History of Rhode Island

The history of Rhode Island is an overview of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations and the state of Rhode Island from pre-colonial times to the present.

Pre-colonization

King Philip's Seat
King Philip's Seat, an Indian meeting place on Mount Hope, (Rhode Island)

Indians occupied most of the area comprising Rhode Island, including the Wampanoag, Narragansett, and Niantic tribes.[1] Many were killed by diseases, possibly contracted through contact with European explorers (though no definitive source has been proven), and through warfare with other tribes. The Narragansett language eventually died out, although it was partially preserved in Roger Williams's A Key into the Languages of America (1643).[2]

Rhode Island Colony period: 1636–1776

Providence, Rhode Island, Original Deed
The original 1636 deed to Providence, signed by Chief Canonicus

In 1636, Roger Williams settled on land granted to him by the Narragansett tribe at the tip of Narragansett Bay after being banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious views. He called the site "Providence Plantations" and declared it a place of religious freedom.

In 1638, Anne Hutchinson, William Coddington, John Clarke, Philip Sherman, and other religious dissidents settled on Rhode Island after conferring with Williams,[3] forming the settlement of Portsmouth which was governed by the Portsmouth Compact. The southern part of the island became the separate settlement of Newport after disagreements among the founders.

Dissident Samuel Gorton purchased Indian lands at Shawomet in 1642, precipitating a dispute with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1644, Providence, Portsmouth, and Newport united for their common independence as the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, governed by an elected council and president. The King of England granted Gorton a separate charter for his settlement in 1648, and Gorton named the settlement Warwick in honor of the Earl of Warwick who had helped him obtain it.[4] These four settlements were finally united into one colony by the Royal Charter of 1663. Critics at the time sometimes referred to it as "Rogue's Island",[5] and Cotton Mather called it "the sewer of New England" because of the Colony's willingness to accept people who had been banished from Massachusetts Bay.[6]

In 1686, King James II ordered Rhode Island to submit to the Dominion of New England and its appointed governor Edmund Andros. This suspended the Colony's charter, but Rhode Island managed to retain possession of it throughout the brief duration of the Dominion—until Andros was deposed and the Dominion was dissolved.[7] William of Orange became King after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and Rhode Island's independent government resumed under the 1663 charter—and that charter was used as the state constitution until 1842.[8]

In 1693, William III and Mary II issued a patent extending Rhode Island's territory to three miles "east and northeast" of Narragansett Bay, conflicting with the claims of Plymouth Colony.[9] This resulted in several later transfers of territory between Rhode Island and Massachusetts.

Colonial relations with Indians

Roger Williams and Narragansetts
Roger Williams meeting with the Narragansetts

The early relationship between New Englanders and Indians was mostly peaceable. The largest tribes that lived near Rhode Island were the Wampanoags, Pequots, Narragansetts, and Nipmucks. Squanto was a member of the Wampanoag tribe who stayed with the Pilgrims in Plymouth Colony and taught them many valuable skills needed to survive in the area.

Roger Williams won the respect of his Colonial neighbors for his skill in keeping the powerful Narragansetts on friendly terms with the Colonists. In 1637, the Narragansetts formed an alliance with Rhode Island during the Pequot War. However, this peace did not last long, as the most traumatic event in 17th century Rhode Island was King Philip's War (1675–76). Metacomet became the chief of the Wampanoags; he was known as King Philip by the settlers of Portsmouth who had purchased their land from his father Massasoit. He led attacks around Narragansett Bay, despite Rhode Island's continued neutrality, and later these spread throughout New England. A force of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Plymouth militia under General Josiah Winslow invaded and destroyed the fortified Narragansett Indian village in the Great Swamp in southern Rhode Island on December 19, 1675.[10] The Narragansetts also invaded and burned down several of the Rhode Island settlements, including Providence, although they allowed the population to leave first. In one of the final actions of the war, troops from Connecticut led by Captain Benjamin Church hunted down and killed King Philip at Mount Hope (Rhode Island).

