History of Ferrari

Ferrari is an Italian company which has produced sports cars since 1947, but traces its roots back to 1929 when Enzo Ferrari formed the Scuderia Ferrari racing team.

Unlike many similar yet independent companies, Fiat Group-owned Ferrari continued to thrive after the death of its charismatic founder and is today one of the most successful sports car companies in the world. In January 2016, Ferrari officially split off from its former parent company Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.

1929-1937 - Scuderia Ferrari

Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. The Scuderia bought, prepared and fielded racing cars for gentleman drivers. It rapidly became a technical-racing outpost of Alfa Romeo and effectively took over as its official racing department in 1933 when Alfa Romeo withdrew its in-house racing team. The Scuderia was then supplied with Alfa Romeo P3 monopostos and fielded many famous drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi. The Ferrari's monopostos were now sporting the Prancing Horse shield on the engine cover. In 1935 the Ferrari's workshop designed and built its first race car, the Alfa Romeo Bimotore, taking the first steps on the route to become a car manufacturer.[1] Moreover, during 1937 the first examples of Alfetta 158 were assembled in Modena under Enzo Ferrari's supervision.[1] In 1938 Alfa Romeo brought its racing operation again in-house, forming Alfa Corse in Milano and hired Enzo Ferrari as manager of the new racing department. At the same time the Scuderia Ferrari was disbanded.

1939-1946 - Auto Avio Costruzioni

On September 6, 1939, Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he won't use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years.[2] A few days later he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari in Modena.[2] The new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft parts but in 1940 Ferrari did in fact build two examples of a race car – the Auto Avio Costruzioni 815, based on a Fiat 508C platform. It was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since. During the war the company's focus was mostly on fabricating grinding machines which were copies of original German tooling machines.[2] The factory was bombed by the Allies between 1944 and 1945, but it was quickly rebuilt.[2] In late 1945, after the war ended, Ferrari commissioned Gioacchino Colombo the design of a new V12 engine. In December 1946 Ferrari released to the press the specifications and drawings of his new car.[2]

1947-1961 - The beginning

The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947 125 Sport, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine. On March 12, Enzo Ferrari took the car out for its first test-drive on the open roads. Two examples debuted on May 11, 1947 at the Piacenza racing circuit, driven by Franco Cortese and Nino Farina. This was the first time a Ferrari-badged car was entered in a race. In 1950, Ferrari fielded racing cars in the Monaco Grand Prix, the first World Championship event held there. José Froilán González won the first Grand Prix for Ferrari in 1951, and Alberto Ascari secured Ferrari's first World title in 1952, a task he would repeat the following season. In 1957 the company changed its name to Auto Costruzioni Ferrari.

1961 - The great walkout

Enzo Ferrari's strong personality had served his company and racing team, Scuderia Ferrari, well for decades. Internal tensions reached boiling point in November 1961. Long-time sales manager Girolamo Gardini had long chafed at the involvement of Enzo's wife, Laura, in the company. The two frequently argued, and their dispute became a crisis for the company when Gardini, together with manager Romolo Tavoni, chief engineer Carlo Chiti, experimental sports car development chief Giotto Bizzarrini, made an ultimatum to Ferrari, demanding the removal of his wife from the company in a letter.

As a result, Ferrari called a meeting where Gardini, Tavoni, Chiti, Bizzarrini and a number of others who stood by them were ousted. All were tremendous losses to the company, and many thought this might be the end of Ferrari. Indeed, the defectors immediately formed a new company, ATS, to directly compete with Ferrari on the street and the track, and took with them Scuderia Serenissima, one of Ferrari's best racing customers.

This "great walkout" came at an especially difficult time for Ferrari. At the urging of Chiti, the company was developing a new 250-based model to defend its honor against the Jaguar E-Type. Development of this car, the 250 GTO, was at a critical point, with the chassis development and styling left incomplete. Even if the car could be finished, it was unclear if it could be raced successfully without Tavoni and his lieutenants.

Into this void stepped young engineer Mauro Forghieri and long-time racing bodyman Sergio Scaglietti.[3] Forghieri successfully honed the GTO's handling and Scaglietti designed an all-new body for the car. The GTO went to Sebring with driver Phil Hill and placed first in class. It continued winning through 1962, brushing aside the challenge from Jaguar and becoming one of the most famous sports cars in history.

This shakeup, and Forghieri's engineering talent, made the 1960s even more successful for Ferrari than the previous decade. The mid-engined Dino racers laid the foundation for Forghieri's dominant 250-powered 250 P. On the street, the Dino road cars sold strongly, and legendary models like the 275 and Daytona were on the way.

