History of American journalism

Journalism in America began as a "humble" affair and became a political force in the campaign for American independence. Following independence, the first article of U.S. Constitution guaranteed freedom of the press and speech and the American press grew rapidly following the American Revolution. The press became a key support element to the country's political parties but also organized religious institutions.

Journalist Marguerite Martyn interviews Rev. J.Y. Reed in 1908
Journalist Marguerite Martyn of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch made this sketch of herself interviewing a Methodist minister in 1908 for his views on marriage.

During the 19th century, newspapers began to expand and appear outside eastern U.S. cities. From the 1830s onward the penny press began to play a major role in American journalism and technological advancements such as the telegraph and faster printing presses in the 1840s helped expand the press of the nation as it experienced rapid economic and demographic growth.

By 1900 major newspapers had become profitable powerhouses of advocacy, muckraking and sensationalism, along with serious, and objective news-gathering. In the early 20th century, before television, the average American read several newspapers per day. Starting in the 1920s changes in technology again morphed the nature of American journalism as radio and later, television, began to play increasingly important roles.

In the late 20th century, much of American journalism merged into big media conglomerates (principally owned by media moguls, Ted Turner and Rupert Murdoch). With the coming of digital journalism in the 21st Century, newspapers faced a business crisis as readers turned to the internet for news and advertisers followed them.

Origins

The history of American journalism began in 1690, when Benjamin Harris published the first edition of "Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestic" in Boston. Harris had strong trans-Atlantic connections and intended to publish a regular weekly newspaper along the lines of those in London, but he did not get prior approval and his paper was suppressed after a single edition.[1] The first successful newspaper, The Boston News-Letter, was launched in 1704. This time, the founder was John Campbell, the local postmaster, and his paper proclaimed that it was "published by authority."

As the colonies grew rapidly in the 18th century, newspapers appeared in port cities along the East Coast, usually started by master printers seeking a sideline. Among them was James Franklin, founder of The New England Courant (1721-1727), where he employed his younger brother, Benjamin Franklin, as a printer's apprentice. Like many other colonial newspapers, it was aligned with party interests. Ben Franklin was first published in his brother's newspaper, under the pseudonym Silence Dogood in 1722, and even his brother did not know his identity at first. Pseudonymous publishing, a common practice of that time, protected writers from retribution from government officials and others they criticized, often to the point of what today would be considered libel. The content included advertising of newly landed products, and locally produced news items, usually based on commercial and political events. Editors exchanged their papers and frequently reprinted news from other cities. Essays and letters to the editor, often anonymous, provided opinions on current issues. While the religious news was thin, writers typically interpreted good news in terms of God's favor, and bad news as evidence of His wrath. The fate of criminals was often cast as cautionary tales warning of the punishment for sin.[2]

Ben Franklin moved to Philadelphia in 1728 and took over the Pennsylvania Gazette the following year. Ben Franklin expanded his business by essentially franchising other printers in other cities, who published their own newspapers. By 1750, 14 weekly newspapers were published in the six largest colonies. The largest and most successful of these could be published up to three times per week.[3]

American Independence

The Stamp Act of 1765 taxed paper, and the burden of the tax fell on printers, who led a successful fight to repeal the tax.[4] By the early 1770s, most newspapers supported the Patriot cause; Loyalist newspapers were often forced to shut down or move to Loyalist strongholds, especially New York City.[5] Publishers up and down the colonies widely reprinted the pamphlets by Thomas Paine, especially "Common Sense" (1776). His Crisis essays first appeared in the newspaper press starting in December, 1776, when he warned:

These are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country, but he that stands it now deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.[6]
Charles Willson Peale - Anne Catharine Hoof Green - Google Art Project
Anne Catherine Hoof Green, publisher of the Maryland Gazette, 1767-1775.

When the war for independence began in 1775, 37 weekly newspapers were in operation; 20 survived the war, and 33 new ones started up. The British blockade sharply curtailed imports of paper, ink, and new equipment; causing thinner newspapers and publication delays. When the war ended in 1782, there were 35 newspapers with a combined circulation of about 40,000 copies per week, and an actual readership in the hundreds of thousands. These newspapers played a major role in defining the grievances of the colonists against the British government in the 1765-1775 era, and in supporting the American Revolution.[7][8]

Every week the Maryland Gazette of Annapolis promoted the Patriot cause and also reflected informed Patriot viewpoints. From the time of the Stamp Act, publisher Jonas Green vigorously protested British actions. When he died in 1767, his widow Anne Catherine Hoof Green became the first woman to hold a top job at an American newspaper.[9] A strong supporter of colonial rights, she published the newspapers as well as many pamphlets with the help of two sons; She died in 1775.

During the war, contributors debated disestablishment of the Anglican church in several states, use of coercion against neutrals and Loyalists, the meaning of Paine's "Common Sense", and the confiscation of Loyalist property. Much attention was devoted to the details of military campaigns, typically with an upbeat optimistic tone.[10] Patriot editors often sharply criticized government action or inaction. In peacetime, criticism might lead to a loss of valuable printing contract, but in wartime, the government needed the newspapers. Furthermore, there were enough different state governments and political factions that editors could be protected by their friends. When Thomas Paine lost his patronage job with Congress because of a letter he published, the state government soon hired him.[11]

First Party System

Newspapers flourished in the new republic — by 1800, there were about 234 being published — and tended to be very partisan about the form of the new federal government, which was shaped by successive Federalist or Republican presidencies. Newspapers directed much abuse toward various politicians, and the eventual duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr was fueled by controversy in newspaper pages.

~party3
Federalist poster about 1800. Washington (in heaven) tells partisans to keep the pillars of Federalism, Republicanism, and Democracy

By 1796, both parties sponsored national networks of weekly newspapers, which attacked each other vehemently.[12] The Federalist and Republican newspapers of the 1790s traded vicious barbs against their enemies.[13]

The most heated rhetoric came in debates over the French Revolution, especially the Jacobin Terror of 1793–94 when the guillotine was used daily. Nationalism was a high priority, and the editors fostered an intellectual nationalism typified by the Federalist effort to stimulate a national literary culture through their clubs and publications in New York and Philadelphia, and Noah Webster's efforts to simplify and Americanize the language.[14]

Penny press, telegraph, and party politics

As American cities like New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and Washington grew, so did newspapers. Larger printing presses, the telegraph, and other technological innovations allowed newspapers to print thousands of copies, boost circulation, and increase revenue. In the largest cities, some papers were politically independent. But most, especially in smaller cities, had close ties political parties, who used them for communication and campaigning. Their editorials explained the party position on current issues, and condemned the opposition.[15]

The first newspaper to fit the 20th century style of a newspaper was the New York Herald, founded in 1835 and published by James Gordon Bennett, Sr. It was politically independent, and became the first newspaper to have city staff covering regular beats and spot news, along with regular business and Wall Street coverage. In 1838 Bennett also organized the first foreign correspondent staff of six men in Europe and assigned domestic correspondents to key cities, including the first reporter to regularly cover Congress.[16]

The leading partisan newspaper was the New York Tribune, which began publishing in 1841 and was edited by Horace Greeley. It was the first newspaper to gain national prominence; by 1861, it shipped thousands of copies of its daily and weekly editions to subscribers. Greeley also organized a professional news staff and embarked on frequent publishing crusades for causes he believed in. The Tribune was the first newspaper, in 1886, to use the linotype machine, invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler, which rapidly increased the speed and accuracy with which type could be set. it allowed a newspaper to publish multiple editions the same day, updating the front page with the latest business and sports news.[17]

