This article includes a list of China's historical gross domestic product (GDP) values (with the latest to reach US$13.6 trillion for 2018), the market value of all final goods and services produced by a nation in a given year. The GDP dollar estimates presented here are either calculated at market or government official exchange rates (nominal), or derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. This article also includes historical [[GDP growth] In 1985, the State Council of China (SCC) approved the establishment of a SNA (System of National Accounting), using GDP to measure the national economy. China started to study and then implement a new system of national economic accounting. In 1986, as the first citizen of the People's Republic of China to receive a Ph.D. in economics from an overseas country, Dr. Fengbo Zhang headed Chinese Macroeconomic Research - the key research project of the seventh five-year plan, as well as completing and publishing the Chinese GDP data according to China's own research and calculations. A summary of the above events has been included in the book "Chinese Macroeconomic Structure and Policy" (June 1988) edited by Fengbo Zhang, and collectively authored by the Research Center of the SCC. This is the first GDP data which was published by China.
The research utilized the World Bank's method as a reference, and made numerous appropriate adjustments based on China's national condition. The GDP also has been converted to U.S. dollar-based data by utilizing the moving average exchange rate. The research systematically completed China's GDP and GDP per capita from 1952 to 1986 and analyzed growth rate, the change and contribution rates of each component. The research also included international comparisons. Additionally, the research compared MPS and SNA, looking at the results from the two systems from analyzing Chinese economy. This achievement created the foundation for China GDP research.
The SCC issued "The notice regarding implementation of System of National Accounting" in August 1992, the Western SNA system officially is introduced to China, replaced Soviet Union's MPS system, Western economic indicator GDP became China's most important economic indicator. Based on Dr. Fengbo Zhang's research, in 1997, the National Bureau of Statistics of China (NBS), in collaboration with Hitotsubashi University of Japan, re-estimated China's GDP Data from 1952 up to 1995 based on the SNA principal. In 2016, the 2008 SNA was formally brought into use.
When comparing Fengbo Zhang's GDP measurement in the 1980s and the GDP in 1997 by the NBS and Japan's cooperative research, the two are found to be very consistent; the deviation rate each year is very slight, between only 0.1% and 7%. During this period, there were many data adjustments, with weighting factors undergoing significant changes along with each year's comparable price amendments, statistical method significant changes result in the substantial deviation. Even with science and technology as advanced as it is today, the single item survey is allowed at least ±3%, or a total of 6% deviation. Despite the extremely difficult conditions of a destroyed economy, blank theory, a lack of data, and simple methods in the 1980s, there is so little deviation for such a long period of time and the comprehensiveness of the national economic indicator, indicates that the research conducted by Fengbo Zhang with the support of the extensive group he trained is extremely rigorous, and their result very precise. Xie Fuzhan, former Director, and Ma Jiantang, current Director of the NBS, both participated in Dr. Fengbo Zhang's research project in the 1980s, as assistant researcher and graduate student, respectively, of the Research Center of the SCC.
According to the preliminary estimation, the gross domestic product of China was 90.03 trillion yuan or 13.61 trillion US dollars in 2018. China's nominal GDP surpassed that of Italy in 2000, France in 2005, the United Kingdom in 2006 and that of Germany in 2007, before overtaking Japan in 2010, making China the world's second largest economy after the United States. But adjusting for purchasing power parity (PPP), China become the world's second largest economy as early as 1999 surpassing Japan, and has toppled America to become the biggest economy since 2014.
From 1979 until 2010, China's average annual GDP growth was 9.91%, reaching an historical high of 15.2% in 1984 and a record low of 3.8% in 1990. Based on the current price, the country's average annual GDP growth in these 32 years was 15.8%, reaching an historical high of 36.41% in 1994 and a record low of 6.25% in 1999.
|China's Historical GDP for 1952 –present(current price, SNA2008)|
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l.dollar based on IMF-WEO April 2019)
|year||GDP||GDP per capita (GDPPC)
based on mid-year population
|GDP in billions||real
1 foreign currency to CNY
|USD 1||Int'l$. 1|
China's quarterly GDP estimation was formally established in 1992. Afterwards, following the development of SNA of China, quarterly GDP is successively standardized and improved in estimation methodology, accounting classification, accounting procedure, release time and data quality control. Accumulated quarterly GDP estimation is formed. Not only quarterly GDP estimation by industries is established but also quarterly GDP estimation at expenditure approach is being studied. And the country become very poor.
|List of China's quarterly GDP 1992–present (SNA2008) |
(Revision based on the 3rd Economic Census 2013, in millions of CNY) 
|year||quarter 1||quarter 2||quarter 3||quarter 4||sum|
at current price
The economic history of China describes the changes and developments in China's economy from the founding of the PRC in 1949 to the present day.