Revolutionary era, 1775–1790

John Greenwood - Sea Captains Carousing in Surinam
Governor Joseph Wanton (being doused with punch and vomit) and other prominent Rhode Islanders in John Greenwood's painting Sea Captains Carousing in Surinam (1755)

Rhode Island was the first colony in America to declare independence on May 4, 1776, a full two months before the United States Declaration of Independence.[11] Rhode Islanders had attacked the British warship HMS Gaspee in 1772 as one of the first acts of war leading to the American Revolution. British naval forces under Captain James Wallace controlled Narragansett Bay for much of the Revolutionary War, periodically raiding the islands and the mainland. The British raided Prudence Island for livestock and engaged in a skirmish with American forces, losing approximately a dozen soldiers. Newport remained a hotbed for Loyalist sympathizers who assisted the British forces, so the state appointed General William West of Scituate to root them out in the winter of 1775–76. British forces occupied Newport from 1777 to 1778, pushing the Colonial forces to Bristol.

The Battle of Rhode Island was fought during the summer of 1778 and was an unsuccessful attempt to expel the British from Narragansett Bay, although few Colonial casualties occurred. The Marquis de Lafayette called the action the "best fought" of the war. The British were forced to concentrate their forces in New York and consequently left Newport. The French under Rochambeau landed in Newport in 1780, and it became the base of the French forces in the United States for the remainder of the war. The French soldiers behaved themselves so well that, in gratitude, the Rhode Island General Assembly repealed an old law banning Catholics from living in Rhode Island. The first Catholic mass in Rhode Island was said in Newport during this time.

The State of Rhode Island was the last of the 13 states to ratify the United States Constitution (May 29, 1790), only doing so after being threatened with having its exports taxed as a foreign nation. Rural resistance to the Constitution was strong in Rhode Island, and the anti-federalist Country Party controlled the General Assembly from 1786 to 1790. In 1788, anti-federalist politician and Revolutionary War General William West led an armed force of 1,000 men to Providence to oppose a July 4 celebration of the state ratifying the Constitution.[12] Civil war was narrowly averted by a compromise limiting the Fourth of July celebration.

Slavery in Rhode Island

North Smithfield
A typical 19th-century Rhode Island farm in North Smithfield

Rhode Island was heavily involved in the slave trade during the post-Revolutionary era prior to industrialization. In 1652, Rhode Island passed the first abolition law in the Thirteen Colonies banning slavery,[13] but the law was not enforced by the end of the 17th century. By 1774, the slave population of Rhode Island was 6.3 percent, nearly twice as high as any other New England colony. In the late 18th century, several Rhode Island merchant families began actively engaging in the triangle trade, most notably the Browns for whom Brown University is named. In the years after the Revolution, Rhode Island merchants controlled between 60 and 90 percent of the American trade in African slaves.[14] In the 18th century, Rhode Island's economy depended largely upon the triangle trade; Rhode Islanders distilled rum from molasses, sent the rum to Africa to trade for slaves, and then traded the slaves in the West Indies for more molasses.

Stephen Hopkins, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, introduced a bill while serving in the Rhode Island Assembly in 1774 that prohibited the importation of slaves into the colony, and this became one of the first anti-slavery laws in the United States. In February 1784, the Rhode Island Legislature passed a compromise measure for gradual emancipation of slaves within the state. All children of slaves born after March 1 were to become apprentices, the girls to become free at 18, the boys at 21. By 1840, the census reported only five former Africans enslaved in Rhode Island.[14] However, the international slave trade continued despite the antislavery laws of 1774, 1784, and 1787. In 1789, an Abolition Society was organized to secure enforcement of existing laws against the trade. Leading merchants continued to engage in the trade even after it became illegal, especially John Brown and George DeWolf, but slaving was no more than a minor aspect of Rhode Island's overall maritime trade after 1770.[15] By the mid-19th century, many Rhode Islanders were active in the abolitionist movement, particularly Quakers in Newport and Providence such as Moses Brown.[16] The Free African Union Society was America’s first African benevolent society, founded in Newport in 1780.[17]

