials and bronzes found on both sides of the River Ouse and a beaker vessel found in Bootham. Iron Age burials have been found near the area on the south-west bank of the Ouse where the concentration of Neolithic axes was found. Few other finds from this period have been found in York itself, but evidence of a late Iron Age farmstead has been uncovered at Lingcroft Farm 3 miles (4.8 km) away at Naburn.[1]

Roman

Roman Fortifications in Museum Gardens York
Roman wall and the west corner tower of the fort at York, with medieval additions

The Romans called the tribes in the region around York the Brigantes and the Parisii. York may have been on the border between these two tribes. During the Roman conquest of Britain the Brigantes became a Roman client state, but, when their leadership changed becoming more hostile to Rome, Roman General Quintus Petillius Cerialis led the Ninth Legion north of the Humber.[2]

York was founded in 71 AD when Cerialis and the Ninth Legion constructed a military fortress (castra) on flat ground above the River Ouse near its junction with the River Foss. The fortress was later rebuilt in stone, covered an area of 50 acres, and was inhabited by 6,000 soldiers. The earliest known mention of Eburacum by name is from a wooden stylus tablet from the Roman fortress of Vindolanda along Hadrian's Wall, dated to c. 95–104 AD, where it is called Eburaci.[3] Much of the Roman fortress lies under the foundations of York Minster, and excavations in the Minster's undercroft have revealed some of the original walls.[4][5]

At some time between 109 AD and 122 AD the garrison of the Ninth Legion was replaced by the Sixth Legion. There is no documented trace of the Ninth Legion after 117 AD, and various theories have been proposed as to what happened to it. The Sixth Legion remained in York until the end of Roman occupation about 400 AD.[5] The Emperors Hadrian, Septimius Severus and Constantius I all held court in York during their various campaigns. During his stay, the Emperor Severus proclaimed York capital of the province of Britannia Inferior, and it is likely that it was he who granted York the privileges of a colonia or city. Constantius I died during his stay in York, and his son Constantine the Great was proclaimed Emperor by the troops based in the fortress.[5]

Economically the military presence was important with workshops growing up to supply the needs of the 5,000 troops garrisoned there and in its early stages York operated a command economy. Production included military pottery until the mid-third century; military tile kilns have been found in the Aldwark-Peasholme Green area, glassworking at Coppergate, metalworks and leatherworks producing military equipment in Tanner Row. New trading opportunities led local people to create a permanent civilian settlement on the south-west bank of the River Ouse opposite the fortress. By 237 it had been made a colonia one of only four in Britain and the others were founded for retired soldiers.[6] York was self-governing, with a council made up of rich locals, including merchants, and veteran soldiers.[7]

Evidence of Roman religious beliefs in York have been found including altars to Mars, Hercules, Jupiter and Fortune, while phallic amulets are the most commonly found type of good luck charm. In terms of number of reference the most popular deities were the spiritual representation (genius) of York and the Mother Goddess; there is also evidence of local or regional deities. There was also a Christian community in York although it is not known when it was first formed and there is virtually no archaeological record of it. The first evidence of this community is a document noting the attendance of Bishop Eborius of Eboracum at the Council of Arles (314),[8] and bishops also attended the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the Council of Sardica, and the Council of Ariminum.[9]

By 400 AD York's fortunes had changed for the worse. The town was undergoing periodic winter floods from the rivers Ouse and Foss, its wharf-side facilities were buried under several feet of silt and the primary Roman bridge connecting the town with the fortress may have become derelict.[10] By this time Eboracum was probably no longer a population centre, though it likely remained a centre of authority.[11] While the colonia remained above flood levels, it was largely abandoned as well, retaining only a small ribbon of population for a time.[10]

Early Middle Ages

Post-Roman Ebrauc

There is little written evidence about York in the centuries following the Roman withdrawal from Britain in 410, a pattern repeated throughout Sub-Roman Britain. There is archaeological evidence for continued settlement at York near the Ouse in the 5th century,[12] and private Roman houses, especially suburban villas, remained occupied after the Roman withdrawal.[13]

