Hispanophone

Hispanophone[i] and Hispanosphere are terms used to refer to Spanish-language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world, respectively. The terms derive from the Latin political name of the Iberian Peninsula, Hispania. In addition to the general definition of Hispanophone, some groups in the Hispanic world make a distinction between Castilian-speaking[ii] and Spanish-speaking, with the former term denoting the speakers of the Spanish language—also known as Castilian—and the latter the speakers of the Spanish or Hispanic languages (i.e. the languages of Spain or the languages of the Hispanic nations).

Geographic distribution

Countries with Spanish as an official language
  Countries where Spanish is the sole official national language.
  Countries and regions where the Spanish language is co-official.

Hispanophones are estimated at between 480[1] and 577 million (including second language speakers)[2][3][4][5] globally, making Spanish the second most spoken language in terms of native speakers. Around 360 million live in Hispanic America and 45 million in Spain (70 million in Europe). There are more than 34 million Spanish speakers in the United States.[6] There are also smaller Hispanophone groups in Canada, northern Morocco, Equatorial Guinea, Western Sahara,[7] the Philippines and Brazil as well as in many other places around the world, particularly other countries of European Union, where it is one of 24 official languages, and Australia.

In a cultural, rather than merely linguistic sense, the notion of "Hispanophone" goes further than the above definition. The Hispanic culture is the legacy of the Spanish Empire, and so the term can refer to people whose cultural background is primarily associated with Spain, regardless of ethnic or geographical differences. The whole sense of identity of the Hispanic population and the Hispanophones is sometimes referred by the term Hispanidad (Hispanicity).

Hispanosphere

During the Spanish period between 1492 and 1898, many people from Spain migrated to the new lands they had conquered. The Spaniards took with them their language and culture, and integrated within the society they had settled, creating a large empire that stretched all over the world and producing several multiracial populations. Their influences are found in the following continents and countries that were originally colonized by the Spaniards.

List of countries with Spanish-speaking populations

Rank Country/territory Spanish-speaking
population
Source Secondary also
Area (km²) Area (sq mi)
1  Mexico 130,222,815 [8] 110,651,490 1,970,552 761,606
2  Colombia 49,104,722 Official Colombian Population clock 47,463,052 1,141,748 440,831
3  Spain 47,003,901 Official INE estimate 1/1/2011 46,585,009 504,030 195,364
4  Argentina 44,259,883 Official INDEC estimate 40,655,093 2,780,880 1,068,302
5  United States 40,045,795 U.S. Census Bureau, 2015[9]
6  Peru 29,797,694 Official INEI estimate 25,804,803 1,285,216 496,225
7  Venezuela 29,210,000 Official Venezuelan Population clock 28,859,480 916,445 353,841
8  Chile 17,248,450 Official INE projection 17,127,711 756,950 292,183
9  Ecuador 14,170,000 Official Ecuador Population clock 13,851,720 283,561 109,415
10  Cuba 11,268,000 UN 2009 estimate
11  Guatemala 11,204,000 UN 2009 estimate
12  Bolivia 10,426,154 Official INE projection (2010)
13  Dominican Republic 10,090,000 UN 2009 estimate
14  Honduras 7,876,197 Official INE projection (2010)
15  El Salvador 6,857,000 UN estimate
16  Brazil 6,676,018 UN estimate
17  Paraguay 6,127,000 UN estimate
18  Nicaragua 5,603,000 UN estimate
19  Costa Rica 4,468,000 UN estimate
20  Puerto Rico 3,991,000 UN estimate
21  Panama 3,343,000 UN estimate
22  Uruguay 3,340,000 UN estimate
23  Philippines 494,000[10] [11]
24  Equatorial Guinea 487,000 UN estimate
25  Western Sahara 430,000 UN estimate
26  Belize 180,000[12] Censo de Belice (2000)[13]

Europe

Spain

Spain languages-en
The languages of Spain

The modern-day people that live in the region of ancient Hispania are the Portuguese, Spanish, Andorran and Gibraltarian people. Historically, the modern country of Spain was formed by the accretion of several independent Iberian kingdoms through dynastic inheritance, conquest and the will of the local elites. These kingdoms had their own nationalistic loyalties and political borders.

Today, there is no single Castilian–Spanish identity for the whole country. Spain is a de facto plurinational state. Many Spanish citizens feel no conflict in recognising their multiple ethnic identities at the same time. Spain is a culturally heterogeneous country, home to a wide range of cultures, each one with its own customs and traditions. Some such cultures have their own language. Since the beginning of the transition to democracy in Spain and the creation of the Spanish autonomous communities, after Francoist Spain, there have been many movements towards more autonomy (delegation of powers) in certain territories of the country, some with the aim of achieving full independence and others with the goal of improving the system of devolution and the state of the autonomies (or self-government entities) .