Industrial Revolution

Samuel Slater industrialist
Samuel Slater (1768–1835), popularly called "the father of the American Industrial Revolution"

In 1790, English immigrant Samuel Slater founded the first textile mill in the United States in Pawtucket, Rhode Island (Slater Mill) and became known as the father of the American Industrial Revolution. During the 19th century, Rhode Island became one of the most industrialized states in America with large numbers of textile factories. The state also had significant machine tool, silverware, and costume jewelry industries.[18]

The Industrial Revolution moved large numbers of workers into cities and attracted large numbers of immigrants from Ireland, and a landless class developed which was ineligible to vote by Rhode Island law. By 1829, 60-percent of the state's men were ineligible to vote. All efforts at reform failed in the face of rural control of the political system. In 1842, Thomas Dorr drafted a liberal constitution which he tried to ratify by popular referendum. However, conservative Governor Samuel Ward King opposed the constitution, leading to the Dorr Rebellion. The rebellion gained little support and failed, and Dorr went to prison. The conservative elements relented, however, and allowed most American-born men to vote, but the conservative rural towns remained in control of the legislature.[19] The new Constitution of Rhode Island took effect in May 1843.[20]

Civil War

During the American Civil War, Rhode Island furnished 25,236 fighting men to the Union armies, of which 1,685 died. These comprised 12 infantry regiments, three cavalry regiments, and an assortment of artillery and miscellaneous outfits. Rhode Island used its industrial capacity to supply the Union Army with the materials needed to win the war, along with the other northern states. Rhode Island's continued growth and modernization led to the creation of an urban mass transit system and improved health and sanitation programs. In 1866, Rhode Island abolished racial segregation throughout the state.[21] Governor William Sprague IV fought at the First Battle of Bull Run while a sitting governor, and Rhode Island general Ambrose Burnside emerged as one of the major heroes of the war.

The Gilded Age

Nelson W. Aldrich
Nelson W. Aldrich pushed for protectionist tariffs

The fifty or so years following the Civil War were a time of prosperity and affluence that author William G. McLoughlin called "Rhode Island's halcyon era."[22] Rhode Island was a center of the Gilded Age and provided a home (or summer home) to the many of the country's most prominent robber barons.[22] This was a time of incredible growth in textile mills and manufacturing, and saw a huge influx of immigrants to fill those jobs.[22] The state saw increased population growth and urbanization, even as the state denied the growing urban masses access to political power.[22] In politics, the state was dominated by Republicans allied with their mouthpiece newspaper, The Providence Journal.[22] The Journal's editor Henry B. Anthony and his later protege Nelson Aldrich, along with war hero Ambrose Burnside, all Republicans, dominated politics during this time. Aldrich, as US Senator, became known as the "General Manager of the United States," for his ability to set high tariffs to protect Rhode Island — and American — goods from foreign competition.[22]

In Newport, New York's wealthiest industrialists created a summer haven to socialize and build ostentatious grand mansions.[22] In Providence, Pawtucket, Central Falls, and Woonsocket, thousands of French-Canadian, Italian, Irish, and Portuguese immigrants arrived to fill jobs in the textile and manufacturing mills.[22] In response, the Know Nothing party, allied with the Republicans and the Providence Journal, sought to exclude these newcomers from the political process.[22] The constitution of 1843 denied the vote to the landless poor, and ensured that urban centers were disproportionately underrepresented in the state legislature.[22]

Around the start of the 20th century, Rhode Island had a booming economy, which fed the demand for immigration. During World War I, Rhode Island furnished 28,817 troops, of whom 612 died. After the war, the state was hit hard by the Spanish Influenza.[23]

