History of Sindh

The history of Sindh or Sind (Sindhi: سنڌ جي تاريخ‎, Urdu: سندھ کی تاریخ‎) is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and surrounding regions. Sindh was at the center of the Indus Valley civilization, one of the cradle of civilization; and currently a province of modern-day Pakistan.

Pre-Islamic era

Indus Valley Civilisation

Mohenjo-daro
Mohen-jo-Daro ruins

It is believed by most scholars that the earliest trace of human inhabitation in India traces to the Soan Sakaser Valley between the Indus and the Jhelum rivers. This period goes back to the first inter-glacial period in the Second Ice Age, and remnants of stone and flint tools have been found.[1]

Sindh and surrounding areas contain the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilization. There are remnants of thousand year old cities and structures, with a notable example in Sindh being that of Mohenjo Daro. Hundreds of settlements have been found spanning an area of about a hundred miles. These ancient towns and cities had advanced features such as city-planning, brick-built houses, sewage and draining systems, as well as public baths. The people of the Indus Valley also developed a writing system, that has to this day still not been fully deciphered.[2] The people of the Indus Valley had domesticated bovines, sheep, elephants, and camels. The civilization also had knowledge of metallurgy. Gold, silver, copper, tin, and alloys wre widely in use. Arts and crafts flourished during this time as well; the use of beads, seals, pottery, and bracelets are evident.[3]

Vedic descriptions

Map of Vedic India
Map of India during the Vedic period, including Sindh.

Literary evidence from the Vedic period suggests a transition from early small janas, or tribes, to many janapadas (territorial civilizations) and gana-samgha societies. The gana samgha soceties are loosely translated to being oligarchies or republics. These political entities were represented from the Rigveda to the Astadhyayi by Pāṇini.[4] Many Janapadas were mentioned from vedic texts and are confirmed by Ancient Greek historical sources. Most of the Janapadas that had exerted large territorial influence, or mahajanapadas, had been raised in the Indo-Gangetic Plain with the exception of Gandhara in what is now Afghanistan. There was a large level of contact between all the janapadas, with descriptions being given of trading caravans, movement of students from universities, and itineraries of princes.[5]

Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire c. 550–330 BC), also called the First Persian Empire,[6] was an empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5[7][8] (or 8[9]) million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires.[10]

Alexander the Great

Alexander conquered Sindh after Punjab. Alexander's death gave rise to Seleucid Empire which was defeated by Mauryan empire.

Mauryan Era

Chandragupta Maurya, with the aid of Kautilya, had established his empire around 320 BCE. The early life of Chandragupta Maurya is not clear. Kautilya took a young Chandragupta to the University at Taxila and enrolled him in order to educate him in the arts, sciences, logic, mathematics, warfare, and administration. Chankya's main task was to liberate India from Greek rule. With the help of the small Janapadas of Punjab and Sindh, he had went on to conquer much of the North West. He then defeated the Nanda rulers in Pataliputra to capture the throne. Chandragupta Maurya fought Alexander's successor in the east, Seleucus I Nicator, when the latter invaded. In a peace treaty, Seleucus ceded all territories west of the Indus River and offered a marriage, including a portion of Bactria, while Chandragupta granted Seleucus 500 elephants.[11]

The Mauryan rule was advanced for its time, and foreign accounts of Indian cities mention many temples, libraries, universities, gardens, and parks. A notable account was that of the Greek ambassador Megasthenes, who had visited the Mauryan capital of Pataliputra. Chandragupta's rule was a very well organized one. The Mauryans had a strong centralized government with a competent bureaucracy. This bureaucracy had concerned itself with the affairs of tax collection, trade and commerce, industrial activities, mining, statistics and data, maintenance of public places, and upkeep of temples.[11]

The Mauryan Empire was greatly weakened following the death of Ashoka. The dynasty lasted until c.184 B.C when the commander-in-chief captured the throne from Brihadratha. What remained under the power of the Mauryans was ruled by the subsequent Sunga dynasty. [12]

Greco-Bactrians

Following a century of Mauryan rule which ended by 232 BCE, the region came under the Greco-Bactrians based in what is today Afghanistan and these rulers would also convert to and proliferate Buddhism in the region. The Buddhist city of Siraj-ji-Takri is located along the western limestone terraces of the Rohri Hills in the Sukkur district of Upper Sindh, along the road that leads to Sorah. Its ruins are still visible on the top of three different mesas, in the form of stone and mud-brick walls and small mounds, whilst other architectural remains were observed along the slopes of the hills in the 1980s. This city is not mentioned from any text dealing with the history of the Buddhist period of Sindh.