The New York Times, now one of the best-known newspapers in the world, was founded in 1851 by George Jones and Henry Raymond. It established the principle of balanced reporting in high-quality writing. Its prominence emerged in the 20th century.[18]

Political partisanship

The parties created an internal communications system designed to keep in close touch with the voters.[19]

The critical communications system was a national network of partisan newspapers. Nearly all weekly and daily papers were party organs until the early 20th century. Thanks to the invention of high-speed presses for city papers, and free postage for rural sheets, newspapers proliferated. In 1850, the Census counted 1,630 party newspapers (with a circulation of about one per voter), and only 83 "independent" papers. The party line was behind every line of news copy, not to mention the authoritative editorials, which exposed the "stupidity" of the enemy and the "triumphs" of the party in every issue. Editors were senior party leaders and often were rewarded with lucrative postmasterships. Top publishers, such as Schuyler Colfax in 1868, Horace Greeley in 1872, Whitelaw Reid in 1892, Warren Harding in 1920 and James Cox also in 1920, were nominated on the national ticket.

Kaplan outlines the systematic methods by which newspapers expressed their partisanship. Paid advertising was unnecessary, as the party encouraged all its loyal supporters to subscribe:[20]

  • Editorials explained in detail the strengths of the party platform, and the weaknesses and fallacies of the opposition.
  • As the election neared, there were lists of approved candidates.
  • Party meetings, parades, and rallies were publicized ahead of time and reported in depth afterward. Excitement and enthusiasm were exaggerated, while the dispirited enemy rallies were ridiculed.
  • Speeches were often transcribed in full detail, even long ones that ran thousands of words.
  • Woodcut illustrations celebrated the party symbols and portray the candidates.
  • Editorial cartoons ridiculed the opposition and promoted the party ticket.
  • As the election neared, predictions and informal polls guaranteed victory.
  • The newspapers printed filled-out ballots which party workers distributed on election day so voters could drop them directly into the boxes. Everyone could see who the person voted for.[21]
  • The first news reports the next day, often claimed victory – sometimes it was days or weeks before the editor admitted defeat.

By the time of the Civil War, many moderately sized cities had at least two newspapers, often with very different political perspectives. As the South began the task of seceding from the Union, some papers in the North recommended that the South should be allowed to secede. “The government, however, was not willing to allow 'sedition' to masquerade (in its opinion) as 'freedom of the press.'” Several newspapers were closed by government action. After the massive Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run, angry mobs in the North destroyed substantial property owned by remaining “successionist” newspapers. Those still in publication quickly came to support the war, both to avoid mob action and to retain their audience.[22]

After 1900, William Randolph Hearst, Joseph Pulitzer and other big city politician-publishers discovered they could make far more profit through advertising, at so many dollars per thousand readers. By becoming non-partisan they expanded their base to include the opposition party and the fast-growing number of consumers who read the ads but were less and less interested in politics. There was less political news after 1900, apparently because citizens became more apathetic, and shared their partisan loyalties with the new professional sports teams that attracted growing audiences.[23][24]

Whitelaw Reid, the powerful long-time editor of the Republican New York Tribune, emphasized the importance of partisan newspapers in 1879:

The true statesman and the really influential editor are those who are able to control and guide parties...There is an old question as to whether a newspaper controls public opinion or public opinion controls the newspaper. This at least is true: that editor best succeeds who best interprets the prevailing and the better tendencies of public opinion, and, who, whatever his personal views concerning it, does not get himself too far out of relations to it. He will understand that a party is not an end, but a means; will use it if it leads to his end, -- will use some other if that serve better, but will never commit the folly of attempting to reach the end without the means...Of all the puerile follies that have masqueraded before High Heaven in the guise of Reform, the most childish has been the idea that the editor could vindicate his independence only by sitting on the fence and throwing stones with impartial vigor alike at friend and foe.[25]

Newspapers expand west

As the country and its inhabitants explored and settled further west the American landscape changed. In order to supply these new pioneers of western territories with information, publishing was forced to expand past the major presses of Washington D.C. and New York. Most frontier newspapers were creations of the influx of people and wherever a new town sprang up a newspaper was sure to follow.[26] However other times a printer was hired by a town settler to move to the location and set up a newspaper in order to legitimize the town and draw other settlers. Many of the newspapers and journals published in these Midwestern developments were weekly papers. Homesteaders would watch their cattle or farms during the week and then on their weekend journey readers would collect their papers while they did their business in town. One reason that so many newspapers were started during the conquest of the West was that homesteaders were required to publish notices of their land claims in local newspapers. Some of these papers died out after the land rushes ended, or when the railroad bypassed the town.[27]

The rise of the wire services

The American Civil War had a profound effect on American journalism. Large newspapers hired war correspondents to cover the battlefields, with more freedom than correspondents today enjoy. These reporters used the new telegraph and expanding railways to move news reports faster to their newspapers. The cost of sending telegraphs helped create a new concise or "tight" style of writing which became the standard for journalism through the next century.[28]

The ever-growing demand for urban newspapers to provide more news led to the organization of the first of the wire services, a cooperative between six large New York City-based newspapers led by David Hale, the publisher of the Journal of Commerce, and James Gordon Bennett, to provide coverage of Europe for all of the papers together. What became the Associated Press received the first cable transmission ever of European news through the trans-Atlantic cable in 1858.[29]

New forms of journalism

The New York dailies continued to redefine journalism. James Bennett's Herald, for example, didn't just write about the disappearance of David Livingstone in Africa; they sent Henry Stanley to find him, which he did, in Uganda. The success of Stanley's stories prompted Bennett to hire more of what would turn out to be investigative journalists. He also was the first American publisher to bring an American newspaper to Europe by founding the Paris Herald, which was the precursor of the International Herald Tribune. Charles Anderson Dana of the New York Sun developed the idea of the human interest story and a better definition of news value, including uniqueness of a story.[30]

Yellow journalism

William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer both owned newspapers in the American West, and both established papers in New York City: Hearst's New York Journal in 1883 and Pulitzer's New York World in 1896. Their stated mission to defend the public interest, their circulation wars and sensational reporting spread to many other newspapers and became known as "yellow journalism." The public may have initially benefited as "muckraking" journalism exposed corruption, but its often excessively sensational coverage of a few juicy stories alienated many readers.[31]

Headlines

More generally, newspapers in large cities in the 1890s began using large-font multi-column headlines to attract passers-by to buy the paper. Previously headlines had seldom been more than one column wide, although multicolumn-width headlines were possible on the presses then in use. The change required typesetters to break with tradition and many small-town papers were reluctant to change.[32]

Progressive Era

The Progressive Era saw a strong middle class demand for reform, which the leading newspapers and magazines supported with editorial crusades.