The existence of multiple distinct cultures in Spain allows an analogy to be drawn to the United Kingdom. Using the term Spanish for someone of Spanish descent would then be expected to be equivalent to using Briton to describe someone descending from some part of the United Kingdom. Cultures within the United Kingdom, such as English, Irish, Scottish, and Welsh, would then correspond in this analogy to cultures within Spain such as Castilian, Catalan, Galician and Basque among others. In contrast with Spain, because of centuries of gradual and mutual consolidation across the Iberian Peninsula, such distinctions tend to be blurred. It is a subtle, yet important, distinction.

In Spain, as in the United Kingdom, the economically dominant territories—Castile and England—spread their language for mutual communication. However, the political dominance in the United Kingdom tends to be sharper compared to Spain, where most of medieval realms do not correspond with the actual boundaries of the autonomous communities, and the crown was unified into a sole monarch. For instance, Spanish people in modern times never refer to King Felipe VI of Spain as "the King of Castile," whereas the British sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, is sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Queen of England."

Americas

Hispanic America

Spanish is the official language in a great part of the Americas.

United States

U.S. Hispanics are citizens of the United States whose ancestry or national origin is of any of the nations composing the Hispanosphere. A Hispanic person's status is independent from whether or not he or she speaks the Spanish language, for not all Hispanic Americans speak Spanish. A Hispanic person may be of any race (White, Amerindian, mixed, Black, Asian or Pacific Islander). As of 2013 Hispanics accounted for 17.1% of the population, around 53.2 million people.[14] This was an increase of 29% since 2004, when Hispanics were 14.1% of the population (around 41.3 million people). The Hispanic growth rate over the July 1, 2003 to July 1, 2004 period was 3.6% — higher than any other ancestral group in the United States — and more than three times the rate of the nation's total population (at 1.0%). The projected Hispanic population of the United States for July 1, 2050, is 105.6 million people. According to this projection, Hispanics will constitute 25% of the nation's total population by the year 2050.[15][16]

Historically, a continuous Hispanic presence in the territory of the United States has existed since the 16th century, earlier than any other group after the Amerindians. Spaniards pioneered the present-day United States. The first confirmed European landing on the continent was that of Juan Ponce de León, who landed in 1513 on the shore he christened La Florida. Within three decades of Ponce de León's landing, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon, and the Great Plains. Spanish ships sailed along the East Coast, penetrating to present-day Bangor, Maine, and up the Pacific Coast as far as Oregon. From 1528 to 1536, four castaways from a Spanish expedition, including a black Moor, journeyed all the way from Florida to the Gulf of California, 267 years before the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

In 1540 Hernando de Soto undertook an extensive exploration of the present United States. In the same year Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led 2,000 Spaniards and Mexican Indians across today's ArizonaMexico border and traveled as far as central Kansas, close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States. Other Spanish explorers of the United States make up a long list that includes, among others, Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón, Pánfilo de Narváez, Sebastián Vizcaíno, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, Gaspar de Portolà, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Tristán de Luna y Arellano, and Juan de Oñate. In all, Spaniards probed half of today's lower 48 states before the first English colonization attempt at Roanoke Island in 1585.

The Spanish created the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565. Santa Fe, New Mexico also predates Jamestown, Virginia (founded in 1607) and Plymouth Colony (of Mayflower and Pilgrims fame, founded in 1620). Later came Spanish settlements in San Antonio, Tucson, San Diego, Los Angeles, and San Francisco, to name just a few. The Spanish even established a Jesuit mission in Virginia's Chesapeake Bay 37 years before the founding of Jamestown.

Two iconic American stories have Spanish antecedents, too. Almost 80 years before John Smith's alleged rescue by Pocahontas, a man by the name of Juan Ortiz told of his remarkably similar rescue from execution by an Indian girl. Spaniards also held a thanksgiving—56 years before the famous Pilgrims festival—when they feasted near St. Augustine with Florida Indians, probably on stewed pork and garbanzo beans. As late as 1783, at the end of the American Revolutionary War, Spain held claim to roughly half of today's continental United States (see New Spain); in 1775, Spanish ships even reached Alaska. From 1819 to 1848, the United States and its army increased the nation's area by roughly a third at Spanish and Mexican expense, including today's three most populous states: California, Texas, and Florida. Hispanics became the first American citizens in the newly acquired Southwest territory and remained the ancestral majority in several states until the 20th century.