1963-1967 - The US rivals

The big V8-powered Shelby Cobra challenged the Ferraris in the early 1960s. By mid the 1960s, Ford tried to buy Ferrari but no agreement was reached. Instead, the Ford GT40 ended the dominance of Ferrari Prototypes at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1966 when GT-40 Mark IIs finished 1-2-3. Dominated Le Mans again in 1967 in the Mark IV

1968 - Ferrari boycott

After the performance of the big V8-powered Ford at the 1967 Le Mans, the FIA banned prototypes over 3000cc, which also affected the 330Ps. The change was announced in late 1967 and came in effect for 1968; for that season, the Scuderia did not take part in sports car racing in protest.

1969-1971 - Porsche

These years saw a new challenger. Formerly competing with smaller cars only, the Germans entered the new 3 litre sports car prototype class in 1968 with the Porsche 908, while Ferrari raced the Ferrari 312P in only few events in 1969. In March, the presentation of the 5 litre Porsche 917, built in advance in 25 exemplars, had surprised also Ferrari, which answered later that year with the production of 25 Ferrari 512S, funded from the money gained by the FIAT deal. At that time, Porsche had almost a full season of experience with their new car, and took the World Sportscar Championship where Ferrari was only 4th.

The 1970 season saw epic battles between the two teams and the many cars they entered, yet Porsche won every event except Sebring, where the victorious car and its drivers Ignazio Giunti/Nino Vaccarella/Mario Andretti had their origins in Italy. Ferrari decided to give up the 512 in 1971 in order to prepare the new 312PB for the 1972 season, when only 3 litre class would be allowed. In addition to Porsche, the old national rival with its Alfa Romeo T33/3 also had won two races in 1971, and thus was ranked second in the World Championship, above Ferrari.

1969 - Fiat

Early in 1969, Fiat S.p.A. took a 50% stake in Ferrari. An immediate result was an increase in available investment funds, and work started at once on a factory extension intended to transfer production from Fiat's Turin plant of the Ferrari engined Fiat Dino.[4] New model investment further up in the Ferrari range also received a boost.[4]

Less positive was the effect on industrial relations at Ferrari's Maranello plant.[4] In June a visiting journalist witnessed a group of workers suddenly running out of a workshop in response to the blast of a whistle: this was part of an industrial stoppage originating at the main Fiat plant in Turin, and contrasted with the relatively smooth state of production that the writer had witnessed at competitor plants nearby.[4]

While increased Fiat influence was quickly felt in the development, production and marketing of road cars, the racing department remained initially little touched by Fiat's new status within the company as chief investor.[4]

1972-1973 - dominance, defeats and fare-well

The 312PB dominated the World Sportscar Championship in 1972 against a rival Alfa Romeo, as the Porsche factory did not compete after the rule changes, and Matra focused on Le Mans only. In their home race, the French won, as Ferrari did not enter in 1972 due insufficient reliability over 24 hours, in order not to blemish their otherwise perfect record in that season.

In 1973, though, the Matra team also challenged for the championship which Ferrari eventually lost with two wins, compared to Matra's five, while Alfa Romeo had not entered that year. In addition, Ferrari was now forced to race also at Le Mans, despite concerns that even the modified engine would not last. Yet, one car survived and scored an unexpected and honourable 2nd place.

Ferrari then retired from Sports car racing to focus on the railing F1 effort.

1974-1987 - Niki Lauda and the 1980s

Ferrari enjoyed a successful spell in Formula 1 in the 1970s, with Niki Lauda winning the World Championship in 1975 and 1977, and Jody Scheckter in 1979. In the 1980s, however, the team entered a period of crisis, culminating with the death of Gilles Villeneuve in Belgium in 1982 and a nearly-fatal accident for Didier Pironi in Germany the very same year.

1988 - The death of Enzo

Enzo Ferrari died in 1988, at the age of 90. The last new model he commissioned was the specialist F40. Fiat increased its stake in Ferrari to 90% after buying the shares of its founder.[5] Former Sporting Director Luca Cordero di Montezemolo was appointed President in 1991.

1996 - Champion Schumacher to Scuderia Ferrari

The hiring of Jean Todt as Sporting director in 1993 and Michael Schumacher in 1996 triggered a comeback of the F1 team, with three wins in 1996, and close yet eventually losing challenges to the driver's championship in the years 1997 to 1999.

2000-2004 - Schumacher Dominates F1

In an unprecedented and record-setting fashion, Schumacher and Ferrari dominated F1 winning the World Driver's championship from 2000 through 2004 and the Constructors' Championship from 1999 through 2004.