Banbhore site
Bhanbore port city dates from 1st century BC from Scythio Parthian era.

Indo Scythians

Indo Scythians ruled Sindh for a short period until they were thrown away by Kushans. Indo-Scythians were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples of Saka and Scythian origin who migrated southward into western and northern South Asia (Sogdiana , Bactria, Arachosia , Gandhara, Sindh , Kashmir , Punjab , Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra) from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD

Kushan Empire

Kushans ruled Sindh and called the land Scythia and in this period Buddhist developed in the region. Kahu-jo-Daro stupa at mirpurkhas exhibits presence of buddhist practices in Sindh. The Kushan Empire ( Ancient Greek : Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Bactrian: Κυϸανο, Kushano; Kuṣāṇa Sāmrājya ; BHS: Guṣāṇa-vaṃśa ; Chinese : 貴霜帝國; Parthian : Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi , in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century. It spread to encompass much of Afghanistan , and then the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares), where inscriptions have been found dating to the era of the Kushan Emperor Kanishka the Great. Emperor Kanishka was a great patron of Buddhism. He played an important role in the establishment of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent and its spread to Central Asia and China.

Sassanian Empire

Sassanians overthrow Kushans in 3rd century controlled sindh until end of 5th century when they were overthrown by Gupta empire. Sasanid , Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr , or Iran,in Middle Persian ), was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam. Named after the House of Sasan , it ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire succeeded the Parthian Empire and was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman -Byzantine Empire for a period of more than 400 years.

Gupta Empire

Gupta empire controlled SIndh for a short period before they were defeated by Hephthalite or Hunas (Huns) The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire existing from the mid-to-late 3rd century CE to 543 CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 543 CE, it covered much of the Indian subcontinent. This period is called the Golden Age of India by some historians. The ruling dynasty of the empire was founded by the king Sri Gupta ; the most notable rulers of the dynasty were Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II alias Vikramaditya. The 5th-century CE Sanskrit poet Kalidasa credits the Guptas with having conquered about twenty-one kingdoms, both in and outside India, including the kingdoms of Parasikas , the Hunas , the Kambojas , tribes located in the west and east Oxus valleys, the Kinnaras , Kiratas, and others.

Rai Dynasty (c. 524–632 CE)

Gautama Buddha statue (5th century CE)
Buddha from the Kahu-jo-daro stupa
Thul Mir Rukan
Thul Mir Rukan stupa near Dadu

was a dynasty that ruled on the Indian subcontinent during the Classical period. Originating in the region of Sindh, in modern Pak hoistan, the dynasty at its height of power ruled much of the Northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent. The influence of the Rais extended from Kashmir in the east, Makran and Debal port (modern Karachi) in the west, Surat port in the south, and the Kandahar, Sulaiman, Ferdan and Kikanan hills in the north. It ruled an area of over 600,000 square miles (1,553,993 km2), and the dynasty reigned a period of 143 years.

Brahman dynasty (c. 632 – c. 724 CE)

Sindh 700ad
Brahman Chach dynasty 700 AD

It was a Hindu power on the Indian subcontinent which originated in the region of Sindh(present-day Pakistan). Most of the information about its existence comes from the Chach Nama, a historical account of the Chach-Brahman dynasty. The Brahman dynasty were successors of the Rai dynasty. Although under Hindu kingship, buddhism was the main religion of Sindh or at least in Southern parts of SIndh.