Some scholars have suggested that York remained a significant regional centre for the Britons, based largely on literary evidence. Several manuscripts of the Historia Brittonum, written c. 830, contain a list of 28 or 33 "civitates", originally used to describe British tribal centres under Roman rule but here translated as Old Welsh cair (caer) and probably indicating "fortified cities". Among these settlements is Cair Ebrauc.[14][15] Later, the text states that Ida was the first king of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia and also the ruler over Cair Ebrauc.[16] These are generally taken as references to the old Roman Eburacum.[17]

This mention has led to speculation about Ebrauc in post-Roman times. Christopher Allen Snyder makes note of the evidence for Eboracum continuing to function, perhaps as a military outpost or the seat of a minor kingdom based on the old territory of the Brigantes. Scholar Peter Field suggests that the City of Legions (urbs legionum) mentioned by Gildas in his 6th-century De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae is a reference to York, rather than Caerleon; if this were the case it could provide some contemporary information about Ebrauc. Additionally, a Peredur son of Efrawg is the hero of a 12th- or 13th-century Welsh romance; the name "Efrawg" or "Efrog" is derived from the name Ebrauc, suggesting the city had royal associations in later tradition. However, Snyder cites historian and archaeologist Nick Higham in saying that the settlement had declined so much by the end of the Roman period that it was unlikely to have been a significant post-Roman regional centre.[17]

Anglo-Saxon Eoforwic

Anglian Tower York
Anglian Tower

Angles settled in the area in the early 5th century.[18] Cemeteries that are identifiably Anglian date from this period. Cremation cemeteries from the 6th century have been excavated close to York on The Mount and at Heworth;[19] there are, however, few objects from inside the city, and whether York was settled at all at this period remains unclear. The fate of the fortress after 400 AD is not clear, but it is unlikely to have been a base of Romano-British power in opposition to the Anglians. Reclamation of the flooded areas of the town would not be initiated until the 7th century under Edwin of Northumbria. After the later Anglian settlement of the North of England, Anglian York was first capital of Deira and then of the united kingdom of Deira and Bernicia, later known as Northumbria.

By the early 7th century, York was an important royal centre for the Northumbrian kings, for it was here that Paulinus of York (later St Paulinus) came to set up his wooden church, the precursor of York Minster, and it was here that King Edwin of Northumbria was baptised in 627.[20] The first Minster is believed to have been built in 627, although the location of the early Minster is a matter of dispute.[21]

Throughout the succeeding centuries, York remained an important royal and ecclesiastical centre, the seat of a bishop, and later, from 735, of an archbishop. Very little about Anglian York is known and few documents survive. It is known that the building and rebuilding of the Minster was carried out, along with the construction of a thirty-altar church dedicated to Alma Sophia (Holy Wisdom), which may have been on the same site.[22]

York became a centre of learning under Northumbrian rule, with the establishment of the library and of the Minster school. Alcuin, later adviser to Charlemagne, was its most distinguished pupil and then master.

Of this great royal and ecclesiastical centre, little is yet known archaeologically. Excavations on the Roman fortress walls have shown that they may have survived more or less intact for much of their circuit, and the Anglian Tower, a small square tower built to fill a gap in the Roman way, may be a repair of the Anglian period. The survival of the walls and gates shows that the Roman street pattern survived, at least in part, inside the fortress. Certainly excavations beneath York Minster have shown that the great hall of the Roman headquarters building still stood and was used until the 9th century.

By the 8th century York was an active commercial centre with established trading links to other areas of England, northern France, the Low Countries and the Rhineland.[23] Excavations near the junction of the River Foss and River Ouse in Fishergate found buildings dating from the 7th and 9th century. These were located away from the Roman centre of the city may form a trading settlement that served the royal and ecclesiastical century.[23][24] This and other discoveries indicate an occupation pattern during the 7th to 9th century that followed the line of the rivers, creating a long linear settlement along the River Ouse and extending along some of the River Foss.[25]

Viking Jórvík

For Viking York, see Jórvík.
St. Marys Bishophill Junior, York-1-
St Mary Bishophill Junior
England Great Army map
A map of the routes taken by the Great Heathen Army from 865 to 878