2002-2010 - New shareholders

In June 2002 Fiat sold 34% of Ferrari to a Mediobanca-led consortium of banks for €775.2 million euros.[6] The consortium comprised Commerzbank (who got a 10% stake for €228 millions),[7] Banca Popolare dell'Emilia Romagna (1.5%) and Compagnie Monégasque de Banque (1%). Mediobanca retained a 21.5% stake. In July 2005 Mediobanca sold 5% of Ferrari to Mubadala Development Company, an investment company wholly owned by the Government of Abu Dhabi. The deal saw Mubadala pay €114 million to purchase the five percent stake.[8]

In October 2006 Fiat bought back the 29% stake still owned by the consortium, paying €892 millions. At the time of the transaction, Mediobanca owned an 11.7% stake, Commerzbank the 8.5%, ABN AMRO the 7,5% and Banca Popolare dell'Emilia Romagna the 1,3%.[9]

In November 2010 Fiat paid €122 million to buy back the last 5% stake owned by Mubadala Development. With this transaction, Fiat's stake in the luxury Italian car maker returned to 90%.[10]

2014-2017 - The spin-off

In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari from FCA; as of the announcement FCA owned 90% of Ferrari.[11][12]

The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N.V. as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of a 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange.[13] Through the remainings steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with a 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari.[14]

On January 3, 2016, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. and Ferrari N.V. announced the completion of separation of the Ferrari business from the FCA group on the same day, with trading on the Mercato Telematico Azionario set to begin on January 4, 2016, under the RACE ticker symbol and the ISIN code NL0011585146.[15][16]

Ferrari celebrated the 70th anniversary of its foundation in 2017.[17][18]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Snellman, Leif. "The Golden Era Of Grand Prix Racing - Alfa Romeo". kolumbus.fi/leif.snellman. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e "History of Enzo Ferrari". Ferrari S.p.A. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  3. ^ "Sergio Scaglietti passes away at 91". Oncars India. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Continental Diary". Motor. 10 July 1969. pp. 30–31.
  5. ^ "Fiat Raises Stake In Ferrari to 90%". The New York Times. 8 September 1988. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  6. ^ "Fiat confirms 34% sale of Ferrari to Mediobanca". Autosport.com. Haymarket Media Group. 27 June 2002. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  7. ^ "Commerzbank joins Mediobanca to buy Ferrari stake". Automotive News. Crain Communications. 1 July 2002. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  8. ^ "New Abu Dhabi shareholder brings new alliance for Ferrari". Mubadala Development Company. 27 July 2005. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  9. ^ "Fiat to buy back Ferrari stake". Autosport.com. Haymarket Media Group. 8 June 2006. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  10. ^ "Fiat buys back Ferrari stake from Mubadala". The National. Abu Dhabi Media. 14 November 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  11. ^ "FCA Announces Board Intention to Spin Off Ferrari S.p.A" (PDF). Fiat S.p.A. Retrieved 2014-10-28.
  12. ^ Sylvers, Eric (March 3, 2015). "Fiat Chrysler May Sell More of Ferrari in IPO Sale". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  13. ^ "Questions and answers regarding the Ferrari spin-off". Ferrari. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  14. ^ Visnic, Bill (July 23, 2015). "Wall Street, Buckle Up! Ferrari Officially Files For IPO". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2015-07-24.
  15. ^ "Separation of Ferrari from FCA Completed". Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  16. ^ "Separation of Ferrari from FCA Completed". FCA Group. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  17. ^ "Ferrari to celebrate 70th anniversary with UK-wide tour". evo.co.uk. 23 April 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  18. ^ "Iconic Ferraris to go under the hammer at 'Ferrari – Leggenda E Passione'". evo.co.uk. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
2000 Japanese Grand Prix

The 2000 Japanese Grand Prix (formally the XXVI Fuji Television Japanese Grand Prix) was a Formula One motor race held on 8 October 2000 at the Suzuka Circuit in Suzuka, Japan. It was the 16th and penultimate round of the 2000 Formula One season, as well as, the 26th Japanese Grand Prix. The 53-lap race was won by Ferrari driver Michael Schumacher after starting from pole position. Mika Häkkinen finished second in a McLaren with teammate David Coulthard finishing third. Schumacher's win confirmed him as 2000 Drivers' Champion, as Häkkinen could not surpass Schumacher's points total with only one race remaining.