Muslim era

Sukkur 4
The old Alamgir Mosque at Aror/Alore 8th century

Arab Conquests

After the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the Arab expansion towards the east reached the Sindh region beyond Persia. An initial expedition in the region launched because of the Sindhi pirate attacks on Arabs in 711-12, failed.[13][14]

The first clash with the Hindu kings of Sindh took place in 636 (15 A.H.) under Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab with the governor of Bahran, Uthman ibn Abu-al-Aas, dispatching naval expeditions against Thane and Bharuch under the command of his brother, Hakam. Another brother of his, al-Mughira, was given the command of the expedition against Debal.[15] Al-Baladhuri states they were victorious at Debal but doesn't mention the results of other two raids. However, the Chach Nama states that the raid of Debal was defeated and its governor killed the leader of the raids.[16]

Reasons for these raids are thought it be either activity of pirates as seen from a later pirate attack on Umayyad ships leading to the Arab conquest of Sindh in 711-12[14] to being plundering raids.[17] Al-Baladhuri doesn't mention any details of these expeditions. Uthman was warned by Umar against it who said "O brother of Thaqif, you have put the worm on the wood. I swear, by Allah that if they had been smitten, I would have taken the equivalent (in men) from your families." Baladhuri adds that this stopped any more incursions until the reign of Uthman.[18]

In 712, when Mohammed Bin Qasim invaded Sindh with 8000 cavalry while also receiving reinforcements. Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf instructed him not to spare anyone in Debal. The historian al-Baladhuri stated that after conquest of Debal, Qasim kept slaughtering its inhabitants for three days. The custodians of the Buddhist stupa were killed and the temple was destroyed. Qasim gave a quarter of the city to Muslims and built a mosque there.[19] According to the Chach Nama, after the Arabs scaled Debal's walls, the besieged denizens opened the gates and pleaded for mercy but Qasim stated he had no orders to spare anyone. No mercy was shown and the inhabitants were accordingly thus slaughtered for three days, with its temple desecrated and 700 women taking shelter there enslaved. At Raor, 6000 fighting men were massacred with their families enslaved. The massacre at Brahamanabad has various accounts of 6,000 to 26,000 inhabitants slaughtered.[20]

60,000 slaves including 30 young royal women were sent to al-Hajjaj. During the capture of one of the forts of Sindh, the women committed the jauhar and burnt themselves to death according to the Chach Nama.[20] S.A.A. Rizvi citing the Chach Nama, considers that conversion to Islam by political pressure began with Qasim's conquests. The Chach Nama has one instance of conversion, that of a slave from Debal converted at Qasim's hands.[21] After executing Sindh's ruler, Raja Dahir, his two daughters were sent to the caliph and they accused Qasim of raping them. The caliph ordered Qasim to be sewn up in hide of a cow and died of suffocation.[22]

Makli Necropolis-35
14th to 18th century shows gujrati, Persian and mughal architectural influences.

Ghaznavids

Some of the territory in Sindh found itself under raid from the Ghaznavid Empire. In 974 Pirin, the slave-governor of Ghazni, repulsed a force sent from India to seize that stronghold, then in 977 Sabuktigin, his successor, became virtually independent and founded the dynasty of the Ghaznavids. Sabuktagin's son Mahmud of Ghazni had pushed further into the subcontinent, including in Kannauj. Mahmud is viewed negatively in India for forcing Hindus and Buddhists to convert to Islam while destroying and looting Hindu temples. The primary motivation of his raids were the destruction and looting of Hindu temples, with examples being that of Somnath temple and the temples at Mathura.[23][24]

Mughals

Administrative Map of Sindh 1608~1700 A.D
Administrative map of Sindh, 1608~1700

Dynasties came and went for several hundred years until 1520, when sindh was brought into the Mughal Empire by Akbar, himself born in Umerkot in Sindh. Mughal rule from their provincial capital of Thatta was to last in lower Sindh until the early 18th century. Upper Sindh was a different picture, however, with the indigenous Kalhora dynasty holding power, consolidating their rule until the mid-18th century, when the Persian sacking of the Mughal throne in Delhi allowed them to grab the rest of Sindh. Akbar unlike his predecessors, was renowned for his religious freedom.