During this time minority women voices flourished with a new outlet and demand for women in journalism. The diverse women generally Native American, African American, and Jewish american worked through journalism to further their political activism. Many of the women writing during this time period were a part of or formed highly influential organizations such as the NAACP, National Council of American Indians, Women's Christian temperance Union and the federation of Jewish Philanthropists. Some of these women allowed for discussions and debates through their writing or through their organizational connections. With the emergence of diverse voices an equally diverse description of women's lives became apparent as they were able to incorporate domestic fictions and non-fiction into the journals for a vast majority of Americans to see and newly be exposed to. This new multicultural narrative allowed literature to reflect the writers and become more diverse in stories and normalized reception of these domestic accounts[33]

Building on President McKinley's effective use of the press, President Theodore Roosevelt made his White House the center of news every day, providing interviews and photo opportunities. After noticing the White House reporters huddled outside in the rain one day, he gave them their own room inside, effectively inventing the presidential press briefing. The grateful press, with unprecedented access to the White House, rewarded Roosevelt with intense favorable coverage; The nation's editorial cartoonists loved him even more.[34] Roosevelt's main goal was to promote discussion and support for his package of Square Deal reform policies among his base in the middle-class.[35] When the media strayed too far from his list of approved targets, he criticized them as mud flinging muckrakers.[36]

Journalism historians pay by far the most attention to the big city newspapers, largely ignoring small-town dailies and weeklies that proliferated and dealt heavily in local news. Rural America was also served by specialized farm magazines. By 1910 most farmers subscribed to one. Their editors typically promoted efficiency in farming, With reports of new machinery, new seats, new techniques, and county and state fairs.[37]

Muckraking

Muckrakers were investigative journalists, sponsored by large national magazines, who investigated political corruption, as well as misdeeds by corporations and labor unions.[38][39][40]

Exposés attracted a middle-class upscale audience during the Progressive Era, especially in 1902 – 1912. By the 1900s, such major magazines as Collier's Weekly, Munsey's Magazine and McClure's Magazine were sponsoring exposés for a national audience. The January 1903 issue of McClure's marked the beginning of muckraking journalism, while the muckrakers would get their label later. Ida M. Tarbell ("The History of Standard Oil"),[41] Lincoln Steffens ("The Shame of Minneapolis") and Ray Stannard Baker ("The Right to Work"), simultaneously published famous works in that single issue. Claude H. Wetmore and Lincoln Steffens' previous article "Tweed Days in St. Louis", in McClure's October 1902 issue was the first muckraking article.[42]

President Roosevelt enjoyed very close relationships with the press, which he used to keep in daily contact with his middle-class base. Before taking office, he had made a living as a writer and magazine editor. He loved talking with intellectuals, authors and writers. He drew the line, however, at expose-oriented scandal-mongering journalists who during his term set magazine subscriptions soaring with attacks on corrupt politicians, mayors, and corporations. Roosevelt himself was not a target, but his speech in 1906 coined the term "muckraker" for unscrupulous journalists making wild charges. "The liar," he said, "is no whit better than the thief, and if his mendacity takes the form of slander he may be worse than most thieves." [43] The muckraking style fell out of fashion after 1917, as the media pulled together to support the war effort with minimum criticism of personalities.

In the 1960s, investigative journalism came back into play with the 'Washington Post exposés of the Watergate scandal. At the local level, the alternative press movement emerged, typified by alternative weekly newspapers like The Village Voice in New York City and The Phoenix in Boston, as well as political magazines like Mother Jones and The Nation.

Professionalization

Betty Houchin Winfield, a specialist in political communication and mass media history, argues that 1908 represented a turning point in the professionalization of journalism, as characterized by the new journalism schools, the founding of the National Press Club, and such technological innovations as newsreels, the use of halftones to print photographs, and changes in newspaper design.[44] Reporters wrote the stories that sold papers, but shared only a fraction of the income. The highest salaries went to New York reporters, topping out at $40 to $60 a week. Pay scales were lower in smaller cities, only $5 to $20 a week at smaller dailies. The quality of reporting increased sharply, and its reliability improved; drunkenness became less and less of a problem.[45] Pulitzer gave Columbia University $2 million in 1912 to create a school of journalism that has retained leadership status into the 21st century.[46] Other notable schools were founded at the University of Missouri and the Medill School Northwestern University.[47][48]

Freedom of the press became well-established legal principle, although President Theodore Roosevelt tried to sue major papers for reporting corruption in the purchase of the Panama Canal rights. The federal court threw out the lawsuit, ending the only attempt by the federal government to sue newspapers for libel since the days of the Sedition Act of 1798. Roosevelt had a more positive impact on journalism -- he provided a steady stream of lively copy, making the White House the center of national reporting.[49]

Rise of the African-American press

Rampant discrimination against African-Americans did not prevent them from founding their own daily and weekly newspapers, especially in large cities, and these flourished because of the loyalty of their readers. The first black newspaper was the Freedom's Journal, first published on March 16, 1827 by John B. Russwurm and Samuel Cornish.[50] Abolitionist Philip Alexander Bell (1808-1886) started the Colored American in New York City in 1837, then became co-editor of The Pacific Appeal and founder of The Elevator, both significant Reconstruction Era newspapers based in San Francisco.[51]

ROBERT LEE VANN - LAWYER, EDITOR, CRUSADER - NARA - 535681
Poster from the U.S. Office of War Information, 1943

By the 20th century, African-American newspapers flourished in the major cities, with their publishers playing a major role in politics and business affairs, including

Foreign-language newspapers

As immigration rose dramatically during the last half of the 19th century, many ethnic groups sponsored newspapers in their native languages to cater to their fellow expatriates. The Germans created the largest network, but their press was largely shut down in 1917-1918.[53] Yiddish Newspapers appeared for New York Jews. They had the effect of introducing newcomers from Eastern Europe to American culture and society.[54] In states like Nebraska, founded on large immigrants populations, where many residents moved from Czechoslovakia, Germany and Denmark foreign-language papers provided a place for these people to make cultural and economic contributions to their new country and home. Today, Spanish language newspapers such as El Diario La Prensa (founded in 1913) exist in Hispanic strongholds, but their circulations are small.[55]

Between the wars

Broadcast journalism began slowly in the 1920s, at a time when stations broadcast music and occasional speeches, and expanded slowly in the 1930s as radio moved to drama and entertainment. Radio exploded in importance during World War II, but after 1950 was overtaken by television news. The newsreel developed in the 1920s and flourished before the daily television news broadcasts in the 1950s doomed its usefulness.

Luce empire

Time Magazine - first cover
The first issue of Time (March 3, 1923), featuring House Speaker Joseph G. Cannon.