Hispanic Americans have fought in all the wars of the United States and have earned some of the highest distinctions awarded to U.S. soldiers (list of Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients).[17][18][19] Historic figures in the United States have been Hispanic from early times. Some recent famous people include actress Rita Hayworth and baseball legends Lefty Gomez and Ted Williams.

The National Hispanic Heritage Month is celebrated in the United States from September 15 to October 15.[20]

Racial diversity

The term Hispanic is cultural and not racial. The racial diversity found among Hispanics stems from the fact that Hispanic America has always been, since 1492, an area of immigration until late in the 20th century, when the region has increasingly become an area of emigration. Even outside the broad U.S. definition of Hispanic, the term encompasses a very racially and ethnically diverse population. While in the United States, Hispanics are often treated as a group apart from whites, blacks or other races, they actually include people who may identify with any or all of those racial groups.

In the American mass media as well as popular culture, Hispanic is often incorrectly used to describe a subject's race or physical appearance. In general, Hispanics are assumed to have traits such as dark hair and eyes, and brown or olive skin. Many others are viewed as physically intermediate between whites, blacks and/or Amerindians and/or Asians.

Hispanics with mostly Caucasoid or Negroid features may not be recognized as such in the United States in spite of the ethnic and racial diversity of most Hispanic American populations. Hispanics who do not look like the stereotypical Hispanic may have their ancestral status questioned or even challenged by others. Actors Martin Sheen, Alexis Bledel and Cameron Diaz, for example, are Hispanic even though they may be presumed not to be so because, being white, they do not fit the stereotype. If Hispanics with mostly Caucasoid features are to be considered Hispanic, they have stereotypical Mediterranean/Southern European appearance - olive skin, dark hair, and dark eyes.[21][22][23]

A great proportion of Hispanics identify as half-caste (mixed European and Amerindian) regardless of national origin. This is largely because most Hispanics have their origins in majority half-caste Hispanic American countries. El Salvador, Paraguay, and Mexico are examples of mostly half-caste populations, with 90% of Salvadorans, 95% of Paraguayans, and 70% [24] of Mexicans identifying as mestizo, with Mexico having the largest total mestizo population at over 66 million.[25]

Many individuals identified as Hispanics (based on the U.S. definition) are of unmixed Amerindian ancestry. For example, many of those from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru constitute a majority or plurality of the population as do a considerable proportion in Mexico.

Many Hispanics born in or with descent from the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Colombia, Cuba, Uruguay, and other countries may be of African descent, be it mulatto (mixed European and black African), zambo (mixed Amerindian and black African), triracial (specifically European, black African, and Amerindian), or unmixed black African. Recently, Hispanics of unmixed black African blood are perceived and defined by American mass media and popular culture as Hispanic, because of existing mulatto Hispanics of Negroid phenotypes and the dark-skinned stereotype of Hispanics.

The majority of people in Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile are largely of European descent; not only of Spanish Europeans, but Italian, Portuguese, German, Polish, Irish, British, etc. In countries like Mexico, there was a process of miscegenation, which resulted in many people having both indigenous and European origins. Many white Mexicans, though labeled Hispanic by the U.S. definition because of their assimilated culture and country of birth, trace their ancestries to European countries other than Spain, and some to non-European countries (see next paragraph). Nevertheless, in most cases, they have some Spanish ancestry, as the waves of European immigrants to these countries tended to quickly assimilate, intermarrying with the country's local population. (From 1850 to 1920, the U.S. Census form did not distinguish between whites and Mexican Americans.[26] In 1930, the U.S. Census form asked for "color or race," and census enumerators were instructed to write W for white and Mex for Mexican.[27] In 1940 and 1950, the census reverted its decision and made Mexicans be classified as white again and thus the instructions were to "Report white (W) for Mexicans unless they were definitely of full Indigenous Indian or other non-white races (such as Black or Asian)."[26]) Initially colonial Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile had predominately mestizo population, but because of a massive European migration (mostly Spaniards and Italians, with Germans, British, Polish, etc.) in the 19th century, and the repeated intermarriage with white Europeans and Middle Easterners, like white Mexicans, they also have some Spanish blood, wherein the mestizo population became a so-called castizo population; with more European settlers arriving in the early 20th century, the population of Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile has overwhelmingly become white and European (some Middle Eastern) in race, culture and tradition. Like mentioned above, the Hispanics of Caucasian race, including white Mexicans, white Argentines, and white Uruguayans, who are perceived by U.S. mass media as well as general U.S. popular culture as Hispanic usually possess stereotypical Mediterranean appearance

Likewise, a percentage of Hispanics as defined by the U.S. government trace their ancestries to the Middle East, for example Colombians, Ecuadorians and Mexicans of Lebanese or Palestinian ancestry; Hispanics of Middle Eastern ancestry are usually to be considered Hispanic by the U.S. government, because they possess stereotypical Southern European appearance. Many Hispanics are of East Asian ancestry, as in the case of Cubans, Mexicans, Panamanians and Peruvians of Chinese and/or Japanese descent. If they were to migrate to the United States, the definition most frequently advocated would consider them Hispanic (see also: Asian Hispanic American and Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans).