In November 866 AD a large army of Danish Vikings, called the "Great Heathen Army", captured York, unopposed due to conflict in the Kingdom of Northumbria. The next year they held the city when the Northumbrians tried to retake it; the army left the same year putting a local puppet king in charge of York and the area around York they controlled. The army returned in 875 and its leader Halfdan took control of York. From York, Viking kings ruled an area, known to historians as "The Kingdom of Jorvik", with Danes migrating and settling in large numbers in the Kingdom and in York.[26][27] In York the Old Norse placename Konungsgurtha, Kings Court, recorded in the late 14th century in relation to an area immediately outside the site of the porta principalis sinistra, the west gatehouse of the Roman encampment, perpetuated today as King's Square, perhaps indicates a Viking royal palace site based on the remains of the east gate of the Roman fortress.[28] In 954 the last Viking king, Eric Bloodaxe, was expelled and his kingdom was incorporated in the newly consolidated Anglo-Saxon state.[29]

A renowned scholar of this era was Wulfstan II, Archbishop of York.

Several churches were built in York during the Viking Age including St. Olave's built before 1055 on Marygate which is dedicated to St. Olaf King of Norway and St Mary Bishophill Junior which has a 10th century tower whose height was increased in the early 11th century.

Medieval

Following the Norman Conquest of 1066, York was substantially damaged by the punitive harrying of the north (1069) launched by William the Conqueror in response to regional revolt.[30] Two castles were erected in the city on either side of the River Ouse. In time York became an important urban centre as the administrative centre of the county of Yorkshire, as the seat of an archbishop, and at times in the later 13th and 14th centuries as an alternative seat of royal government. It was an important trading centre. Several religious houses were founded following the Conquest, including St Mary's Abbey and Holy Trinity Priory. The city as a possession of the crown also came to house a substantial Jewish community under the protection of the sheriff.

On 16 March 1190 a mob of townsfolk forced the Jews in York to flee into the castle keep (later replaced by Clifford's Tower), which was under the control of the sheriff. The castle was set on fire and the Jews were massacred. It is likely that various local magnates who were debtors of the Jews helped instigate this massacre or, at least, did nothing to prevent it. It came during a time of widespread attacks against Jews in Britain. The Jewish community in York did recover after the massacre and a Jewish presence remained in York until the expulsion of Jews from England in 1290.[31]

York prospered during much of the later medieval era and this is reflected in the built environment. Twenty medieval parish churches survive in whole or in part, though only eight of these are regularly used for worship. The medieval city walls, with their entrance gates, known as bars, encompassed virtually the entire city and survive to this day. The city was also designated as a county corporate, giving it effective county status.

York Shambles
"The Shambles," a medieval street in York.

The later years of the 14th and the earlier years of the 15th centuries were characterised by particular prosperity. It is in this period that the York Mystery Plays, a regular cycle of religious pageants (or plays) associated with the Corpus Christi cycle and performed by the various craft guilds grew up. Among the more important personages associated with this period was Nicholas Blackburn senior, Lord Mayor in 1412 and a leading merchant. He is depicted with his wife Margaret Blackburn in glass in the (now) east window of All Saints' Church in North Street. There seems to have been economic contraction and a dwindling in York's regional importance in the period from the later 15th century. The construction of the city's new Guildhall around the middle of the century can be seen as an attempt to project civic confidence in the face of growing uncertainty. Brandsby-type ware and Humber ware ceramics were popular in the city at this time.[32]

Dating from the later medieval era, and now a popular tourist attraction, is the Shambles, a street of timber-framed shops originally occupied by butchers. Some retain the outdoor shelves and the hooks on which meat was displayed. They have overhanging upper floors and are now largely souvenir shops.

Early modern

Few buildings of significance were put up in the century after the completion of the Minster in 1472, the exceptions being the completion of the King's Manor (which from 1537 to 1641 housed the Council of the North) and the rebuilding of the church of St. Michael le Belfrey, where Guy Fawkes was baptised in 1570.

During the dissolution of the monasteries all the monastic institutions in the City were closed including St. Leonards Hospital and in 1539 St. Mary's Abbey.[33] In 1547, fifteen parish churches were closed, reducing their number from forty to twenty-five, a reflection of the decline in the city's population. Despite the English Reformation making the practice of Roman Catholicism illegal, a Catholic Christian community remained in York although this was mainly in secret. Its members included St. Margaret Clitherow who was executed in 1586 for harbouring a priest[34] and Guy Fawkes who tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament in 1605.