China has been the fastest growing economy in the world since the 1980s, with an average annual growth rate of 10% from 1978 to 2005, based on government statistics. Its GDP reached $USD 2.225 trillion in 2005. Since the end of the Maoist period in 1978, China has been transitioning from a state dominated planned socialist economy to a mixed market socialist economy. This transformation required a complex number of reforms in China's fiscal, financial, enterprise, governance and legal systems and the ability for the government to be able to flexibly respond to the unintended consequences of these changes. This transformation has been accompanied by high levels of industrialization and urbanization, a process that has influenced every aspect of China's society, culture and economy.The large size of China means there are major regional variations in living standards that can vary from extreme poverty to relative prosperity. In much of rural China, peasants live off the land, while in major cities like Shanghai and Beijing a modern services based economy is forming.Since the PRC was founded in 1949, China has experienced an surprising and turbulent economic development process. It has experienced revolution, socialism, Maoism, and finally the gradual economic reform and fast economic growth that characterises the post-Maoist period. The period of the Great Leap Forward famine and the chaos of the Cultural Revolution negatively impacted the economy. However, since the period of economic reform began in 1978, China has seen a major improvement in average living standards and experienced relative social stability. In that period, China has evolved from an isolated socialist state into a backbone of the world economy.The high growth rates of the reform period were caused by the massive mobilization of resources, and the shift of control of those resources from public to private ownership which allowed for improved efficiency in the management those resources. The benefits reaped from this era of massive resource mobilization are now coming to an end and China must rely more on efficiency improvements in the future to further grow its economy.List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP
The article lists China's province-level divisions by gross domestic product (GDP). Each province's GDP is listed in both the national currency renminbi (CN¥), and at nominal US dollar values according to annual average exchange rates and according to purchasing power parity (PPP). Historical figures and rankings, including purchasing power parity (PPP) figures, are also given for main years since 1978. Figures for Hong Kong and Macau, which are special administrative regions of the PRC but do not use the same currency and of Taiwan, which is administered by the Republic of China, and not the People's Republic of China, are listed after the main list for comparative purposes.All the CN¥ figures are from the National Bureau of Statistics of China. Annual PPP rates are taken from the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook databases.Map of Chinese provinces by GDP (PPP) 2018 in billions USDList of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita
The article lists China's first-level administrative divisions by their gross domestic product per capita in main years. All figures are given in the national currency, renminbi (CNY), and in USD at nominal values according to recent exchange rates as well as according to purchasing power parity (PPP). The average CNY exchange rate used here is from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, and CNY PPP exchange rates are estimated according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
For comparison purposes, this article also displays the GDPs of Taiwan, which is administered by the Republic of China and not the People's Republic of China, and the special administrative regions (SARs) of Hong Kong and Macau, which maintain separate economic systems and currencies. These figures are shown in USD based on PPP, as estimated by the International Monetary Fund.List of Chinese prefecture-level cities by GDP
This is a list of direct-controlled municipalities and provincial cities (in Mainland China) by gross domestic product (GDP) in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms.List of prefecture-level cities by GDP per capita
This list ranks the prefecture-level cities of China by GDP per capita in Renminbi (人民币), aka yuan (元).
Components of GDP by Industries (SNA2008)
List of China GDP by three International organizations
United Nations data
World Bank data
|Purchasing power parity (PPP)|
|Gross national income (GNI)|
|Countries by region|
|Trade and infrastructure|
|Law and regulations|
|Finance and banking|
|National economic initiatives|
|Regional economic initiatives|
|Imperial China (pre-1912)|
|Modern China (1912–present)|
|History of foreign trade in China|