The presence of these mentioned ethnic groups are not country-specific, since they can be found in every Hispanic American country, whether as larger of smaller proportions of their respective populations. Even in Spain, the European motherland of Hispanicity, recent decades has seen a growing population of mestizos and mulattoes and of unmixed Amerindian and African descent due to the reversal of the historic Old World-to-New World migration pattern, i.e.: Latin American immigration to Spain.

Of the over 35 million Hispanics counted in the Federal 2000 Census, 47.9% identified as White (termed White Hispanic by the Census Bureau); 42.2% some other race; 6.3% two or more races; 2% Black or African American; 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native; 0.3% Asian; and 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander.[28] Note that even among those Hispanics who reported one race only, most would also possess at least some ancestral lineage from one or more other races, despite the fact that only 6.3% reported as such (this is also applicable to the non-Hispanics counted in the U.S. Census, although maybe in less proportion).

According to one study (Stephens et al. 2001), from the genetic perspective, Hispanics generally represent a differential mixture of European, Native American, and African ancestry, with the proportionate mix typically depending on country of origin.[29]

The populations of Iberia (both Spain and Portugal), like all European populations, have received multiple other influences, even though they are still largely descended from the prehistoric European populations, and to a greater degree than any other major group.[30] The ancestry of Iberians has thus received many, (limited and often very localized) influences from the many people who settled on its territory throughout history, including Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Punics, Celts, Vandals, Suebi, Buri, Visigoths, Alans, Byzantines, Slavs (saqaliba), Berbers, Arabs, Magyars, Jews, and—particularly in Andalusia—Roma.[31]

Africa

Angola

The former Portuguese colony has a community of Afro-Cubans known as Amparos. They descend from Cuban soldiers brought to the country in 1975 as a result of the Cuban involvement in the Cold War. Fidel Castro deployed thousands of troops to the country during the Angolan Civil War. As a result of this era, there exists a small Spanish-speaking community in Angola of Afro-Cubans numbering about 100,000.

Equatorial Guinea

In the former Spanish province of Equatorial Guinea, although Portuguese and French are co-official languages, the majority of the population speak Spanish, there is a small minority of African people who possessed Spanish and other European ancestry. These individuals form less than 1% of the population.

Morocco

In the former Spanish protectorate of Morocco, Spanish speakers are present in small numbers, located in the northern coastal region of the country. However the majority of Moroccan people are predominantly Arabic speaking Muslims of Berber and African ancestry.

Nigeria

The small Amaro population are descendants of repatriated Afro-Cuban indentured servants.

Spanish territories in North Africa

Since the Reconquista, Spain has held numerous emplacements in North Africa. Most of them were promptly lost, but to date, with an approximate population of 143,000 people, the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla, which constitute the two plazas de soberanía mayores (Major Territories under [Spanish] Sovereignty) remained Spanish, and the Chafarinas Islands, the Peñón de Alhucemas and the Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, which constitute the three plazas de soberanía menores (Minor Territories under [Spanish] Sovereignty), still forming part of Spain. The Canary Islands, a constituent part of Spain's main territorial subdivisions, are also located in North Africa.

Western Sahara

In the former Spanish province of Western Sahara, Spanish is de facto official (however, in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, one of the claimants to the territory, it is de jure co-official).[32] Most Arabic speakers speak Spanish as second language.

Asia

Philippines

In the Philippines, a Spanish Filipino is a Filipino who has Spanish or Hispanic lineage and descent, mostly born and raised in the Philippines. Most common languages spoken today by Spanish Filipinos are Philippine Spanish, Spanish; Chavacano, the only Spanish-based creole language in Asia and is spoken by over a million people; and English, which is used in the public sphere. A number of Spanish Filipinos also speak other Philippine languages.

Section 7, Article XIV of the 1987 Philippine Constitution specifies Spanish (along with Arabic) a language to "be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis", while the Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language (Spanish: Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española) remains the state regulating body for the language. Castilian Spanish is the sole dialectal standard taught in schools, while Philippine Spanish currently has a few thousand native speakers left.