Early in his reign in 1563, the emperor abolished taxes on Hindu pilgrims and allowed Hindu temples to be built and repaired. In 1564 he abolished the jizya, the tax paid by all dhimmis.

Modern era

The British conquered Sindh in 1843. General Charles Napier is said to have reported victory to the Governor General with a one-word telegram, namely "Peccavi" – or "I have sinned" (Latin). In fact, this pun first appeared as a cartoon in Punch magazine. The British had two objectives in their rule of Sindh: the consolidation of British rule and the use of Sindh as a market for British products and a source of revenue and raw materials. With the appropriate infrastructure in place, the British hoped to utilise Sindh for its economic potential.[25]

The British incorporated Sindh, some years later after annexing it, into the Bombay Presidency. Distance from the provincial capital, Bombay, led to grievances that Sindh was neglected in contrast to other parts of the Presidency. The merger of Sindh into Punjab province was considered time from time but was turned down because of British disagreement and Sindhi opposition, both from Muslims and Hindus, to being annexed to Punjab.[25]

The British desired to increase their profitability from Sindh and carried out extensive work on the irrigation system in Sindh, for example the Jamrao Canal project. However, the local Sindhis were described as both eager and lazy and for this reason the British authorities encouraged the immigration of Punjabi peasants into Sindh as they were deemed more hard-working. Punjabi migrations to Sindh paralleled the further development of Sindh’s irrigation system in the early 20th century. Sindhi apprehension of a ‘Punjabi invasion’ grew.[25]

In his backdrop, desire for a separate administrative status for Sindh grew. At the annual session of the Indian National Congress in 1913, a Sindhi Hindu put forward the demand for Sindh’s separation from the Bombay Presidency on the grounds of Sindh’s unique cultural character. This reflected the desire of Sindh’s predominantly Hindu commercial class to free itself from competing with the more powerful Bombay’s business interests.[25] Meanwhile, Sindhi politics was characterised in the 1920s by the growing importance of Karachi and the Khilafat Movement.[26] A number of Sindhi pirs, descendants of Sufi saints who had proselytised in Sindh, joined the Khilafat Movement, which propagated the protection of the Ottoman Caliphate, and those pirs who did not join the movement found a decline in their following.[27] The pirs generated huge support for the Khilafat cause in Sindh.[28] Sindh came to be at the forefront of the Khilafat Movement.[29]

Although Sindh had a cleaner record of communal harmony than other parts of India, the province’s Muslim elite and emerging Muslim middle class demanded separation of Sindh from Bombay Presidency as a safeguard for their own interests. In this campaign local Sindhi Muslims identified ‘Hindu’ with Bombay instead of Sindh. Sindhi Hindus were seen as representing the interests of Bombay instead of the majority of Sindhi Muslims. Sindhi Hindus, for the most part, opposed the separation of Sindh from Bombay.[25] Sindh’s Hindu and Muslim communities lived in close proximity to each other and extensively influenced each other’s culture. Scholars have discussed that it was found that Hindu practices in Sindh differed from orthodox Hinduism in the rest of India. Hinduism in Sindh was to a large extent influenced by Islam, Sikhism and Sufism. Sindh’s religious syncretism was a result of Sufism. Sufism was a vital component of Sindhi Muslim identity and Sindhi Hindus, more than Hindus in any other part of India, came under the influence of Sufi thought and practices and the majority of them were murids (followers) of Sufi Muslim saints.[30]

However, both the Muslim landed elite, waderas, and the Hindu commercial elements, banias, collaborated in oppressing the predominantly Muslim peasantry of Sindh who were economically exploited. In Sindh’s first provincial election after its separation from Bombay in 1936, economic interests were an essential factor of politics informed by religious and cultural issues.[31] Due to British policies, much land in Sindh was transferred from Muslim to Hindu hands over the decades.[32] Religious tensions rose in Sindh over the Sukkur Manzilgah issue where Muslims and Hindus disputed over an abandoned mosque in proximity to an area sacred to Hindus. The Sindh Muslim League exploited the issue and agitated for the return of the mosque to Muslims. Consequentially, a thousand members of the Muslim League were imprisoned. Eventually, due to panic the government restored the mosque to Muslims.[31]