Häkkinen started the race alongside Michael Schumacher on the front row of the grid. Michael Schumacher attempted to defend his lead off the line by moving into Häkkinen's path, but Häkkinen passed Michael Schumacher heading into the first corner, with Coulthard withstanding Williams driver Ralf Schumacher attempts to pass him to maintain third position. Michael Schumacher managed to close the gap to his title rival by lap 31 and passed Häkkinen during the second round of pit stops. This allowed him to maintain a 1.9-second gap between himself and Häkkinen towards the end of the race to secure his eighth victory of the season.

Michael Schumacher received praise from many within the Formula One community, including former Champion Jody Scheckter and Ferrari president Luca di Montezemolo, though he was criticised by former Italian president Francesco Cossiga for his conduct when the Italian National Anthem was played on the podium. The Ferrari driver also received predominant congratulations from the European press. Häkkinen's second-place finish secured him second position in the Drivers' Championship, while Ferrari extended the gap to McLaren in the Constructors' Championship to thirteen points, with one race remaining in the season.

Aaron Sigmond

Aaron Sigmond is an American author, editor and publisher with a focus on luxury heritage brands.

Berlinetta

The term Berlinetta (from Italian: berlinetta; Italian pronunciation: [berliˈnetta]) refers to a sports coupé, typically with two seats but also including 2+2 cars.The original meaning for berlinetta in Italian is “little saloon”.Introduced in the 1930s, the term was popularized by Ferrari in the 1950s. Maserati, Opel, Alfa Romeo, and other European car manufacturers have also used the Berlinetta label.

In North America, Chevrolet also produced a version of the Camaro called the Berlinetta, from 1979 to 1986. The Berlinetta model was marketed as having a luxury focus, through interior features and softer suspension.

Enzo Ferrari

Enzo Anselmo Giuseppe Maria Ferrari, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (Italian: [ˈɛntso anˈsɛlmo ferˈraːri]; 20 February 1898 – 14 August 1988) was an Italian motor racing driver and entrepreneur, the founder of the Scuderia Ferrari Grand Prix motor racing team, and subsequently of the Ferrari automobile marque. He was widely known as "il Commendatore" or "il Drake". In his final years he was often referred to as "l'Ingegnere" (the Engineer) or "il Grande Vecchio (the Great Old Man)".

Ferrari

Ferrari (; Italian: [ferˈraːri]) is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of Alfa Romeo's race division as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However, the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed.

In 2014 Ferrari was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance. In June 2018, the 1964 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, setting an all-time record selling price of $70 million.Fiat S.p.A. acquired 50% of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90% in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. (FCA) announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p.A. from FCA; as of the announcement FCA owned 90% of Ferrari.

The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N.V. (a company incorporated in the Netherlands) as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016.Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where it is the oldest and most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships (16) and having produced the highest number of drivers' championship wins (15). Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed, luxury and wealth.

Ferrari Jano engine

Vittorio Jano designed a new 60° V12 engine for sports car racing for Ferrari. This new engine, introduced in 1956, combined elements of both Colombo and Lampredi engines with new features. Engine architecture was more of Lampredi school but retained smaller Colombo internal measurements. Jano moved to Ferrari along with his designs for Lancia D50 in 1955 and went on to design not only a new V12 but also a family of Dino V6 engines soon after. Some of the technical ideas came from Jano's Lancia V8 DOHC engine, intended for Formula One. This family of engines replaced Lampredi inline-4s known from Ferrari Monza line and went on to win many international races and titles for Ferrari. The design team comprised Jano as well as Vittorio Bellentani, Alberto Massimino (best known for Maserati 250F), and Andrea Fraschetti.

All Jano engines used dry sump lubrication and almost all of them had two spark plugs per cylinder with four coils. Also most of them had DOHC configuration with chain-driven camshafts and two valves per cylinder.

Ferrari Lampredi engine

Aurelio Lampredi designed a number of racing engines for Ferrari. He was brought on to hedge the company's bets with a different engine family than the small V12s designed by Gioacchino Colombo. Lampredi went on to design a number of different Inline-4, Inline-6, and V12 engines through the 1950s, and it was these that would power the company's string of world championships that decade. All were quickly abandoned, however, with the Dino V6 and V8 taking the place of the fours and sixes and evolution of the older Colombo V12 continuing as the company's preeminent V12.

Ferrari P4/5 by Pininfarina

The Ferrari P4/5 (officially known as the Ferrari P4/5 by Pininfarina) is a one-off sports car made by Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari but redesigned by Pininfarina for film director and stock exchange magnate James Glickenhaus.