News magazines flourished from the late 19th century on, such as Outlook and Review of Reviews. However, in 1923 Henry Luce (1898-1967) transformed the genre with Time, which became a favorite news source for the upscale middle-class. Luce, a conservative Republican, was called "the most influential private citizen in the America of his day."[56] He launched and closely supervised a stable of magazines that transformed journalism and the reading habits of upscale Americans. Time summarized and interpreted the week's news. Life was a picture magazine of politics, culture and society that dominated American visual perceptions in the era before television. Fortune explored in depth the economy and the world of business, introducing to executives avant-garde ideas such as Keynesianism. Sports Illustrated probed beneath the surface of the game to explore the motivations and strategies of the teams and key players. Add in his radio projects and newsreels, and Luce created a multimedia corporation to rival that of Hearst and other newspaper chains. Luce, born in China to missionary parents, demonstrated a missionary zeal to make the nation worthy of dominating the world in what he called the "American Century." Luce hired outstanding journalists—some of them serious intellectuals,[57] as well as talented editors. By the late 20th century, however, all the Luce magazines and their imitators (such as Newsweek and Look) had drastically scaled back. Newsweek ended its print edition in 2013.[58]

21st century Internet

Following the emergence of browsers, USA Today became the first newspaper to offer an online version of its publication in 1995, though CNN launched its own site later that year.[59] However, especially after 2000, the Internet brought "free" news and classified advertising to audiences that no longer saw a reason for subscriptions, undercutting the business model of many daily newspapers. Bankruptcy loomed across the U.S. and did hit such major papers as the Rocky Mountain News (Denver), the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times, among many others. Chapman and Nuttall find that proposed solutions, such as multiplatforms, paywalls, PR-dominated news gathering, and shrinking staffs have not resolved the challenge. The result, they argue, is that journalism today is characterized by four themes: personalization, globalization, localization, and pauperization.[60]

Nip presents a typology of five models of audience connections: traditional journalism, public journalism, interactive journalism, participatory journalism, and citizen journalism. He identifies the higher goal of public journalism as engaging the people as citizens and helping public deliberation.[61]

Investigative journalism declined at major daily newspapers in the 2000s, and many reporters formed their own non-profit investigative newsrooms, for example ProPublica on the national level, Texas Tribune at the state level and Voice of OC at the local level.

A 2014 study by the University of Indiana under The American Journalist header, a series of studies that go back to the 1970s, found that of the journalists they surveyed, significantly more identified as Democrats than Republicans (28% verse 7%).[62] This coincided with reduced staffing at local papers and possibly their replacement by online outlets in eastern liberal cites.[63]

Historiography

Journalism historian David Nord has argued that in the 1960s and 1970s:

"In journalism history and media history, a new generation of scholars . . . criticised traditional histories of the media for being too insular, too decontextualised, too uncritical, too captive to the needs of professional training, and too enamoured of the biographies of men and media organizations."[64]

In 1974, James W. Carey identified the ‘Problem of Journalism History’. The field was dominated by a Whig interpretation of journalism history.

"This views journalism history as the slow, steady expansion of freedom and knowledge from the political press to the commercial press, the setbacks into sensationalism and yellow journalism, the forward thrust into muck raking and social responsibility....the entire story is framed by those large impersonal forces buffeting the press: industrialisation, urbanisation and mass democracy.[65]

O'Malley says the criticism went too far, because there was much of value in the deep scholarship of the earlier period.[66]

See also

References

  1. ^ Marsha L. Hamilton (2009). Social and Economic Networks in Early Massachusetts: Atlantic Connections. Penn State Press. p. 71.
  2. ^ Stephen L. Vaughn, ed.,Encyclopedia of American Journalism (2008) pp 108-9, 179, 330,445
  3. ^ Ralph Frasca (2006). Benjamin Franklin's Printing Network: Disseminating Virtue in Early America. University of Missouri Press. p. 2.
  4. ^ Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr., Prelude to independence: the newspaper war on Britain, 1764-1776 (1958)
  5. ^ Carol Sue Humphrey, This popular engine: New England newspapers during the American Revolution, 1775-1789 (1992)
  6. ^ Thomas Paine, "The American Crisis: Number I" (1776) online
  7. ^ Vaughn, ed., Encyclopedia of American Journalism (2008), pp 17-21
  8. ^ William Sloan and Julie Hedgepeth Williams, The early American press, 1690-1783 (1994)
  9. ^ Leona M. Hudak, Early American Women Printers and Publishers: 1639-1820 (1978).
  10. ^ David C. Skaggs, "Editorial Policies of the Maryland Gazette, 1765-1783," Maryland Historical Magazine (1964) 59#4 pp 341-349 online
  11. ^ Dwight L. Teeter, "Press Freedom and the Public Printing: Pennsylvania, 1775-83," Journalism Quarterly (1968) 45#3 pp 445-451
  12. ^ Jeffrey L. Pasley, "The Tyranny of Printers": Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic (2003)
  13. ^ Marcus Daniel, Scandal and Civility: Journalism and the Birth of American Democracy (2009)
  14. ^ Catherine O'Donnell Kaplan, Men of Letters in the Early Republic: Cultivating Forms of Citizenship 2008)
  15. ^ Frank Luther Mott, American Journalism: A History, 1690-1960 (Macmillan, 3rd ed. 1962) pp 228-52
  16. ^ James L. Crouthamel, Bennett's New York Herald and the Rise of the Popular Press (Syracuse University Press, 1989) online
  17. ^ Robert C. Williams, Horace Greeley (2006)
  18. ^ Meyer Berger, The Story of the New York Times, 1851-1951 (1951); David Halberstam, The Powers That Be (1979); Gay Tálese, The Kingdom and the Power (1969 .
  19. ^ Moisei Ostrogorski, Democracy and the organization of political parties (1902) vol 2 pp 280-98 online
  20. ^ Richard L. Kaplan, Politics and the American press: The rise of objectivity, 1865-1920 (Cambridge University Press, 2002) p 78.
  21. ^ These were replaced by secret "Australian ballot" after 1890, which were printed by the government and listed all the candidates impartially. Eldon Cobb Evans, A History of the Australian Ballot System in the United States (1917) online.
  22. ^ Harris (1999, esp. ch. 8, pp. 97-107)
  23. ^ Richard Lee Kaplan, Politics and the American press: the rise of objectivity, 1865-1920 (2002) p. 76
  24. ^ Mark W. Summers, The Press Gang: Newspapers and Politics, 1865-1878 (1994)
  25. ^ Whitelaw Reid, American and English Studies, Vol. II (1913), pp. 258-60
  26. ^ Walter, Katherine. "Publishing History of Newspapers in Nebraska". Nebraska Newspapers. University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
  27. ^ Mott, American Journalism: A History, 1690-1960 (3rd ed. 1962) pp 282-91
  28. ^ Mott, American Journalism: A History, 1690-1960 (1962) pp 329-59.
  29. ^ Richard A. Schwarzlose, The Nation's News brokers: The Formative Years from Pretelegraph to 1865 (1989).
  30. ^ Mott, American Journalism: A History, 1690-1960 (3rd ed. 1962) pp 373-87
  31. ^ Mott, American Journalism: A History, 1690-1960 (3rd ed. 1962) pp 519-45
  32. ^ George Everett, "Printing Technology as a Barrier to Multi-Column Headlines, 1850–95." Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 53.3 (1976): 528-532.
  33. ^ Batker, Carol J. (2000-01-31). Reforming Fictions. New York Chichester, West Sussex: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231529259.
  34. ^ Rouse, Robert (March 15, 2006). "Happy Anniversary to the first scheduled presidential press conference – 93 years young!". American Chronicle. Archived from the original on September 13, 2008.
  35. ^ John M. Thompson, "Theodore Roosevelt and the Press," in Serge Ricard, ed., A Companion to Theodore Roosevelt (2011) pp 216-36.
  36. ^ Stephen E. Lucas, "Theodore Roosevelt's “the man with the muck‐rake”: A reinterpretation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59.4 (1973): 452-462.
  37. ^ Stuart W. Shulman, "The Progressive Era Farm Press," Journalism History (1999) 25#1 pp 27-36.
  38. ^ Judson A. Grenier, "Muckraking and the Muckrakers: An Historical Definition," Journalism Quarterly (1960) 37#4 pp 552-558.
  39. ^ Laurie Collier Hillstrom, The Muckrakers and the Progressive Era(2009)
  40. ^ James Reilly, "Muckraker Bibliography: The Exposé Exposed" RQ (1972) 11#3 pp. 236-239 in JSTOR
  41. ^ Emily Arnold McCully, Ida M. Tarbell: The Woman Who Challenged Big Business--and Won! (2014)
  42. ^ Arthur Weinberg and Lila Weinberg, eds. The Muckrakers (1961) Excerpt and text search
  43. ^ Arthur Weinberg; Lila Shaffer Weinberg (1961). The Muckrakers. University of Illinois Press. pp. 58–66.
  44. ^ Betty Winfield, ed., Journalism, 1908: Birth of a Profession (2008)
  45. ^ Mott, American Journalism (3rd ed, 1962) pp 603-5.
  46. ^ James Boylan, Pulitzer's School: Columbia University's School of Journalism, 1903-2003 (2005).
  47. ^ Jean Folkerts, "History of journalism education." Journalism & Communication Monographs 16.4 (2014): 227-299.
  48. ^ Brad Asher, "The Professional Vision: Conflicts Over Journalism Education, 1900-1955," American Journalism (1994) 11#4 pp 304-320
  49. ^ Mott, American Journalism (3rd ed, 1962) pp 605-8.
  50. ^ Charles A. Simmons, The African American press: a history of news coverage during national crises, with special reference to four black newspapers, 1827-1965 (McFarland, 2006)
  51. ^ Henry Louis Gates Jr., Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, African American Lives Oxford University Press, Apr 29, 2004
  52. ^ Patrick S. Washburn, The African American Newspaper: Voice of Freedom (2006).
  53. ^ Carl Frederick Wittke, The German-language press in America (1973)
  54. ^ Mordecai Soltes, "The Yiddish Press—An Americanizing Agency." in The American Jewish Year Book (1924) pp: 165-372. in JSTOR
  55. ^ Nicolás Kanellos, "A socio-historic study of Hispanic newspapers in the United States." in Nicolas Kanellos, ed., Handbook of Hispanic cultures in the United States: Sociology (1994) pp: 239-256.
  56. ^ Robert Edwin Herzstein (2005). Henry R. Luce, Time, and the American Crusade in Asia. Cambridge U.P. p. 1.
  57. ^ Robert Vanderlan, Intellectuals Incorporated: Politics, Art, and Ideas Inside Henry Luce's Media Empire (2010)
  58. ^ Alan Brinkley, The Publisher: Henry Luce and His American Century (2010)
  59. ^ Babcock, William (2015). "The SAGE Guide to Key Issues in Mass Media Ethics and Law". Gale Virtual Reference Library. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  60. ^ Jane L. Chapman and Nick Nuttall, Journalism Today: A Themed History (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011) pp. 299, 313-314
  61. ^ Joyce Y. M, Nip, "Exploring the second phase of public journalism," Journalism Studies. (2006) 7#2 pp 212-236.
  62. ^ Wemple, Erik (27 January 2017). "Dear Mainstream Media: Why so liberal?". Washington Post. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  63. ^ Oremus, Will (27 April 2017). "The Media's "Bubble" Problem Is Really a Diversity Problem". Slate. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
    Shafer, Jack; Doherty, Tucker (May 2017). "The Media Bubble Is Worse Than You Think". Politico. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  64. ^ David Paul Nord, "The History of Journalism and the History of the Book," in Explorations in Communications and History, edited by Barbie Zelizer. (London: Routledge, 2008) p 164
  65. ^ James Carey, "The Problem of Journalism History," Journalism History (1974) 1#1 pp 3,4
  66. ^ Tom O'Malley, "History, Historians and the Writing Newspaper History in the UK c.1945–1962," Media History, (2012) 18#3 pp 289-310