Following his break with Parliament, King Charles I established his Court in York in 1642 for six months. Subsequently, during the English Civil War, the city was regarded as a Royalist stronghold and was besieged and eventually captured by Parliamentary forces under Lord Fairfax in 1644. After the war, York slowly regained its former pre-eminence in the North, and, by 1660, was the third-largest city in England after London and Norwich.

In 1686 the Bar Convent was founded, in secret due to anti-catholic Laws, making it the oldest surviving convent in England.

York elected two members to the Unreformed House of Commons.

The Judges Lodgings is a Grade I listed townhouse that was built between 1711 and 1726 and later used to house judges when they attended the quarterly sessions of the Assizes at York Castle.

On 22 March 1739 the highwayman Dick Turpin was convicted at the York Grand Jury House of horse-stealing, and was hanged at the Knavesmire on 7 April 1739. Turpin is buried in the churchyard of St George's Church, where his tombstone also shows his alias, John Palmer.

In 1740, the city's first hospital, York County Hospital, opened in Monkgate and it moved into larger premises in 1745. The building was funded by public subscription.[35] The building was expanded on the same site in 1851, and finally closed in 1976 when York District Hospital was opened.

Modern

York population 1801–2001
YearPop.±%
1801 24,080—    
1811 27,486+14.1%
1821 30,913+12.5%
1831 36,340+17.6%
1841 40,337+11.0%
1851 49,899+23.7%
1861 58,632+17.5%
1871 67,364+14.9%
1881 76,097+13.0%
1891 81,802+7.5%
1901 90,665+10.8%
YearPop.±%
1911 100,487+10.8%
1921 106,278+5.8%
1931 112,404+5.8%
1941 123,227+9.6%
1951 135,093+9.6%
1961 144,585+7.0%
1971 154,749+7.0%
1981 158,170+2.2%
1991 172,847+9.3%
2001 181,131+4.8%
2011 198,051+9.3%
Source: Data for UK Census results for York UA[36]

In 1796 Quaker William Tuke founded The Retreat, a hospital for the mentally ill, situated in the east of the city outside the city walls, which used moral treatment.

Largely thanks to the efforts of "Railway King" George Hudson, York became a major centre for the railways during the 19th century, a status it maintained well into the 20th century. The Colliergate drill hall was completed in 1872[37] and the Tower Street drill hall was completed in 1885.[38]

On 29 April 1942, York was bombed as part of the retaliatory Baedeker Blitz by the German Luftwaffe; 92 people were killed and hundreds injured.[39] Buildings damaged in the raid included the Railway Station, Rowntree's Factory, St Martin-le-Grand Church, the Bar Convent and the Guildhall which was completely gutted and not restored until 1960.

During the Cold War the headquarters of the Number 20 Group, Royal Observer Corps was moved to the newly constructed York Cold War Bunker in the Holgate area of town. It was opened on 16 December 1961, was in operation until 1991, and was then turned into a museum owned by English Heritage.[40] In 1971 York was made an army Saluting Station, firing gun salutes five times a year such as the Queen's Birthday. The date marked 1900 years of army in York.[41] The University of York was launched on sites at Heslington and the King's Manor and took its first students in 1963. In 1975 the National Railway Museum was opened, near the centre of York.

In October and November 2000 the River Ouse rose and York experienced very severe flooding; over 300 houses were flooded though no-one was seriously hurt.[42]