In the 1920s and 30s, rural Rhode Island saw a surge in Ku Klux Klan membership, largely among the native-born white population, in reaction to the large waves of immigrants moving to the state. The Klan is believed to be responsible for burning the Watchman Industrial School in Scituate, Rhode Island, which was a school for African American children.[24]

Since 1929

Theodore Francis GREEN
U.S. Senator and Governor, T.F. Green

In 1935, Governor Theodore Francis Green and Democratic majorities in the state House and Senate replaced a Republican dominance that had existed since the middle of the 19th century in what is termed the "Bloodless Revolution." The Rhode Island Democratic Party has dominated state politics ever since.[25][26] Since then, the Speaker of the House has always been a Democrat and one of the most powerful figures in government.

The Democratic Party presents itself as a coalition of labor unions, working class immigrants, intellectuals, college students, and the rising ethnic middle class. The Republican Party has been dominant in rural and suburban parts of the state, and has nominated occasional reform candidates who criticize the state's high taxes and excesses of Democratic domination. Cranston Mayors Edward D. DiPrete and Stephen Laffey, Governor Donald Carcieri of East Greenwich, and former Mayor Vincent A. "Buddy" Cianci of Providence ran as Republican reform candidates.

The state income tax was first enacted in 1971 as a temporary measure. Prior to 1971, there was no income tax in the state, but the temporary income tax soon became permanent. The tax burden in Rhode Island remains among the five highest in the United States, including sales, gasoline, property, cigarette, corporate, and capital gains taxes.[27][28]

A new Constitution of Rhode Island was ratified in 1986 and came into effect on 20 January 1987.[29][30]

Rhode Islanders have overwhelmingly supported and re-elected Democrats to positions of authority, where issues are promoted involving education, health care, and liberal causes. As of 2014 Rhode Island has heavily Democrat-controlled legislatures; both U.S. Senators and Congressmen, and all statewide offices are held by Democrats. The state has been carried by Democrat presidential candidates in every election since 1988.[31]

Population

Historical population
Census Pop.
179068,825
180069,1220.4%
181076,93111.3%
182083,0598.0%
183097,19917.0%
1840108,83012.0%
1850147,54535.6%
1860174,62018.4%
1870217,35324.5%
1880276,53127.2%
1890345,50624.9%
1900428,55624.0%
1910542,61026.6%
1920604,39711.4%
1930687,49713.7%
20101,052,567