Despite its rapid decline in the 20th century, there has been a revival of interest in the Spanish language in the first decade of the 21st century. Since the rule of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (herself a fluent speaker), Spanish is slowly being re-introduced into the educational system, with a revival of Spanish-language media including Filipinas Ahora Mismo (Tagalog: Filipinas Ora Mismo), a radio programme broadcast on Radio Manila FM.

Many Philippine languages including Filipino notably contain numerous loanwords of Spanish origin.

Pacific Islands

Easter Island (Rapa Nui)

Spanish is the official language of Easter Island, a territorial possession of Chile in Polynesia, Easter Island is the only place in Austronesian world where people fluently speak Spanish.

Mariana Islands

The Mariana Islands (today split between the United States territory of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) were formerly governed as a part of the Spanish East Indies, and thus many Chamorros possess some degree of Spanish admixture.

While most people living on these islands no longer speak Spanish, the native Chamorro language exhibits a noticeable Spanish influence in its vocabulary. Many Chamorros have also preserved Hispanic cultural elements such as fiestas, cockfighting, and the Catholic faith despite having integrated with the American way of life.

Spanish surnames are still prevalent on Guam, it is spoken by Catholic people and Puerto Ricans, and the custom of women keeping their maiden names after marriage is a both byproduct of Spanish culture on these islands as well as the matrilineal structure of indigenous Chamorro culture.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Spanish: hispanohablante, hispanoparlante, or hispanófono
  2. ^ Spanish: castellanohablante, castellanoparlante, or castellanófono

References

  1. ^ I Acta Internacional de la Lengua Castellana Archived 2008-05-26 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ https://www.cervantes.es/imagenes/File/espanol_lengua_viva_2018.pdf
  3. ^ El español, una lengua viva. Informe 2018. Hay 577 millones de hablantes de español. 480 millones lo hablan con dominio nativo como primera o segunda lengua, el resto lo habla con competencia limitada entre los que hay 22 millones de estudiantes
  4. ^ Instituto Cervantes ("El País", "Terra"), Universidad de México (uam.es, educar.org), Babel-linguistics Archived 2009-03-10 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ 5th International Congress on Spanish Language (la-moncloa.es), uis.edu Archived 2010-03-25 at the Wayback Machine, Antonio Molina, director of the Instituto Cervantes in 2006 (terranoticias.es, elmundo.es, fundeu.es), Luis María Anson of the Real Academia Española (elcultural.es), International Congress about Spanish, 2008, Mario Melgar of the México University (lllf.uam.es), Feu Rosa – Spanish in Mercosur (congresosdelalengua.es), elpais.com, eumed.net, babel-linguistics.com Archived 2009-03-10 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Stateside only "Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2006". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2009-04-25. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  7. ^ La Voz de Galicia. "Como saharauis queremos conservar el español". lavozdegalicia.com.
  8. ^ "Mexico Population (2018) - Worldometers". www.worldometers.info.
  9. ^ Bureau, US Census. "FFF: Hispanic Heritage Month 2016". www.census.gov.
  10. ^ 1,200,000 Chavacano (Philippine Spanish Creole)
  11. ^ (in Spanish) New Prospects for the Spanish Language in the Philippines (ARI) - Elcano. Realinstitutoelcano.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  12. ^ Census of Belize (2000)
  13. ^ (in Spanish) Demografía de la Lengua española (in Spanish:Demographics of the Spanish language)
  14. ^ Table 1. Population by Sex, Age, Hispanic Origin, and Race. US Census Bureau, 2013.
  15. ^ https://www.hispaniccouncil.org/en-2050-el-10-de-la-poblacion-mundial-hablara-espanol/
  16. ^ https://elpais.com/cultura/2017/11/27/actualidad/1511805887_509321.html
  17. ^ U.S. Army document Archived 2007-03-25 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ The Hispanic Experience - Contributions to America's Defense. Houstonculture.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  19. ^ U.S. Latino Patriots: From the American Revolution to Afghanistan, An Overview By Refugio I. Rochin and Lionel Fernández
  20. ^ "Hispanic Heritage Month -- National Register of Historic Places Official Website--Part of the National Park Service". nps.gov.
  21. ^ "Typical stereotypes of Hispanics", NLCATP (National Latino Council on Alcohol and Tobacco Prevention), March 14, 2014
  22. ^ Genetic makeup of Hispanic/Latino Americans influenced by Native American, European and African-American ancestries, Science Daily, May 31, 2010
  23. ^ Watch this YouTube video that shows faces of white Latin Americans, look for the white Latin Americans with Mediterranean/Southern European pigmentation that stereotypes most of white Latin Americans and white Hispanic and Latino Americans. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PoISFZvzYsg
  24. ^ "Mexico". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  25. ^ "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. July 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
  26. ^ a b "The Race Question". Rci.rutgers.edu. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  27. ^ Beine, Joe. "US Population in the 1930 Census by Race". Genealogybranches.com. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  28. ^ "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin" (PDF). March 2001. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
  29. ^ Stephens' study Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine, Standord University
  30. ^ Dupanloup, Isabelle; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Chikhi, Lounès; Barbujani, Guido (2004-07-01). "Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21 (7): 1361–1372. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh135. ISSN 0737-4038. PMID 15044595.
  31. ^ See Genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula
  32. ^ Rapport de la Présidente de la délégation ad hoc Sahara Occidental, Mme Catherine Lalumière, Vice-Présidente du Parlement européen
Assahra Al Maghribiya