St Helen's Square, York. YORYM-S1013

Men outside a shop in St. Helen's Square around 1910

The Yorkshire Museum YORYM-S179

The Yorkshire Museum in around 1910

Low Petergate YORYM-S178

Low Petergate looking toward Bootham Bar in around 1910

See also

References

  1. ^ Hall, Richard (1996). English Heritage: Book of York (1st ed.). B.T.Batsford Ltd. pp. 26–27. ISBN 0-7134-7720-2.
  2. ^ Willis, Ronald (1988). The illustrated portrait of York (4th ed.). Robert Hale Limited. pp. 16–17. ISBN 0-7090-3468-7.
  3. ^ Hall, Richard (1996) [1996]. English Heritage: Book of York (1st ed.). B.T.Batsford Ltd. p. 13. ISBN 0-7134-7720-2.
  4. ^ "York's history". City of York Council. 20 December 2006. Archived from the original on 31 October 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2007.
  5. ^ a b c Shannon, John; Tilbrook, Richard (1990). York – the second city. Jarrold Publishing. p. 2. ISBN 0-7117-0507-0.
  6. ^ Hall, English Heritage: Book of York, p. 31
  7. ^ Hartley, Elizabeth (1985). Roman Life at the Yorkshire Museum. The Yorkshire Museum. p. 12. ISBN 0-905807-02-2.
  8. ^ Hall, English Heritage: Book of York, pp. 97–101
  9. ^ "Ancient See of York". New Advent. 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
  10. ^ a b Russo, Daniel G. (1998). Town Origins and Development in Early England, c. 400–950 A.D. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 119–120. ISBN 978-0-313-30079-0.
  11. ^ Snyder, Christopher A. (1998). An Age of Tyrants: Britain and the Britons A.D. 400–600. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 162. ISBN 0-271-01780-5.. Snyder cites James Campbell's The Anglo-Saxons for this conclusion.
  12. ^ Pryor, Francis (2004). Britain AD:A Quest for Arthur, England and the Anglo-Saxons. Harper Collins Publishers. p. 173. ISBN 0-00-718186-8.
  13. ^ Hall, Richard (1996). English Heritage: Book of York (1st ed.). B.T.Batsford Ltd. p. 32. ISBN 0-7134-7720-2.
  14. ^ Nennius (attrib.). Theodor Mommsen (ed.). Historia Brittonum, VI. Composed after AD 830. ‹See Tfd›(in Latin) Hosted at Latin Wikisource.
  15. ^ Giles, J. A. (translator) (1841). "The History of the Britons; by Nennius". The works of Gildas and Nennius. London: James Bohn. p. 6.
  16. ^ Giles, J. A. (translator) (1841). "The History of the Britons; by Nennius". The works of Gildas and Nennius. London: James Bohn. p. 29.
  17. ^ a b Snyder, Chris Allen (2003). "The Britons". The Britons. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 201–203.
  18. ^ Jones, Barri; Mattingly, David (1990). An Atlas of Roman Britain. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers (published 2007). p. 317. ISBN 978-1-84217-067-0.
  19. ^ Hall, Richard (1996). English Heritage: Book of York (1st ed.). B.T.Batsford Ltd. p. 102. ISBN 0-7134-7720-2.
  20. ^ "ANGLIAN YORK (EOFORWIC)". York Archaeology Trust. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
  21. ^ "York Minster: a very brief history". The Dean and Chapter of York. 2007. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
  22. ^ York Minster – Google Book Search. books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
  23. ^ a b "ANGLIAN YORK (EOFORWIC): TRADE". York Archaeology Trust. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
  24. ^ "ANGLIAN YORK (EOFORWIC)". York Archaeology Trust. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
  25. ^ Hall, Richard (1996). English Heritage: Book of York (1st ed.). B.T.Batsford Ltd. p. 36. ISBN 0-7134-7720-2.
  26. ^ Logan, F. Donald (1992). The Vikings in history (2nd ed.). Routledge. pp. 157–159. ISBN 978-0-415-08396-6.
  27. ^ Muir, By Richard (1997). The Yorkshire countryside: a landscape history. Edinburgh University Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-85331-198-7.
  28. ^ Richard Hall, Viking Age archaeology, 1995:28; Richard Hall, "A kingdom too far: York in the early tenth century", in N.J. Higham and D.H. Hill, Edward the Elder, 899–924, 2001.
  29. ^ "Jorvik: Viking York". City of York Council. 20 December 2006. Archived from the original on 13 September 2007. Retrieved 5 October 2007.
  30. ^ "Norman and Medieval York". City of York Council. 20 December 2006. Archived from the original on 15 September 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2007.
  31. ^ Hall, English Heritage: Book of York, pp. 58–59
  32. ^ Holdsworth, J. 1978. Selected Pottery Groups AD 650–1780 (Archaeology of York 16/1), York, 14.
  33. ^ Wilson, Christoper; Burton, Janet (1988). St Mary's Abbey York. The Yorkshire Museum. p. 4. ISBN 0-905807-03-0.
  34. ^ Whitworth, Alan (2000). Aspects of York:Discovering local history. Warncliffe Books. pp. 77–85. ISBN 1-871647-83-5.
  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 August 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ "York UA/City: Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
  37. ^ "Number 28a and Attached Drill Hall". British listed buildings. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  38. ^ "York". The Drill Hall Project. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  39. ^ "Luftwaffe pilot says sorry for bombing York". The Press. Newsquest Media Group. 17 April 2007. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
  40. ^ "NO 20 Group Royal Observer Corps Headquarters". Pastscapes. English Heritage. 2007. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2007.
  41. ^ Lewis, Stephen (31 March 2005). "City's Army links grow stronger". The Press. York. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  42. ^ Dennis, Ian A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Coulthard, Tom J.; Brewer, Paul A. (2002). "The impact of the October–November 2000 floods on contaminant metal dispersal in the River Swale catchment, North Yorkshire, UK" (PDF). Wiley InterScience. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2007.