See also

Regarding border disputes

References

  1. ^ O'Brien, Francis J. (2004) Bibliography for Studies of American Indians in and Around Rhode Island, 16th – 21st Centuries
  2. ^ berkeley.edu website
  3. ^ This is the largest island in Narragansett Bay, called Aquidneck Island today.
  4. ^ Charter of Rhode Island (1663)
  5. ^ Marty, Martin E. (1985-08-06). Pilgrims in Their Own Land: 500 Years of Religion in America. Penguin (Non-Classics). p. 77. ISBN 0-14-008268-9.
  6. ^ Mike Stanton, "Rhode Island: The Story Behind the Numbers," http://www.stateintegrity.org/rhodeisland_story_subpage
  7. ^ Alan Taylor, American Colonies, (2001), pp. 276–284
  8. ^ Sean Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln, (2005), p. 540.
  9. ^ The Rhode Islander: The border is ... where? Part II
  10. ^ King Philip's War Archived 2007-10-26 at the Wayback Machine in historyplace.com
  11. ^ The North American Review, "Hunter's Oration," Published by Oliver Everett, 1826, Item notes: v.23(1826), pg.457 [1]
  12. ^ William R. Staples, Annals of the Town of Providence from its First Settlement to the Organization of the City Government in June 1832 (Providence, 1843), p. 332 (Rhode Island Historical Society Collections, accessed on Google Book Search July 18, 2008)
  13. ^ John Carter Brown Library Exhibitions
  14. ^ a b Slavery in Rhode Island
  15. ^ J. Stanley Lemons, "Rhode Island and the Slave Trade," Rhode Island History, Nov 2002, Vol. 60 Issue 4, pp 94–104,
  16. ^ Providence Journal | Rhode Island news, sports, weather & more – Providence Journal
  17. ^ Stokes, Keith (19 December 2017). "R.I.'s former slaves achieved great things". The Providence Journal. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  18. ^ Peter J. Coleman, The Transformation of Rhode Island, 1790–1860 (1963).
  19. ^ George M. Dennison, The Dorr War: Republicanism on Trial, 1831–1861 (1976)
  20. ^ Rhode Island 1663 charter (accessed August 20, 2010)
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-02-03. Retrieved 2006-03-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Accessed 3/28/06
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j McLoughlin, William G (1986). Rhode Island: A History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 148–168. ISBN 0393302717.
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-03-02. Retrieved 2006-03-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Accessed 3/28/06
  24. ^ Robert Smith, In The 1920s the Klan Ruled the Countryside, The Rhode Island Century, The Providence Journal, 4/26/1999
  25. ^ MacKay, Scott (23 May 2010). "Fighting Bob Quinn and the Bloodless Revolution". RIPR website. Rhode Island Public Radio. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  26. ^ Nesi, Ted (1 January 2013). "New Year's Day marks 78 years since RI 'Bloodless Revolution'". WPRI.com. WPRI Eyewitness News. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  27. ^ "CHAPTER VIII, The Era of Transition. 1946–1983". State of Rhode Island General Assembly. 2009-12-29. Archived from the original on 2012-09-02.
  28. ^ Fred Brock, Retire on Less Than You Think: The New York Times Guide to Planning Your Financial Future (Macmillan, 2007) https://books.google.com/books?id=xkJvS7juYXwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s
  29. ^ 1986 Providence Journal-Bulletin Rhode Island Almanac, pages 142–143
  30. ^ 1997 Providence Journal-Bulletin Rhode Island Almanac, page 24
  31. ^ Ronald J. Hrebenar, S. Thomas Clive S. Thomas Interest Group Politics (Penn State Press, 2004) pg. 301–305 ISBN 027102576X, 9780271025766 https://books.google.com/books?id=CH5bjzuQ2eAC&source=gbs_navlinks_s
  32. ^ Federal Writers' Project (1937), "Chronology", Rhode Island, American Guide Series, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, OCLC 691847

Bibliography

  • Aubin, Albert K. The French in Rhode Island (Rhode Island Heritage Commission, 1988).
  • Coleman, Peter J. The Transformation of Rhode Island, 1790–1860 (1963). online edition
  • Conley, Patrick T. The Irish in Rhode Island (Rhode Island Heritage Commission, 1988).
  • Coughtry, Jay A. The Notorious Triangle: Rhode Island and the African Slave Trade, 1700–1807 (1981).
  • Crane, Elaine Forman. A Dependent People: Newport, Rhode Island in the Revolutionary Era (Fordham University Press, (1992) online edition
  • Dennison, George M. The Dorr War: Republicanism on Trial, 1831–1861 (1976) online edition
  • Field, Edward. State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (3 vols. 1902).
  • Hall, Donald, foreword, Feintuch, Burt and Watters, David H., editors, Encyclopedia of New England (2005), comprehensive coverage by scholars
  • James, Sidney V. Colonial Rhode Island: A History (1975).
  • Levine, Erwin L. Theodore Francis Green, The Rhode Island Years (Brown University Press, 1963)
  • Lockard, Duane. New England State Politics (1959) pp 172–227; covers 1932–1958
  • Lovejoy, David. Rhode Island Politics and the American Revolution, 1760–1776 (1958). online edition
  • McLoughlin, William G. Rhode Island: A History (States and the Nation) (1976) excerpt and text search
  • Mayer, Kurt B. Economic Development and Population Growth in Rhode Island (1953).
  • Moakley, Maureen, and Elmer Cornwell. Rhode Island Politics and Government (2001) online edition
  • Morse, J. (1797). "Rhode Island". The American Gazetteer. Boston, Massachusetts: At the presses of S. Hall, and Thomas & Andrews.
  • Peirce, Neal R. The New England States: People, Politics, and Power in the Six New England States (1976) pp 141–81; updated in Neal R. Peirce and Jerry Hagstrom, The Book of America: Inside the Fifty States Today (1983) pp 187–92
  • Polishook, Irwin. Rhode Island and the Union (1969).
  • Preston, Howard W. Rhode Island and the Sea (1932).
  • Santoro, Carmela E. The Italians in Rhode Island: The Age of Exploration to the Present, 1524–1989 (Rhode Island Heritage Commission, 1990),
  • Weeden, William B. Early Rhode Island: A Social History of the People (1910).
  • Withey, Lynne E. Urban Growth in Colonial Rhode Island: Newport and Providence in the Eighteenth Century (1984).
  • WPA (Works Progress Administration). Rhode Island: A Guide to the Smallest State (1937), famous guide to state & every town & city