Assahra Al Maghribiya (Arabic: الصحراء المغربية‎) is a daily arabophone Moroccan newspaper of Maroc Soir Group. The group was acquired by Saudi Arabian media executive Othman Al Omeir. The paper was launched in 1989.The sister publications of the paper are the royalist francophone Le Matin, the hispanophone La Mañana (defunct) and the online Anglophone newspaper Morocco Times (defunct).

Cocido

Cocido (Spanish) or cozido (Portuguese) is a traditional stew eaten as a main dish in Spain, Portugal, Brazil and other Hispanophone and Lusophone countries.

Esse Cara Sou Eu (song)

"Esse Cara Sou Eu" is a song by Brazilian recording artist Roberto Carlos. was released on November 4, 2012 as the first single from extended play (EP) Esse Cara Sou Eu, with the record labels Amigos Records and Sony Music. The song was produced by Guto Graça Mello and Dody Sirena. The track were included on the soundtrack of the Rede Globo's telenovela Salve Jorge in 2012. "Ese Tipo Soy Yo" is the Spanish-language version of the song released for the Hispanophone market.

Hispanic (disambiguation)

Hispanic means "of or from Spain". The term is commonly used to refer to the people and languages of what is now Spain from the historic period during the Roman Empire.

It may especially refer to:

Derived from the name of the Roman province of Hispania ( Modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar in the Iberian Peninsula).

Related to, or derived from, the Spanish people or the culture of Spain, Hispanidad or other Hispanophone countries.

Related to, or derived from, the countries and culture of the people of Hispanic America.

Related to, or derived from, Hispanic Americans living in the United States and their culture.

Relating to the Spanish and Mexican period of colonial rule in the Philippines.

Relating to the Spanish and Mexican derived influences on the Culture of the Philippines, but not in relation to said Filipino culture or the Filipino people, nor to that which derives from these.

Io canto

Io canto is the ninth studio album by Italian singer–songwriter Laura Pausini, released by Warner Music on 10 November 2006. On 14 November, Warner Music released Io canto's Spanish language edition, Yo canto, for the hispanophone market. Yo canto–Io canto is a limited-edition double album featuring both the Italian– and Spanish-language editions. This marks the first instance in Pausini's multilingual music career in which both editions are offered in a single release. Warner Music issued a third edition pressed exclusively for the French market. This pressing of Io canto features the bonus track "Je chante", a partial French adaptation of the Italian "Io canto".The album consists entirely of covers. Its repertoire spans three decades of Italian pop music history. Pausini pays homage to fellow Italian singer–songwriters whose lyrical work have influenced her artistic sensibility throughout the years. In the album's liner notes Pausini reveals:

Yo canto features "Dispárame, dispara", also known as "Corazón roto"—opening theme of the Mexican telenovela Amar sin límites (2006). Chile's Canal 13 employed the album's title track for its television series Cantando por un sueño. The album won the Latin Grammy in 2007 for Best Female Pop Vocal Album.

La Raza

The Spanish expression la Raza (literally "the Race") refers to the Hispanophone populations (primarily though not always exclusively in the Western Hemisphere), considered as an ethnic or racial unit historically deriving from the Spanish Empire, and the process of racial miscegenation of the Spanish colonizers with the indigenous populations of the New World (and sometimes Africans brought there by the Atlantic slave trade).The term was in wide use in Latin America in the early-to-mid 20th century but has gradually been replaced by Hispanidad in some countries. It remains in active use specifically in the context of Mexican-American identity politics in the United States.

La mia risposta

La mia risposta is Italian singer-songwriter Laura Pausini’s fifth studio album, issued by CGD East West (Warner) Records in 1998. Mi respuesta is its Spanish language edition for the hispanophone market.