Further reading

External links

Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution. It was approved, after much debate (between July 1776 and November 1777), by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777, and sent to the states for ratification. The Articles of Confederation came into force on March 1, 1781, after being ratified by all 13 states. A guiding principle of the Articles was to preserve the independence and sovereignty of the states. The weak central government established by the Articles received only those powers which the former colonies had recognized as belonging to king and parliament.The Articles formed a war-time confederation of states, with an extremely limited central government. While unratified, the document was used by the Congress to conduct business, direct the American Revolutionary War, conduct diplomacy with foreign nations, and deal with territorial issues and Native American relations. The adoption of the Articles made few perceptible changes in the federal government, because it did little more than legalize what the Continental Congress had been doing. That body was renamed the Congress of the Confederation; but Americans continued to call it the Continental Congress, since its organization remained the same.As the Confederation Congress attempted to govern the continually growing American states, delegates discovered that the limitations placed upon the central government rendered it ineffective at doing so. As the government's weaknesses became apparent, especially after Shays' Rebellion, some prominent political thinkers in the fledgling US began asking for changes to the Articles. Their hope was to create a stronger national government. Initially, some states met to deal with their trade and economic problems. However, as more states became interested in meeting to change the Articles, a meeting was set in Philadelphia on May 25, 1787. This became the Constitutional Convention. It was quickly agreed that changes would not work, and instead the entire Articles needed to be replaced. On March 4, 1789, the government under the Articles was replaced with the federal government under the Constitution. The new Constitution provided for a much stronger federal government by establishing a chief executive (the President), courts, and taxing powers.

Battle of Stamford Bridge

The Battle of Stamford Bridge took place at the village of Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire, in England on 25 September 1066, between an English army under King Harold Godwinson and an invading Norwegian force led by King Harald Hardrada and the English king's brother Tostig Godwinson. After a bloody battle, both Hardrada and Tostig along with most of the Norwegians were killed. Although Harold Godwinson repelled the Norwegian invaders, his army was defeated by the Normans at Hastings less than three weeks later. The battle has traditionally been presented as symbolising the end of the Viking Age, although major Scandinavian campaigns in Britain and Ireland occurred in the following decades, such as those of King Sweyn Estrithson of Denmark in 1069–1070 and King Magnus Barefoot of Norway in 1098 and 1102–1103.

Eboracum

Eboracum (Latin /ebo'rakum/, English or ) was a fort and city in the Roman province of Britannia. In its prime it was the largest town in northern Britain and a provincial capital. The site remained occupied after the decline of the Roman Empire and ultimately evolved into the present-day city York, occupying the same site in North Yorkshire, England.

Two Roman emperors died in Eboracum: Septimius Severus in 211 AD, and Constantius Chlorus in 306 AD.

Ermine Street

Ermine Street is the name of a major Roman road in England that ran from London (Londinium) to Lincoln (Lindum Colonia) and York (Eboracum). The Old English name was "Earninga Straete" (1012), named after a tribe called the Earningas, who inhabited a district later known as Armingford Hundred, around Arrington, Cambridgeshire and Royston, Hertfordshire. "Armingford", and "Arrington" share the same Old English origin. The original Celtic and Roman names for the route remain unknown. It is also known as the Old North Road from London to where it joins the A1 Great North Road near Godmanchester.

History of York City F.C.