The separation of Sindh from Bombay Presidency triggered Sindhi Muslim nationalists to support the Pakistan Movement. Even while the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province were ruled by parties hostile to the Muslim League, Sindh remained loyal to Jinnah.[33] Although the prominent Sindhi Muslim nationalist G.M. Syed left the All India Muslim League in the mid-1940s and his relationship with Jinnah never improved, the overwhelming majority of Sindhi Muslims supported the creation of Pakistan, seeing in it their deliverance.[26] Sindhi support for the Pakistan Movement arose from the desire of the Sindhi Muslim business class to drive out their Hindu competitors.[34] The Muslims League’s rise to becoming the party with the strongest support in Sindh was in large part linked to its winning over of the religious pir families. Although the Muslim Leaue had previously fared poorly in the 1937 elections in Sindh, when local Sindhi Muslim parties won more seats,[35] the Muslim League’s cultivation of support from the pirs and saiyids of Sindh in 1946 helped it gain a foothold in the province.[36]

In 1947, violence did not constitute a major part of the Sindhi partition experience, unlike in Punjab. There were very few incidents of violence on Sindh, in part due to the Sufi-influenced culture of religious tolerance and in part that Sindh was not divided and was instead made part of Pakistan in its entirety. Sindhi Hindus who left generally did so out of a fear of persecution, rather than persecution itself, because of the arrival of Muslim refugees from India. Sindhi Hindus differentiated between the local Sindhi Muslims and the migrant Muslims from India. A large number of Sindhi Hindus travelled to India by sea, to the ports of Bombay, Porbandar, Veraval and Okha.[37]

References

  1. ^ Singh 1988.
  2. ^ Singh 1988, pp. 2–3.
  3. ^ Panikkar 1964.
  4. ^ Chattopadhyaya 2003, p. 55.
  5. ^ Chattopadhyaya 2003, p. 56–57.
  6. ^ Sampson, Gareth C. (2008). The Defeat of Rome: Crassus, Carrhae and the Invasion of the East. Pen & Sword Books Limited. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-84415-676-4. Cyrus the Great, founder of the First Persian Empire (c. 550–330 BC).
  7. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-systems Research. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  8. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 121. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
  9. ^ Brzezinski, Zbigniew (2012). Strategic vision : America and the crisis of globalpower (PDF). New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465029556. OCLC 787847809.
  10. ^ Schmitt, Rüdiger (21 July 2011). "Achaemenid Dynasty". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  11. ^ a b Thorpe 2009, p. 33.
  12. ^ Chaurasia 2002, p. 126.
  13. ^ Tandle, pp. 269, 270.
  14. ^ a b El Hareir, Idris; Mbaye, Ravane (2012), The Spread of Islam Throughout the World, UNESCO, p. 602, ISBN 978-92-3-104153-2
  15. ^ El Hareir, Idris; Mbaye, Ravane (2012), The Spread of Islam Throughout the World, UNESCO, pp. 601–2, ISBN 978-92-3-104153-2
  16. ^ Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (1976), Readings in political history of India, ancient, mediaeval, and modern, B.R. Pub. Corp., on behalf of Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies, p. 216
  17. ^ Tripathi 1967, p. 337.
  18. ^ Asif 2016, p. 35.
  19. ^ Wink 2002, p. 203.
  20. ^ a b The Classical age, by R. C. Majumdar, p. 456
  21. ^ Asif 2016, p. 117.
  22. ^ Suvorova, Anna (2004), Muslim Saints of South Asia: The Eleventh to Fifteenth Centuries, Routledge, p. 218, ISBN 978-1-134-37006-1
  23. ^ Panikkar 1964, p. 115.
  24. ^ Wynbrandt 2009, p. 52-55.
  25. ^ a b c d e Roger D. Long; Gurharpal Singh; Yunas Samad; Ian Talbot (8 October 2015), State and Nation-Building in Pakistan: Beyond Islam and Security, Routledge, pp. 102–, ISBN 978-1-317-44820-4
  26. ^ a b I. Malik (3 June 1999), Islam, Nationalism and the West: Issues of Identity in Pakistan, Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 56–, ISBN 978-0-230-37539-0
  27. ^ Gail Minault (1982), The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India, Columbia University Press, pp. 105–, ISBN 978-0-231-05072-2
  28. ^ Ansari 1992, p. 77
  29. ^ Pakistan Historical Society (2007), Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, Pakistan Historical Society., p. 245
  30. ^ Priya Kumar & Rita Kothari (2016) Sindh, 1947 and Beyond, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 39:4, 775, DOI: 10.1080/00856401.2016.1244752
  31. ^ a b Jalal 2002, p. 415
  32. ^ Amritjit Singh; Nalini Iyer; Rahul K. Gairola (15 June 2016), Revisiting India's Partition: New Essays on Memory, Culture, and Politics, Lexington Books, pp. 127–, ISBN 978-1-4985-3105-4
  33. ^ Khaled Ahmed (18 August 2016), Sleepwalking to Surrender: Dealing with Terrorism in Pakistan, Penguin Books Limited, pp. 230–, ISBN 978-93-86057-62-4
  34. ^ Veena Kukreja (24 February 2003), Contemporary Pakistan: Political Processes, Conflicts and Crises, SAGE Publications, pp. 138–, ISBN 978-0-7619-9683-5
  35. ^ Ansari 1992, p. 115.
  36. ^ Ansari 1992, p. 122.
  37. ^ Priya Kumar & Rita Kothari (2016) Sindh, 1947 and Beyond, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 39:4, 776-777, DOI: 10.1080/00856401.2016.1244752