Between February and April 1999, the La mia risposta World Tour '99 was held to support and promote the album in Europe.

The album was not as successful as her previous one, Le cose che vivi. As of September 2000, it has sold around 2 million copies worldwide.

Latin Grammy Award

A Latin Grammy Award is an award by The Latin Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the Latin music industry. The Latin Grammy honors works produced anywhere around the world that were recorded in either Spanish or Portuguese and is awarded in the United States. Submissions of products recorded in regional languages from Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula of Hispanophone or Lusophone countries such as Catalan, Guarani, Quechua may also be considered. Both the regular Grammy Award and the Latin Grammy Award have similar nominating and voting processes, in which the selections are decided by peers within the Latin music industry.

The first annual Latin Grammys ceremony was held at the Staples Center in Los Angeles on September 13, 2000. Broadcast by CBS, that first ceremony became the first primarily Spanish language primetime program carried on an English-language American television network. The most-recent ceremony, the 19th Annual Latin Grammy Awards, was held on November 16, 2017 at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada.

Since 2005, the awards are broadcast in the United States by the television network Univision. In 2013, 9.8 million people watched the Latin Grammy Awards on Univision, making the channel a top-three network for the night in the U.S.

Mi Plan Tour

The Mi Plan Tour was the fourth concert tour by Canadian singer-songwriter Nelly Furtado. The tour supported her fourth studio album, Mi Plan. Since the album was recorded in Spanish, the tour primarily focused on hispanophone countries in the Americas. Dates in Europe and Asia were scheduled as well. This tour marks the first concert appearances from Furtado in South America.

Municipio

Municipio (Spanish: [muniˈθipjo], Italian: [muniˈtʃiːpjo]) and município (Portuguese: [muniˈsipiu]) are country subdivisions in Italy and several Hispanophone and Lusophone nations, respectively. They are often translated as "municipality". In the English language, a municipality often is defined as relating to a single city or town; however, in Spanish, the term "municipio" may not mean a single city or town, but rather a jurisdiction housing several towns and cities, like a township, county, borough or civil parish. The Italian term "municipalità" refers either to a single city or a group of cities and towns in a township, but the Portuguese use is almost entirely restricted to group of cities or towns like in a county, township and so forth.

Palace of Sports

Palace of Sports or Sports Palace (Russian: Дворец спорта) is a generic name of comprehensive indoors sports venues introduced in the Soviet Union (compare with Palace of Culture) of big size that includes various sports halls and auxiliary space. Primarily designated to host sports events in front of spectators.

As a name it is still used in a number of post-Soviet states. Many of them had standard architectural design. Some of them were renamed, e.g., into Palace of Concerts and Sports.

The term is also used in other countries. For example, in Hispanophone countries, the term is Palacio de los Deportes.

Resta in ascolto

Resta in ascolto is Italian singer-songwriter Laura Pausini's eighth studio album released by Warner Music on 22 October 2004. Escucha is its Latin Grammy Awards and Grammy Award-winning Spanish language equivalent released for the hispanophone market making her the first and only Italian female to receive such award. The album in its two version (Italian and Spanish) sold over 5 millions of copies around the world.

Escucha features “Víveme”, theme song of the highly successful Mexican telenovela La madrastra (2005). The song's exposure extended to the United States when Univision acquired the telenovela and began its broadcast of La madrastra in March 2005. In September 2006, following a year of praise and formal recognition—particularly from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences—Warner Music released special edition CD+DVDs of Escucha in Argentina and the United States. The special editions feature previously unreleased bonus tracks presented in music video form. These tracks include "Prendo te" and "De tu amor".

Promoting the album, Pausini embarked on a world tour during the early 6 months of 2005. The tour has yielded a DVD.

Royal Spanish Academy

The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, Spain, but is affiliated with national language academies in 22 other hispanophone nations through the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language. The RAE's emblem is a fiery crucible, and its motto is "Limpia, fija y da esplendor" ("Cleans, fixes, and gives splendor").

The RAE dedicates itself to language planning by applying linguistic prescription aimed at promoting linguistic unity within and between various territories, to ensure a common standard. The proposed language guidelines are shown in a number of works.