Sources

Further reading

Nytrib1864
The Tribune was the leading newspaper in the era of the Civil War
  • Blanchard, Margaret A., ed. History of the Mass Media in the United States, An Encyclopedia. (1998)
  • Brennen, Bonnie and Hanno Hardt, eds. Picturing the Past: Media, History and Photography. (1999)
  • Caswell, Lucy Shelton, ed. Guide to Sources in American Journalism History. (1989)
  • Daly, Christopher B. "Covering America: A Narrative History of a Nation's Journalism." (2012)
  • Emery, Michael, Edwin Emery, and Nancy L. Roberts. The Press and America: An Interpretive History of the Mass Media 9th ed. (1999.), standard textbook; best place to start.
  • Kotler, Johathan and Miles Beller. American Datelines: Major News Stories from Colonial Times to the Present. (2003)
  • Kuypers, Jim A. Partisan Journalism: A History of Media Bias in the United States (2013)
  • McKerns, Joseph P., ed. Biographical Dictionary of American Journalism. (1989)
  • Marzolf, Marion. Up From the Footnote: A History of Women Journalists. (1977)
  • Mott, Frank Luther. American Journalism: A History of Newspapers in the United States Through 250 Years, 1690-1940 (1941). major reference source and interpretive history. online edition
  • Mott, Frank Luther. A History of American Magazines (5 vol 1930-1968), very comprehensive scholarly history
  • Nord, David Paul. Communities of Journalism: A History of American Newspapers and Their Readers. (2001) excerpt and text search
  • Paneth, Donald. Encyclopedia of American Journalism (1983)
  • Schudson, Michael. Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers. (1978). excerpt and text search
  • Schulman, Bruce J. and Julian E. Zelizer, eds. Media Nation: The Political History of News in Modern America (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2017). 263 pp.
  • Sloan, W. David; Lisa Mullikin Parcell, eds. (2002). American Journalism: History, Principles, Practices. McFarland.
  • Sloan, W. David, James G. Stovall, and James D. Startt. The Media in America: A History, 4th ed. (1999)
  • Starr, Paul. The Creation of the Media: Political origins of Modern Communications (2004), far ranging history of all forms of media in 19th and 20th century US and Europe; Pulitzer prize excerpt and text search
  • Streitmatter, Rodger. Mightier Than the Sword: How the News Media Have Shaped American History (1997)online edition
  • Tebbel, John, and Mary Ellen Zuckerman. The Magazine in America, 1741-1990 (1991), popular history
  • Vaughn, Stephen L., ed. Encyclopedia of American Journalism (2007) 636 pages excerpt and text search

1780s–1830s

  • Humphrey, Carol Sue The Press of the Young Republic, 1783-1833 (1996) online edition
  • Knudson, Jerry W. Jefferson And the Press: Crucible of Liberty (2006) how 4 Republican and 4 Federalist papers covered election of 1800; Thomas Paine; Louisiana Purchase; Hamilton-Burr duel; impeachment of Chase; and the embargo
  • Nevins, Allan. The Evening Post: A Century of Journalism (1922) online edition ch 1-2
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. "The Tyranny of Printers": Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic (2003) (ISBN 0-8139-2177-5)
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. "The Two National Gazettes: Newspapers and the Embodiment of American Political Parties." Early American Literature 2000 35(1): 51-86. ISSN 0012-8163 Fulltext: in Swetswise and Ebsco
  • Stewart, Donald H. The Opposition Press of the Federalist Era (1968), highly detailed study of Republican newspapers