Sources

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_Empire

Abdullah Shah Ghazi

See also Ghazi and Gazi (disambiguation)

Abdullah Shah Ghazi (Arabic: عبد الله شاه غازي‎) (c. 720) was an eighth-century Muslim mystic and Sufi whose shrine is located in the Clifton neighbourhood of Karachi, Pakistan.

Arghun dynasty

The Arghun dynasty were a dynasty of either Mongol, Turkic or Turco-Mongol ethnicity, who ruled over the area between southern Afghanistan, and the Sindh province Pakistan from the late 15th century to the early 16th century. They claimed their descent and name from Ilkhanid-Mongol Arghun Khan. Arghun rule can be divided into two branches: the Arghun branch of Dhu'l-Nun Beg Arghun that ruled until 1554, and the Tarkhan branch of Muhammad 'Isa Tarkhan that ruled until 1591.

Battle of Halani

The Battle of Halani was fought in 1782 between the Baloch tribe Talpurs and the Sindhi tribe Kalhora for the control of the Sindh region, in modern-day Pakistan. The Talpurs, led by Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur, won the battle over Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro who became the last ruler of the Kalhora Dynasty.

The Kalhora dynasty of Nawabs were supported by the Durrani Emirate. While the Talpurs traced their roots back to Nader Shah had Qajar and possibly slight nominal support from the Great Mogul.

At the Battle of Halani both sides ferociously deployed the usage of gunpowder weaponry. The battle was described by a future chronicler with one word Atishfishan (meaning "blazing flame"), this battle was even fought between gunboats in the Indus river.

The Talpur dynasty ruled in Sindh until defeated by the British forces at the battle of Miani in 1843.

Battle of Hyderabad

The Battle of Dubbo, sometime called as The Battle of Hyderabad was fought on 24 March 1843 between the forces of British East India Company and the Talpur Emirs of Sindh near Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. A small British force, led by Captain James Outram, were attacked by the Talpurs and forced to make a fort of the British residence, which they successfully defended until they finally escaped to a waiting river steamer. After the British victory at Meeanee (also spelt Miani), Charles Napier continued his advance to the Indus River and attacked the Sindh capital of Hyderabad. Hyderabad was defended by 20,000 troops and baloch tribes under the command of His Highness Mir Sher Muhammad Khan Talpur "Sher-i-Sindh" and Hosh Mohammad sheedi. Charles Napier with a force of only 3,000 men but with artillery support stormed the city. During the battle Hosh Mohammad sheedi was killed and his forces routed; Talpurs resistance collapsed and Sindh came under British rule.