Semblante Urbano

Semblante Urbano is the name of the sixth album from El Roockie and the first one under Mas Flow Inc. The album was released on February 12, 2008. The album combines the dimensions of his experiences with urban rhythms such as reggaeton, dancehall, hip hop & reggae. It was considered one of the most anticipated albums in the reggaeton in the Hispanophone world. Luny of the production duo said in an interview that Banista "...has lyrics that can cut veins." Semblante Urbano: La Otra Cara De La Calle is the re-edition of the original album set to be released sometime in 2009. This re-edition will contain the original 14 tracks from the standard edition plus 2 remixes and an additional 5 new songs. It will also contain a DVD with the music videos from the singles plus an interview with El Roockie.

Spanish West Indies

The Spanish West Indies or the Spanish Antilles (also known as "Las Antillas Occidentales" or simply "Las Antillas Españolas" in Spanish) was the former name of the Spanish colonies in the Caribbean. In terms of governance of the Spanish Empire, The Indies was the designation for all its overseas territories and was overseen by the Council of the Indies, founded in 1524 and based in Spain. When the crown established the Viceroyalty of New Spain in 1535, the islands of the Caribbean came under its jurisdiction.

The islands claimed by Spain were Hispaniola, modern Haiti and the Dominican Republic; Cuba, Puerto Rico, Saint Martin, the Virgin Islands, Anguilla, Montserrat, Guadalupe and the Lesser Antilles, Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, Venezuela (Margarita island), Trinidad, and the Bay Islands.

The islands that later became the Spanish West Indies were the focus of the voyages of the Spanish expedition of Christopher Columbus in America. Largely due to the familiarity that Spaniards gained from Columbus's voyages, the islands were also the first lands to be permanently colonized by Europeans in the Americas. The Spanish West Indies were also the most enduring part of Spain's American Empire, only being surrendered in 1898 at the end of the Spanish–American War. For over three centuries, Spain controlled a network of ports in the Caribbean including Havana (Cuba), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Cartagena de Indias (Colombia), Veracruz (Mexico), and Portobelo, Panama, which were connected by galleon routes.

Some smaller islands were seized or ceded to other European powers as a result of war, or diplomatic agreements during the 17th and 18th centuries. Others such as Dominican Republic gained their independence in the 19th century.

Tour of the Mongoose

Tour of the Mongoose (also known as El Tour de la Mangosta in hispanophone countries) is the third concert tour by Colombian singer and songwriter, Shakira, in support of her first English album, Laundry Service. It is also noted as the singer's first global tour, reaching North America, South America and Europe. The tour successfully grossed close to $72 million according to Sony Music.

Tropical music

Tropical music (Spanish: música tropical) is a category used in the music industry to denote Latin music from the Caribbean. It encompasses music from the Spanish-speaking islands and coasts of the Caribbean, as well as genres rooted in this region such as salsa.In the 1940s and 1950s, the term tropical music was created to cover all music from the hispanophone Caribbean excluding Cuban music, which had its own category and niche within the American (and to a lesser extent European) music market. However, later in the 20th century after the Cuban Revolution, tropical music gained a broader meaning and began to be used in order to distinguish Caribbean genres such as cumbia and son cubano from inland genres such as tejano and norteño.

Tuya Soy

"Tuya Soy" (in English, "I'm yours") is a song by Puerto Rican recording artist Ivy Queen from her third studio album Diva (2003). It was released in mid-2004, following the releases of "Quiero Bailar", "Quiero Saber", "Papi Te Quiero", and "Guillaera" as the first four singles.

Lyrically, Ivy Queen tells the story of a woman who suspects her husband of cheating. Despite being in rotation on various Anglophone and Hispanophone radio stations in the United States, the song failed to chart in Billboard magazine.

White Hispanic and Latino Americans

In the United States, a White Hispanic is an American citizen or resident who is racially white and of Hispanic descent. The term white, itself an official U.S. racial category, refers to people "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe".

Based on the definitions created by the Office of Management and Budget and the U.S. Census Bureau, the concepts of race and ethnicity are mutually independent, and respondents to the census and other Census Bureau surveys are asked to answer both questions. Hispanicity is independent and thus not the same as race, and constitutes an ethnicity category, as opposed to a racial category, the only one of which that is officially collated by the U.S. Census Bureau. For the Census Bureau, ethnicity distinguishes between those who report ancestral origins in Spain or Hispanic America (Hispanic and Latino Americans), and those who do not (non-Hispanic Americans). The U.S. Census Bureau asks each resident to report the "race or races with which they most closely identify."White Americans are therefore referenced as white Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites, the former consisting of white Americans who report Hispanophone identity (Spanish Hispanic Latin America), and the latter consisting of white Americans who do not report Hispanophone ancestry.

As of 2010, 50.5 million or 16.3% of Americans identified as Hispanic or Latino. Of those, 26.7 million, or 53%, also self-identified as white.

Geographical distribution of languages

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