Penny press, telegraph and party politics

  • Ames, William E. A History of the National Intelligencer.
  • Blondheim Menahem. News over the Wire: The Telegraph and the Flow of Public Information in America, 1844–1897 (1994)
  • Crouthamel James L. Bennett's New York Herald and the Rise of the Popular Press (1989)
  • Davis, Elmer. History of the New York Times, 1851–1921 (1921)
  • Dicken-Garcia, Hazel. Journalistic Standards in Nineteenth-Century America (1989)
  • Douglas, George H. The Golden Age of the Newspaper (1999)
  • Elliott Robert N., Jr. The Raleigh Register, 1799–1863 (1955)
  • Huntzicker, William E. and William David Sloan eds. The Popular Press, 1833–1865 (1999)
  • Luxon Norval Neil. Niles' Weekly Register: News Magazine of the Nineteenth Century (1947)
  • Martin Asa Earl. "Pioneer Anti-Slavery Press", Mississippi Valley Historical Review 2 (1916), 509–528. in JSTOR
  • George S. Merriam, Life and Times of Samuel Bowles V. 1 (1885) Springfield [Mass.] Republican
  • Nevins, Allan. The Evening Post: A Century of Journalism (1925) full text online
  • Rafferty, Anne Marie. American Journalism 1690–1904 (2004)
  • Schiller, Dan. Objectivity and the News: The Public and the Rise of Commercial Journalism (1981)
  • Schwarzlose Richard A. The Nation's Newsbrokers, vol. 1, The Formative Years: From Pretelegraph to 1865 (1989)
  • Shaw Donald Lewis. "At the Crossroads: Change and Continuity in American Press News 1820–1860", Journalism History 8:2 (Summer 1981), 38–50.
  • Smith Carol, and Carolyn Stewart Dyer. "Taking Stock, Placing Orders: A Historiographic Essay on the Business History of the Newspaper", Journalism Monographs 132 ( April 1992).
  • Steele Janet E. The Sun Shines for All: Journalism and Ideology in the Life of Charles A. Dana. (1993)
  • Stevens John D. Sensationalism and the New York Press (1991)
  • Summers, Mark Wahlgren. The Press Gang: Newspapers and Politics, 1865–1878 (1994)
  • Thomas, Leonard. The Power of the Press: The Birth of American Political Reporting. (1986)
  • Tucher, Andie. Froth and Scum: Truth, Beauty, Goodness, and the Ax Murder in America's First Mass Medium. (1994)
  • Van Deusen, Glyndon G. Horace Greeley, Nineteenth-Century Crusader (1953) online editor of New York Tribune (1840–1872)
  • Van Deusen, Glyndon G. Thurlow Weed, Wizard of the Lobby (1947), Whig editor of Albany Journal
  • Walsh Justin E. To Print the News and Raise Hell! A Biography of Wilbur F. Storey. (1968), Democratic/Copperhead editor Chicago Times
  • Williams Harold A. The Baltimore Sun 1837–1987. (1987)

Civil War

  • Andrews, J. Cutler. The North Reports the Civil War (1955), the definitive study
  • Andrews, J. Cutler. The South Reports the Civil War (1970) the definitive study
  • Harris, Brayton (1999), Blue & Gray in Black & White: Newspapers in the Civil War, Brassey's, ISBN 1574881655
  • Bulla, David W. and Gregory R. Borchard. Journalism in the Civil War Era (Peter Lang Publishing; 2010) 256 pages. Studies the influence of the war on the press, and, in turn, the press on the war.
  • Crozier, Emmet. Yankee Reporters 1861–1865 (1956)
  • Fermer Douglas. James Gordon Bennett and the New York Herald: A Study of Editorial Opinion in the Civil War Era 1854–1867 (1986)
  • Merrill Walter M. Against Wind and Tide: A Biography of William Lloyd Garrison (1963)
  • Reynolds, Donald E. Editors Make War: Southern Newspapers in the Secession Crisis (1970).
  • Sachsman, David B., et al., eds. The Civil War and the Press. (2000)
  • Sanger Donald Bridgman. "The Chicago Times and the Civil War", Mississippi Valley Historical Review 17 ( March 1931), 557–580. A Copperhead newspaper; JSTOR 1916392
  • Skidmore Joe. "The Copperhead Press and the Civil War", Journalism Quarterly 16:4 ( December 1939), 345–355.
  • Starr, Louis M. Bohemian Brigade: Civil War Newsmen in Action (1954)
  • Weisberger, Bernard A. Reporters for the Union ( 1953)

1865–1940

  • Brian, Dennis. Pulitzer: A Life (2001) online
  • Campbell, W. Joseph. Yellow Journalism: Puncturing the Myths, Defining the Legacies (2003), focus on 1898
  • Davis, Elmer. History of the New York Times, 1851–1921 (1921) online
  • Booker, Richard. The Story of an Independent Newspaper (1924) Springfield Republican in Massachusetts online
  • Kaplan, Richard L. Politics and the American Press: The Rise of Objectivity, 1865–1920 (2002)
  • Kobre, Sidney. The Yellow Press, and Gilded Age Journalism (1964)
  • Miller, Sally M. The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook. (1987)
  • Nasaw, David. The Chief The Life of William Randolph Hearst (2000)
  • Peterson, Theodore. Magazines in 20th Century (2nd ed. 1964)
  • Pride, Armistead S. and Clint C. Wilson. A History of the Black Press. (1997)
  • Procter, Ben. William Randolph Hearst: The Early Years, 1863–1910 (1998) online
  • Smythe, Ted Curtis; The Gilded Age Press, 1865-1900 Praeger. 2003. online edition
  • Summers, Mark Wahlgren. The Press Gang: Newspapers and Politics, 1865-1878 (1994)
  • Swanberg, W.A. Pulitzer (1967), popular biography.
  • Weinberg, Arthur, and Lila Weinberg. The Muckrakers (1961).
  • Whyte, Kenneth. The Uncrowned King: The Sensational Rise of William Randolph Hearst (2009).

1940–2010

  • Brinkley, Alan. The Publisher: Henry Luce and His American Century, Alfred A. Knopf (2010) 531pp.
  • Brinkley, Alan. What Would Henry Luce Make of the Digital Age?, TIME (April 19, 2010) excerpt and text search
  • Baughman, James L. Henry R. Luce and the Rise of the American News Media (2001) excerpt and text search
  • Diamond, Edwin. Behind the Times: Inside the New New York Times (1995)
  • Edwards, Bob. Edward R. Murrow and the Birth of Broadcast Journalism (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Gorman, Lyn. and David McLean. Media and Society in the Twentieth Century: A Historical Introduction (2002) excerpt and text search
  • Gottlieb, Robert and Irene Wolt. Thinking Big: The Story of the Los Angeles Times, Its Publishers and Their Influence on Southern California. (1977)
  • Halberstam, David. The Powers That Be (2001) power of the media in national affairs excerpt and text search
  • Harnett, Richard M. and Billy G. Ferguson. Unipress: United Press International: Covering the 20th Century. (2001)
  • Kluger, Richard. The Paper: The Life and Death of the New York Herald Tribune. (1986)
  • Liebling, A. J. The Press (1961)
  • McDougal, Dennis. Privileged Son: Otis Chandler and the Rise and Fall of the L.A. Times Dynasty (2001) online
  • McPherson, James Brian. Journalism at the end of the American century, 1965–present (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Merritt, Davis. Knightfall: Knight Ridder And How The Erosion Of Newspaper Journalism Is Putting Democracy At Risk (2005) excerpt and text search
  • Noble, James Kendrick. Paper Profits: A Financial History of the Daily Newspaper Industry, 1958-1998 (2000)
  • John J. Scanlon, The Passing of the Springfield Republican (1950); it folded after 1947 strike online
  • Stacks, John F. Scotty: James B. Reston and the Rise and Fall of American Journalism. (2003)
  • Wolff, Michael. The Man Who Owns the News: Inside the Secret World of Rupert Murdoch (2008) 446 pages excerpt and text search