Battle of Miani

The Battle of Miani (or Battle of Meeanee) was a battle between forces of the Bombay Army of the British East India company, under Charles Napier and the Baluch army of Talpur Amirs of Sindh, led by Mir Nasir Khan Talpur. The Battle took place on 17 February 1843 at Miani, Sindh, in what is now Pakistan. This battle eventually led to the capture of parts of Sindh region, first territorial possession by British East India company in what is the modern-day country of Pakistan.

Bawarij

Bawarij (Sindhi: باوارج‎) were Sindhi pirates from Sindh named for their distinctive barja warships. They looted Arab shipping bound for the Indian subcontinent and China, but entirely converted to Islam during the rule of the Samma Dynasty (AD 1335–1520). They are mentioned by Ma'sudi as frequenting the pirate den at Socotra and other scholars describes them as pirates and sailors of Sindh.

Ibn Batuta describes their ships warships as having fifty rowers, and fifty men-at-arms and wooden roofs to protect against arrows and stones. Tabari describes them in an attack upon Basra in 866 CE as having one pilot (istiyam), three fire-throwers (naffatun), a baker, a carpenter and thirty-nine rowers and fighters making up a complement of forty-five. These ships were unsuited for warlike maneuvers and lacked the sleek prows or ramming capabilities of other contemporary naval units, but were intended to provide for hand-to-hand battles for crew upon boarding.

Debal

Debal (Sindhi: ديبل‎) was an ancient port located near modern Karachi, Pakistan. It is adjacent to the nearby Manora Island and was administered by Mansura, and later Thatta.

Dodo Bin Khafef Soomro III

Dodo Bin Khafif Soomro III (Sindhi: دودو بن خفيف سومرو ٽيون) was a ruler of Sindh. He was of Soomro Rajput origin; and he was father of Ahad Soomro. He was an Ismaili.

Kalhora

The Kalhoro/Kalhora (written in Sindhi: ڪلهوڙو/ڪلهوڙا) is a Sindhi tribe. They founded the Kalhora Dynasty that ruled the Sindh stretched from Karachi to Multan and Dera Ghazi Khan for nearly a century from 1701 – 1783 CE.

Karachi Metropolitan Corporation Building

The Karachi Metropolitan Corporation (KMC) Building is a historic building located at M. A. Jinnah road in Karachi. The foundation stone for the building was laid in 1927, construction was completed in 1930, and it was inaugurated in 1932.In January 2007, the City District Government of Karachi celebrated the 75th Anniversary of the building. The building went through a major renovation project which included repairing of the clock tower. Events organized around the theme of "Hamara Karachi Festival 2007" included Mushaira, exhibitions, and cultural and social activities.

Kolachi (port)

Kolachi (Urdu: کولاچی ‎) was also a port located at modern Karachi and the old name of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. According to legends, it was a port developed when an old fisherwoman by the name of Mai Kolachi settled near the delta of the Indus River to start a community. One of the main Flyover (overpass) in Karachi has been named after Mai Kolachi. This settlement was also known as "Kolachi jo Goth" or "the village of the Kolachi".

Rai dynasty

The Rai Dynasty (c. 524–632 CE) was a power during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Sindh, in modern Pakistan. The dynasty at its height of power ruled much of the Northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent. The influence of the Rais extended from Kashmir in the east, Makran and Debal port (modern Karachi) in the west, Surat port in the south, and the Kandahar, Sulaiman, Ferdan and Kikanan hills in the north. It ruled an area of over 600,000 square miles (1,553,993 km2), and the dynasty reigned a period of 143 years.The Battle of Rasil in 644 played a crucial role in their decline. The battle resulted in the Makran coast being annexed by Rashidun Caliphate. The book Chach Nama chronicles the final demise of the Rai dynasty and the ascent of the Hindu Chach of Alor to the throne.

The emperors of this dynasty were great patrons of Buddhism. They established a formidable temple of Shiva in present-day Sukkur, Pakistan, close to their capital in Aror. This is consistent with the historical accounts from the times of Ashoka and Harsha, as numerous monarchs from the Indian Subcontinent never sponsored a state religion and usually patronised all Dharmic religions.