The history of York City Football Club spans the period from 1908 to the present time. For detail on individual periods of the club's history, see one of the following articles:

History of York City F.C. (1908–1980)

History of York City F.C. (1980–present)

History of York City F.C. (1908–1980)

York City Football Club is a professional association football club based in York, North Yorkshire, England. The history of York City F.C. from 1908 to 1980 covers the period from the club's original foundation, through their reformation and progress in the Football League, to the end of the 1979–80 season.

Founded in 1908, York City played several seasons in the Northern League and Midland League before going into liquidation during the First World War. The club was reformed in 1922 and was elected to play in the Midland League for 1922–23. After seven seasons in the Midland League, they were elected to play in the Football League for 1929–30, and were placed in the Third Division North. During the Second World War, York played in regional competitions, before the Football League restored its usual competitions in 1946–47. After 14 seasons in the Football League, the club was required to apply for re-election for the first time because they finished 1949–50 at the bottom of the Third Division North. York had their best FA Cup season in 1954–55, when they reached the semi-final; they were defeated by First Division team Newcastle United in a replay.

York played in the Third Division North until 1958–59, when a league reorganisation placed them in the Fourth Division. The same season, they finished third and won their first promotion, but were relegated after one season. York won another promotion in 1964–65, but were again relegated after one season. The club won a third promotion to the now-unified Third Division in 1970–71, remaining there for the next two seasons on goal average. They were promoted to the Second Division for the first and only time in 1973–74. By mid October 1974, York were in fifth place—their highest league placing—before finishing 1974–75 in 15th place. They faced two successive relegations in 1976 and 1977, and a 22nd-place finish in the 1977–78 Fourth Division forced the club to apply for re-election.

History of York City F.C. (1980–present)

York City Football Club is a professional association football club based in York, North Yorkshire, England. Its history from the 1980–81 to the current season saw fluctuating fortunes in the 1980s and 1990s, and relegations from the Football League.

York made their seventh re-election bid after 1980–81, before the club won its first and only league title after finishing first in the Fourth Division in 1983–84 with 101 points. They were the first team to score this many points in a Football League season. After four seasons in the Third Division, York were relegated in 1987–88, statistically the club's worst Football League season. They beat Crewe Alexandra on penalties at Wembley Stadium in the play-off final in 1992–93, winning promotion back to the third tier of English football, now renamed as the Second Division. The following season, York competed in the play-off semi-final, when they were beaten by Stockport County. Later in the 1990s, they knocked Premier League teams Manchester United and Everton out of the League Cup in successive seasons. After six seasons, York were relegated to the Third Division in 1998–99. In the following years, the club experienced financial troubles; chairman Douglas Craig offered the club and its ground for sale in December 2001.

The club was bought by John Batchelor in March 2002, but the following December they went into administration. In March 2003, York were taken over by the Supporters' Trust, and were relegated to the Conference National in 2003–04, ending 75 years of Football League membership. The team were unsuccessful in the play-offs in the 2006–07 and 2009–10 seasons, and were beaten at the newly rebuilt Wembley Stadium in the 2009 FA Trophy Final. In 2011–12, York defeated Newport County at Wembley Stadium in the 2012 FA Trophy Final, and shortly after returned to the Football League with a 2–1 win over Luton Town in the play-off final. In their second season in League Two, the club reached the play-offs but were knocked out in the semi-final by Fleetwood Town. After four years back in the Football League, York were relegated to the National League in 2015–16. They were relegated to the National League North the following season, but won the FA Trophy after beating Macclesfield Town in the 2017 final.

National Register of Historic Places listings in York County, Pennsylvania

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in York County, Pennsylvania.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in York County, Pennsylvania, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map.There are 97 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted June 7, 2019.

Peredur

Peredur (Welsh pronunciation: [pɛˈrɛdɨr], Old Welsh Peretur) is the name of a number of men from the boundaries of history and legend in sub-Roman Britain. The Peredur who is most familiar to a modern audience is the character who made his entrance as a knight in the Arthurian world of Middle Welsh prose literature.

Pilgrimage of Grace

The Pilgrimage of Grace was a popular uprising that began in Yorkshire in October 1536, before spreading to other parts of Northern England including Cumberland, Northumberland and north Lancashire, under the leadership of lawyer Robert Aske. The "most serious of all Tudor rebellions", it was a protest against Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and the policies of the King's chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, as well as other specific political, social and economic grievances.The Pilgrimage began almost immediately following the suppression of the short-lived Lincolnshire rising of 1536. The traditional historical view portrays the Pilgrimage as "a spontaneous mass protest of the conservative elements in the North of England angry with the religious upheavals instigated by King Henry VIII". Historians have noted that there were contributing economic factors.