Historiography

  • Daly, Chris. "The Historiography of Journalism History: Part 2: 'Toward a New Theory,'" American Journalism, Winter 2009, Vol. 26 Issue 1, pp 148–155, stresses the tension between the imperative form of business model and the dominating culture of news
1762

1762 (MDCCLXII)

was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1762nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 762nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 62nd year of the 18th century, and the 3rd year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1762, the Gregorian calendar was

11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1924 Democratic National Convention

The 1924 Democratic National Convention, held at the Madison Square Garden in New York City from June 24 to July 9, 1924, was the longest continuously running convention in United States political history. It took a record 103 ballots to nominate a presidential candidate. It was the first major party national convention that saw the name of a woman, Lena Springs, placed in nomination for the office of Vice President. John W. Davis, a dark horse, eventually won the presidential nomination on the 103rd ballot, a compromise candidate following a protracted convention fight between distant front-runners William Gibbs McAdoo and Al Smith.

Davis and his vice presidential running-mate, Charles W. Bryan of Nebraska, went on to be defeated by the Republican ticket of President Calvin Coolidge and Charles G. Dawes in the 1924 presidential election.

Alexander Purdie (publisher)

Alexander Purdie (c. 1743 – 1779) was a prominent colonial American printer, publisher, and merchant in eighteenth-century Williamsburg, Virginia US.

Anaconda Copper

The Anaconda Copper Mining Company, part of the Amalgamated Copper Company from 1899 to 1915, was an American mining company. It was one of the largest trusts of the early 20th century and one of the largest mining companies in the world for much of the 20th century.Founded in 1881 when Marcus Daly bought a silver mine, the company expanded rapidly based on the discovery of huge copper deposits. Daly built a smelter in Anaconda to process copper mined in Butte. Daly sold his assets in 1899 to H H Rogers and William Rockefeller.

By 1910, Amalgamated had expanded its operations and bought the assets of two other Montana copper companies. In 1922, Anaconda bought mining operations in Mexico and Chile; the latter was the largest mine in the world and yielded two-thirds of the company's profits. The company added aluminum reduction to its portfolio in 1955.

In 1960 its operations still had 37,000 employees in North America and Chile. It was purchased by Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) on January 12, 1977. Anaconda halted production in 1980, and mining ceased completely in 1982 when the deep pumps keeping the mine drained were shut off, allowing the mine to fill. It currently exists only as a massive environmental liability for British Petroleum, the current owner of the environmental situation acquired by ARCO.

Composograph

Composograph refers to a forerunner method of photo manipulation and is a retouched photographic collage popularized by publisher and physical culture advocate Bernarr Macfadden in his New York Evening Graphic in 1924.

The Graphic was dubbed "The Porno-Graphic" by critics of the time and has been called "one of the low points in the history of American journalism". Exploitative and mendacious, in its short life (it closed operations in 1932) the Graphic defined "tabloid journalism" and launched the careers of Ed Sullivan and Walter Winchell, who developed the modern gossip column there. Film director Sam Fuller worked for the Evening Graphic as a crime reporter.

"Composographic" images were literally cut and pasted together using images of the heads or faces of current celebrities, glued onto staged images created in Macfadden's in-house studio, often using newspaper staffers as body doubles. Composite photographs, or photomontages, had been used in the nineteenth century by such photographers as William Notman to capture indoor scenes that would not have been otherwise possible before the flashbulb was developed.Macfadden used them to represent events that were inconvenient to photograph, particularly with the equipment of the day: private bedrooms and bathtubs, Rudolph Valentino's unsuccessful surgery, Valentino's funeral, and notably on March 17, 1927, a full-page image of Valentino meeting Enrico Caruso in heaven. The very first faked photograph—that of Alice Jones Rhinelander baring her breast in court (part of the Kip Rhinelander divorce trial)—is said to have boosted the Graphic's circulation by 100,000 copies.Apart from their sensational subject matter, composographs have relevance as a historical reference point in the current debate over staged and doctored news photos. Some of the Graphic composographs have an unforgettable eerie visual impact. In a 1997 academic paper called "Staged, faked and mostly naked: Photographic innovations at the Evening Graphic, 1924–1932" and a shorter online essay, Radford University professor Bob Stepno points out that the Graphic was published before improvements in photojournalism technology and standards that made possible the photorealism of Magnum Photos, Black Star and others during World War II.

Craig Flournoy

John Craig Flournoy (born June 26, 1951 in Shreveport, Louisiana, USA) is a journalism professor at Southern Methodist University and a former investigative reporter for The Dallas Morning News, at which his work included coverage of the latter portion of the civil rights movement.He has taught since 2003 at SMU, where in 1986, he received a Master of Arts degree in history. He formerly taught courses on computer-assisted reporting, investigative reporting, history of American journalism, and communication law briefly at the University of Cincinnati in Cincinnati, Ohio. From 1997 to 1998, while on leave from The Dallas Morning News, he was the Phillip G. Warner Professor of Journalism at Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, Texas.

Daily World (Opelousas)

The Daily World is a Gannett-owned daily newspaper in Opelousas, Louisiana, United States.

The newspaper was the first offset-printed daily newspaper in the world, and remained the sole offset-printed daily newspaper for nine years. Its first edition was published on December 24, 1939. The Opelousas Daily World was founded by John R. Thistlethwaite and Ducote Andrepont. Thistlethwaite later acquired Mr. Andrepont's interest in the operation. Rigby Owen was the managing editor during World War II while John Thistlethwaite was a Marine aviator flying the F4U Corsair, night fighter squadron, in the South Pacific. Thistlethwaite took over editor and publisher duties on his return from the war. The Daily World was sold to Worrel Newspapers Inc. in 1972. The New York Times Company acquired 8 daily papers, including the TimesDaily, from Worrell in 1982. Gannett acquired the Daily World from the Times Company in 2000.

Francis W. Moore Jr.

Francis W. Moore Jr. (1808–1864) became the second mayor of Houston, Texas in 1838. He was elected twice more and served as mayor of the city in three consecutive decades, the 1830s, 1840s, and 1850s.

Hiroshima (book)

Hiroshima is a book by Pulitzer Prize-winning author John Hersey. It tells the stories of six survivors of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, covering a period of time immediately prior to the bombing and until about 1984. It was originally published in The New Yorker. Although the story was originally scheduled to be published over four issues, the entire edition of August 31, 1946, was dedicated to the article. The article and subsequent book are regarded as one of the earliest examples of the New Journalism, in which the story-telling techniques of fiction are adapted to non-fiction reporting.