The car was initially an Enzo Ferrari but the owner James Glickenhaus preferred the styling of Ferrari's 1960s race cars, the P Series. The project cost Glickenhaus US$ 4 million and was officially presented to the public in August 2006 at the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elégance. Several websites were allowed to publish images of the clay model in July 2006.

Giorgio Stirano

Giorgio Stirano (born 23 February 1950 in Turin) is an Italian racing car engineer, who worked for Forti and Osella in Formula One.

Index of Italy-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to Italy.

List of Formula One Grand Prix wins by Michael Schumacher

Michael Schumacher is a German racing driver who won seven Formula One world championships. Schumacher entered Formula One with the Jordan racing team in 1991, qualifying seventh in his debut race at the Belgian Grand Prix. Following this race, he was signed by Benetton for the rest of the season. His first Grand Prix win came the following year at the same venue as his debut race. Schumacher won his first Formula One World Championship in 1994, a season in which he won eight races. His victory was controversial, as he was involved in a collision with fellow championship contender Damon Hill at the final race in Adelaide. Both drivers had to retire their cars which resulted in Schumacher securing the championship. He won his second championship the following year, winning nine races, and became the youngest double world champion at the time.Schumacher joined Ferrari in 1996. He finished third in the championship, winning three races, in a season dominated by the Williams team. His victory at the Spanish Grand Prix, which Schumacher won by 45 seconds, is noted as one of the great Formula One wet weather drives. In the 1997 season, Schumacher won five races but was disqualified from the championship after the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile concluded that he had deliberately collided with Jacques Villeneuve, his championship rival, at the European Grand Prix in Jerez. The following year, he won six races. Schumacher won his third world championship in 2000; the first for a Ferrari driver since 1979. He followed this with four consecutive championships from 2001 to 2004. During the 2001 season, at the Belgian Grand Prix, Schumacher won his 52nd Grand Prix, breaking Alain Prost's record for the most career Grand Prix wins. His 2002 season, in which he was on the podium in every race, included eleven race victories. The latter broke the record for the most wins in a single season. Schumacher surpassed this with thirteen race victories in 2004. His final Grand Prix win was at the 2006 Chinese Grand Prix; at the end of that season he retired from Formula One. Although he made a return to Formula One racing with Mercedes between 2010 and 2012, this did not result in any further victories.Schumacher contested 308 races in his career which included 91 Grand Prix wins; the majority of his race victories were for the Ferrari team with 72. His most successful circuit was Magny-Cours where he won eight times in his career. Schumacher's largest margin of victory was at the 1994 Brazilian Grand Prix, a race in which he lapped the field, and the smallest margin of victory was at the 2000 Canadian Grand Prix when he beat teammate Rubens Barrichello by 0.174 seconds.

Race of Two Worlds

The Race of Two Worlds, also known as the 500 Miglia di Monza (500 Miles of Monza), was an automobile race held at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, Italy in 1957 and again in 1958. It was intended as an exhibition event, allowing American teams from the United States Auto Club (USAC) National Championship to compete directly against teams from the Formula One World Championship based in Europe. The two types of cars competed on the banked oval at Monza which had been completed in 1955. Due to the similarity to the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, where the USAC teams ran the Indianapolis 500, the event earned the nickname Monzanapolis.

American drivers and teams won the event in both the years in which it was run. Jimmy Bryan won the 1957 event, while Jim Rathmann swept the 1958 race. Although some Formula One teams did participate and even built special cars specifically for the event, several withdrew over safety concerns. Continued concern over the speeds on the track and the cost of the event led to the race being canceled after the 1958 running.

Straight-twin engine

A straight-twin engine, also known as straight-two, inline-twin, vertical-twin, or parallel-twin is a two-cylinder piston engine which has its cylinders arranged side by side and its pistons connected to a common crankshaft. Compared to V-twins and flat-twins, straight-twins are more compact, simpler, and usually cheaper to make, but may generate more vibration during operation.

Straight-twin engines have been primarily used in motorcycles, but are also used in automobiles and in powersports applications. Automobiles with straight-twin engines are usually very small and include city cars and kei cars. Recent examples of cars with straight-twin engines include the Tata Nano and Fiat Group automobiles using the TwinAir engine. Powersports applications include use in outboard motors, personal water craft, all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles, and ultralight aircraft.

Different crankshaft angles are used in four-stroke straight-twins to achieve different characteristics of firing intervals and engine balance, affecting vibrations and power delivery. The traditional British parallel twin (1937 onwards) had 360° crankshafts, while some larger Japanese twins of the 1960s adopted the 180° crankshaft. In the 1990s, new engines appeared with a 270° crankshaft.

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