Scandinavian York

Scandinavian York (also referred to as Jórvík) or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria (modern-day Yorkshire) during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings; in particular, it is used to refer to York, the city controlled by these kings.

Norse monarchy controlled varying amounts of Northumbria from 875 to 954; however, the area was invaded and conquered for short periods by Anglo-Saxons between 927 and 954 before eventually being annexed by them in 954. It was closely associated with the much longer-lived Kingdom of Dublin throughout this period.

York, Nebraska

York is a city in, and the county seat of, York County, Nebraska, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 7,766. It is the home of York College and the Nebraska Correctional Center for Women.

York, Pennsylvania

York (Pennsylvania German: Yarrick), known as the White Rose City (after the symbol of the House of York), is the county seat of York County, Pennsylvania, United States, located in the south-central region of the state. The population within York's city limits was 43,718 at the 2010 census, a 7.0% increase from the 2000 count of 40,862. When combined with the adjacent boroughs of West York and North York and surrounding Spring Garden, West Manchester, and Springettsbury townships, the population of Greater York was 108,386. York is the 11th largest city in Pennsylvania.

York, South Carolina

York is a city in and county seat of York County, South Carolina, United States. The population was approximately 6,985 at the 2000 census and up to 7,736 at the 2010 census. York is located approximately 27 miles (43 km) southwest of Charlotte, North Carolina and 13 miles (21 km) west of Rock Hill, South Carolina.

York Corporation Tramways

The York Corporation Tramways (YCT) provided an electric tramway and trolleybus service in York between 1910 and 1935.

York County, Maine

York County is the southwesternmost county in the U.S. state of Maine, along the state of New Hampshire's eastern border. It is divided from Strafford County, New Hampshire by the Salmon Falls River, and the connected tidal estuary—the Piscataqua River.

Permanently re-founded in 1639, it held several of the oldest colonial settlements in Maine; consequently, is the oldest county in Maine and one of the oldest in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 197,131, making it Maine's second-most populous county. Its county seat is Alfred.York County is part of the Portland–South Portland, ME Metropolitan Statistical Area.

York County, New Brunswick

York County (2011 population 97,238) is located in west-central New Brunswick, Canada. The county contains the provincial capital, Fredericton. Outside the city, farming and forestry are two major industries in the county, which is bisected by the Saint John River. The Southwest Miramichi River flows through the northern section of the county.

York County, Virginia

York County (formerly Charles River County) is a county in the eastern part of the Commonwealth of Virginia, located in the Tidewater. As of the 2010 census, the population was 65,464. The county seat is the unincorporated town of Yorktown.Located on the north side of the Virginia Peninsula, with the York River as its northern border, York County is included in the Virginia Beach–Norfolk–Newport News, VA–NC Metropolitan Statistical Area.

York County contains many tributaries of the York River. It shares land borders with the independent cities of Williamsburg, Newport News, Hampton, and Poquoson, as well as James City County, and shares a border along the York River with Gloucester County.

Formed in 1634 as Charles River Shire one of the eight original shires (counties) of the Virginia Colony, and renamed York County in 1643. York County is one of the oldest counties in the United States. Yorktown is one of the three points of the Historic Triangle of Colonial Virginia. It is the site of the last battle and surrender of British forces in 1781 at the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War, when the patriots gained independence from Great Britain.

In modern times, several important U.S. military installations have been developed in the county. It also has miles of waterfront residential and recreational areas. York County adjoins the Busch Gardens Williamsburg theme park and includes within its borders the affiliated Water Country USA water park, the Yorktown Riverfront area, Yorktown Battlefield and Visitor Center and Yorktown Victory Center. Yorktown is linked by the National Park Service's bucolic Colonial Parkway with Colonial Williamsburg and historic attractions at Jamestown, Virginia. Heritage tourism to the Historic Triangle draws international visitors and is a major economic activity for the county.

York Tramways Company

The York Tramways Company and its successor the City of York Tramways Company provided a horse-drawn tramway service in York between 1881 and 1909.

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