Less than two months after the publication of Hiroshima in The New Yorker, the article was printed as a book by Alfred A. Knopf and has sold over three million copies to date. Hiroshima has been continuously in print since its publication, according to later New Yorker essayist Roger Angell, because "[i]ts story became a part of our ceaseless thinking about world wars and nuclear holocaust".

James Huneker

James Gibbons Huneker (January 31, 1857 – February 9, 1921) was an American art, book, music, and theater critic. A colorful individual and an ambitious writer, he was "an American with a great mission," in the words of his friend, the critic Benjamin De Casseres, and that mission was to educate Americans about the best cultural achievements, native and European, of his time. From 1892 to 1899, he was the husband of the sculptor Clio Hinton.

Kate Field

Mary Katherine Keemle "Kate" Field (pen name, Straws, Jr.; October 1, 1838 – May 19, 1896) was an American journalist, correspondent, paragraphist, editor, lecturer, and actress, of eccentric talent.

Field was a unique figure in the history of American journalism. She began writing when still in her teens, and her letters to the Springfield Republican of Massachusetts, and other papers, over the signature of "Straws, Jr.," were well received. She wrote from Washington, D.C., New York City, and Europe. She was one of the few successful paragraphists, and her criticisms of art, music, and the drama, were just. She was both editor and publisher of her paper, Washington.

New-York Gazette

The New-York Gazette (1725-1744) was the first newspaper published in the Province of New York.

New Journalism

New Journalism is a style of news writing and journalism, developed in the 1960s and 1970s, which uses literary techniques deemed unconventional at the time. It is characterized by a subjective perspective, a literary style reminiscent of long-form non-fiction and emphasizing "truth" over "facts", and intensive reportage in which reporters immersed themselves in the stories as they reported and wrote them. This was in contrast to traditional journalism where the journalist was typically "invisible" and facts are reported as objectively as possible. The phenomenon of New Journalism is generally considered to have ended by the early 1980s.The term was codified with its current meaning by Tom Wolfe in a 1973 collection of journalism articles he published as The New Journalism, which included works by himself, Truman Capote, Hunter S. Thompson, Norman Mailer, Joan Didion, Terry Southern, Robert Christgau, Gay Talese and others.

Articles in the New Journalism style tended not to be found in newspapers, but rather in magazines such as The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's, CoEvolution Quarterly, Esquire, New York, The New Yorker, Rolling Stone, and for a short while in the early 1970s, Scanlan's Monthly.

Contemporary journalists and writers questioned the "newness" of New Journalism, as well as whether it qualified as a distinct genre. The subjective nature of New Journalism received extensive exploration; one critic suggested the genre's practitioners were functioning more as sociologists or psychoanalysts than as journalists. Criticism has been leveled at numerous individual writers in the genre, as well.

Oregon Spectator

The Oregon Spectator, was a newspaper published from 1846 to 1855 in Oregon City of what was first the Oregon Country and later the Oregon Territory of the United States. The Spectator was the first American newspaper west of the Rocky Mountains and was the main paper of the region used by politicians for public debate of the leading topics of the day. The paper's motto was Westward the Star of Empire takes its way.

Penny press

Penny press newspapers were cheap, tabloid-style newspapers mass-produced in the United States from the 1830s onwards. Mass production of inexpensive newspapers became possible following the shift from hand-crafted to steam-powered printing. Famous for costing one cent while other newspapers cost around 6 cents, penny press papers were revolutionary in making the news accessible to middle class citizens for a reasonable price.

Territorial Enterprise

The Territorial Enterprise, founded by William Jernegan and Alfred James on December 18, 1858, was a newspaper published in Virginia City, Nevada. The paper was published for its first two years in Genoa in what was then Utah Territory. New owners Jonathan Williams and J. B. Woolard moved the paper to Carson City, the capital of the territory, in 1859. The paper changed hands again the next year; Joseph T. Goodman and Dennis E. McCarthy moved it again, this time to Virginia City, in 1860.

Noted author Mark Twain worked for the paper during the 1860s along with writer Dan DeQuille. The young Sam Clemens was hired to cover for DeQuille, who took time off to visit his family in Iowa. Later, Mark Twain and Dan DeQuille, lifelong friends, shared a room at 25 North B St. in Virginia City, steps from the Enterprise offices.

The paper was owned and operated by the Blake family in the 1890s through the 1920s.

The paper went out of publication for a while and was revived by Helen Crawford Dorst in 1946 and was later purchased and revived by author, journalist, and railroad historian Lucius Beebe and his long-time companion and co-author Charles Clegg on May 2, 1952. Clegg and Beebe sold the Territorial Enterprise in 1961.

The Philadelphia Inquirer

The Philadelphia Inquirer is a morning daily newspaper that serves the Philadelphia metropolitan area of the United States. The newspaper was founded by John R. Walker and John Norvell in June 1829 as The Pennsylvania Inquirer and is the third-oldest surviving daily newspaper in the United States. Owned by Philadelphia Media Network, a subsidiary of The Philadelphia Foundation's nonprofit Institute for Journalism in New Media, The Inquirer has the eighteenth largest average weekday U.S. newspaper circulation and has won twenty Pulitzer Prizes. It is the newspaper of record in the Delaware Valley.The paper has risen and fallen in prominence throughout its history. The Inquirer first became a major newspaper during the American Civil War when its war coverage was popular on both sides. The paper's circulation dropped after the war, then rose by the end of the 19th century. Originally supportive of the Democratic Party, The Inquirer's political affiliation eventually shifted toward the Whig Party and then the Republican Party before officially becoming politically independent in the middle of the 20th century. By the end of the 1960s, The Inquirer trailed its chief competitor, the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, and lacked modern facilities and experienced staff. In the 1970s, new owners and editors turned the newspaper into one of the country's most prominent, winning 20 Pulitzers.

The editor is Gabriel Escobar. Stan Wischnowski is vice president of news operations.

Winston Burdett

Winston Burdett (December 12, 1913 – May 19, 1993) was an American broadcast journalist and correspondent for the CBS Radio Network during World War II and later for CBS television news. During the war he became a member of Edward R. Murrow's team of war correspondents known as the Murrow Boys. From 1937-1942 Burdett was involved with the Communist Party. He testified before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee in 1955, detailing his espionage work for the Soviet Union in Europe and naming dozens of other party members.

Yankton, South Dakota

Yankton is a city in, and the County seat of, Yankton County, South Dakota, U.S. The population was 14,454 at the 2010 census. Yankton is the principal city of the Yankton Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes the entirety of Yankton County, and which had an estimated population of 22,662 as of July 1, 2017. Yankton was the first capital of Dakota Territory. It is named for the Yankton tribe of Nakota (Sioux) Native Americans; Yankton is derived from the Nakota word I-hank-ton-wan ("the end village").Yankton is located on the Missouri River just downstream of the Gavins Point Dam and Lewis and Clark Lake and just upstream of the confluence with the James River. The United States National Park Service's headquarters for the Missouri National Recreational River are located in the city. The Human Services Center was established as a psychiatric hospital in 1882 and is on the National Register of Historic Places.

Yankton is commonly referred to as the "River City", due to its proximity to the Missouri River and the importance that the river played in the city's settlement and development. Yankton has also earned the nickname, "Mother City of the Dakotas", due to the early important role it played in the creation and development of the Dakota Territory, which later became the 39th and 40th U.S. states of North and South Dakota.

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