External links

10th Coast Artillery (United States)

The 10th Coast Artillery Regiment was a Coast Artillery regiment in the United States Army. It primarily served as the Regular Army coast artillery component of the Harbor Defenses (HD) of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island from 1924 through 1944, when it was relieved and disbanded as part of an Army-wide reorganization.

243rd Coast Artillery (United States)

The 243rd Coast Artillery Regiment was a Coast Artillery Corps regiment in the Rhode Island National Guard. It garrisoned the Harbor Defenses of Narragansett Bay (HD Narragansett Bay), Rhode Island 1924–1944.

Blackstone Canal

The Blackstone Canal was a waterway linking Worcester, Massachusetts, to Providence, Rhode Island (and Narragansett Bay) through the Blackstone Valley via a series of locks and canals during the early 19th century.

Blackstone Valley

The Blackstone Valley or Blackstone River Valley is a region of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. It was a major factor in the American Industrial Revolution. It makes up part of the Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor.

Block Island Historical Society

The Block Island Historical Society is a historical society which runs a museum at 18 Old Town Road and Ocean Avenue on Block Island (New Shoreham) in Rhode Island.

The Block Island Historical Society Museum was founded in 1942. The museum is located within Woonsocket House, a large house built in 1871. It was purchased in 1945, and numerous artifacts related to Block Island's history from "early maritime and farming displays to colonial memorabilia and scenes from Victorian summer past times. Two floors of exhibit rooms include fine furniture, textiles, quilts, boat models, tools, fishing gear, Native American artifacts, oral history tapes and other interesting displays." The museum is open daily during the summer and by appointment during the remainder of the year.

Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations

The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. It was an English colony from 1636 until 1707, and then a colony of Great Britain until the American Revolution in 1776, when it became the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (commonly known simply as Rhode Island).

Constitution of Rhode Island

The Constitution of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations is a document describing the structure and function of the government of the U.S. State of Rhode Island.

Law and Order Party of Rhode Island

The Law and Order Party of Rhode Island was a short-lived political party in the U.S. state of Rhode Island in the 1840s, brought into existence as a consequence of the Dorr Rebellion.

List of colonial governors of Rhode Island

This is a list of the judges, presidents, and governors of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations from 1638 to 1776.

Lower South Providence, Providence, Rhode Island

The Lower South Side (or Lower South Providence) is a neighborhood in the southern part of Providence, Rhode Island. It is bounded by Public Street to the north (bordering Upper South Providence), by Interstate 95 to the south (bordering Washington Park), by Broad Street to the west (bordering Elmwood), and by the Providence River to the east.

Operation Plunder Dome

Operation Plunder Dome was the codename of an undercover investigation by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation into corruption within the government of the City of Providence, Rhode Island.

The operation first became public when the FBI executed a search warrant on Providence City Hall on April 28, 1999.