Raja Dahir

Raja Dahar (Sindhi: راجا ڏاھر‎; Sanskrit: राजा दाहिर, IAST: Rājā Dāhir; 663 – 712 CE) was the last Hindu ruler of the Brahmin Dynasty of Sindh (present-day Pakistan) in the northern region of the Indian subcontinent. In 711 CE, his kingdom was conquered by the Ummayad Caliphate led by General Muhammad bin Qasim. He was killed at the Battle of Aror at the banks of the Indus River, near modern-day Nawabshah.

Ror dynasty

The Ror dynasty (Sindhi: روهڙا راڄ‎) was a power from the Indian subcontinent that ruled modern-day Sindh and northwest India from 450 BC. The Rors ruled from Rori and was built by Dhaj, Ror Kumar, a Ror Kshatriya, in the 5th century BCE. Rori has been known by names such as Roruka and Rorik since antiquity. As capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, Roruka is mentioned as an important trading center in early Buddhist literature. Buddhist Jataka stories talk about exchanges of gifts between King Rudrayan of Roruka and King Bimbisara of Magadha. Divyavadana, the Buddhist chronicle has said that Ror historically competed with Pataliputra in terms of political influence. The scholar T.W. Rhys Davids has mentioned Roruka as one of the most important cities of India in the 7th century BCE.Shortly after the reign of Rudrayan, in the times of his son Shikhandi, Roruka got wiped out in a major sand storm. This event is recorded in both Buddhist (Bhallatiya Jataka) and Jain annals. It was then that the legendary Dhaj, Ror Kumar (Rai Diyach in Sindhi folklore) built Rori Shankar, Rohri and Sukkur in Pakistan in the year 450 BC.

Sind Division

The Sind Division was the name an administrative division of the British Raj located in Sindh.

Sind Province (1936–55)

Sind was a province of British India from 1936 to 1947 and Pakistan from 1947 to 1955. Under the British, it encompassed the current territorial limits excluding the princely state of Khairpur with the capital at Karachi. After Pakistan's creation, the province lost the city of Karachi, as it became the capital of the newly created country.

Sindhi nationalism

Sindhi nationalism also known as Sindhi Nationalist Movement (Sindhi: سنڌي قومپرستي يا سنڌي قومي تحريڪ) was launched in the 1950s to struggle against One Unit. After Bangladesh became independent in 1971, G.M. Syed gave a new direction to nationalism and founded the Jeay Sindh Mahaz in 1972 and presented the idea of Sindhudesh; a separate homeland for Sindhis. G.M. Syed is considered as the founder of modern Sindhi nationalism.

Soomra dynasty

The Soomra dynasty were rulers from the Indian subcontinent, based at Thatta. Although communal stories state them to be of Arab origin, academics say that they were Rajputs. Beginning with the reign of Soomar, the dynasty ruled in the Sindh region of the Indian subcontinent (present-day Pakistan) from 1026 to 1356.The Habbari dynasty became semi independent and was eliminated and Mansura was invaded by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi. Sindh then became an easternmost State of the Abbasid Caliphate ruled by the Soomro Dynasty until the Siege of Baghdad (1258). Mansura was the first capital of the Soomra dynasty and the last of the Habbari dynasty.

The Soomro tribe revolted against Masud, ruler of the Ghaznavids because they were betrayed by their own wazir. They were superseded by the Samma dynasty. Sindhi language prospered during this period. The Soomra dynasty ended when the last Soomra king was defeated by Alauddin Khalji, the second king of the Khalji dynasty ruling from Delhi.

Talpur

Talpur (Balochi: تالپورء اۏبادگ‎) is a Sindhi speaking Baloch tribe settled in Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan in Pakistan.

The Talpur Baloch soon gained power and overthrew the Kalhora after the Battle of Halani. Peace between the two warring tribes was soon established and in the year 1783, His Highness Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur as the new Amir of Sindh. This brought an end to the ferocious fighting and the defeat of the ruling Kalhora by the Talpur tribes.

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