The investigations that followed ultimately led to the indictment and subsequent conviction on federal criminal charges against a number of city officials including the 2002 indictment of then-Mayor Vincent "Buddy" Cianci, Jr..Frank Corrente (R) Chief of Administration for Providence, was found guilty of extortion and bribery and sentenced to 56 months in prison.During the case, an investigative reporter for WJAR, a NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Providence, Rhode Island, Jim Taricani, refused to reveal who leaked a surveillance tape to him. He was convicted of criminal contempt of court on November 18, 2004, and sentenced on December 9, 2004 to six months of home confinement.

Paleontology in Rhode Island

Paleontology in Rhode Island refers to paleontological research occurring within or conducted by people from the U.S. state of Rhode Island. Rhode Island has a relatively sparse fossil record. Among its more common fossils are plant remains that are frequently associated with the state's coal beds. During the early Paleozoic, Rhode Island was at least partially submerged under a sea inhabited by trilobites. During the Carboniferous period the state became a swampy environment where lush vegetation included trees more than 50 feet high. Local animal life included arachnids and insects like cockroaches. Rift basins formed locally during the Permian. The ensuing Triassic and Jurassic periods are absent from the state's rock record. Little is known about the state's Cretaceous history. The Paleogene and Neogene periods are also missing from Rhode Island's rock record. During the Pleistocene the state was subjected to glacial activity. Notable local fossil finds have included previously unknown kinds of insect and abundant ancient amphibian trackways.

Portsmouth Compact

The Portsmouth Compact was a document signed on March 7, 1638 that established the settlement of Portsmouth, which is now a town in the state of Rhode Island. It was the first document in American history that severed both political and religious ties with England.

Prescott Farm

Prescott Farm is a historic preservation of a colonial farm in Middletown (Newport County), Rhode Island. It spans 40 acres, and was in danger of demolition before Doris Duke, through the Newport Restoration Foundation bought it in 1973 and began restoration of the historical site. Notable features of it include an operational windmill (c. 1812), British General Prescott's Guard House, a county store (c. 1715), and a University of Rhode Island Master Gardener project with the purpose of simulating a historical vegetable garden through careful research on what crops where grown during that time period. The farm itself is typical of the farms on Aquidneck Island.

Ratification of the United States Constitution by Rhode Island

The ratification of the United States Constitution by Rhode Island was the 1790 decision by the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations ("Rhode Island") to accede to the United States Constitution. It was a controversial process which occurred only after the United States threatened a trade embargo against Rhode Island for non-compliance.

Rhode Island Historical Society

The Rhode Island Historical Society is a privately endowed membership organization, founded in 1822, dedicated to collecting, preserving, and sharing the history of Rhode Island. Its offices are located in Providence, Rhode Island.

Rhode Island pound

The pound was the currency of Rhode Island until 1793. Initially, the British pound and foreign coins circulated, supplemented by local paper money from 1710. These notes were denominated in pounds, shillings, and pence, but they were worth less than sterling, with 1 Rhode Island shilling = 9 pence sterling. The first issue of notes was known as the "Old Tenor" issue. This fell in value and "New Tenor" notes were introduced in 1740, worth four times the Old Tenor notes. Both Old and New Tenor notes were replaced in 1763 by "Lawful money" at a rate of 1 Lawful shilling = 6⅔ New Tenor shillings = 26⅔ old Tenor shills.

The state of Rhode Island issued Continental currency denominated in £sd and Spanish dollars, with 1 dollar = 6 shillings. The continental currency was replaced by the U.S. dollar at a rate of 1,000 continental dollars = 1 U.S. dollar.

Swamp Yankee

Swamp Yankee is a colloquial pejorative for rural Yankees (northeastern Americans with English colonial ancestry). The term "Yankee" connotes urbane industriousness, whereas the term "Swamp Yankee" suggests a more countrified, stubborn, independent, and less-refined subtype.

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