Hispanic Television Network

Hispanic Television Network (HTVN) is a defunct family-oriented television network that was once the third-largest Spanish-language network in the United States, after Univision and Telemundo. It was the first network to specifically target Hispanics of Mexican origin, the first Spanish-language network to take advantage of digital technology, and the first Spanish-language network to broadcast over the Internet.

HTVN operated from 2000 through 2003 and at one time could be viewed over-the-air on nearly 70 television stations, on approximately 300 cable systems, and on the Internet. HTVN was owned by Hispanic Television Network, Inc. of Fort Worth, Texas.

Hispanic Television Network
TypeBroadcast television network
OwnerHispanic Television Network, Inc. (defunct)
Launch date
DissolvedJuly 10, 2003


A New Network

HTVN was launched in early 2000 following the creation of Hispanic Television Network, Inc. from the merger of Hispano Television Ventures and American Independent Network, Inc., both of Fort Worth. While the new company owned both HTVN and English-language network American Independent Network, it focused the majority of its attention on HTVN. The network's facilities were all-digital and state-of-the-art.

Early Successes

The new network expanded rapidly, and by March 2000, appeared on 25 television stations, including those in top-10 Hispanic markets Los Angeles, Dallas, Phoenix, San Antonio and Brownsville, Texas.

By June 2000, HTVN had announced deals with Yahoo! to broadcast network programming on the Internet [1], and with Mexinema and Excalibur Media Group [2] to give HTVN the rights to over 500 Mexican-made, Spanish-language movies. It was now on nearly 60 television stations, including full-service flagship station KLDT in the Dallas/Fort Worth area. Including cable coverage, HTVN reached over 20 million homes.

By the end of the year, HTVN had added full-service KJLA in the Los Angeles market and had partnered with Mexican broadcasting giant MVS Television, providing the network access to MVS' state-of-the-art production facilities and talent base, allowing HTVN to produce programming in the United States, which was scarce at that time.

Back to Earth

The rapid growth proved to be costly, however, as HTVN's owners reported a 14,492% increase in expenses from first quarter 1999 to first quarter 2000, no doubt the bulk of it from launching the new network. Furthermore, the network did not produce nearly sufficient revenues to cover expenses and their owners announced a $38 million loss for 2000 against only $620,955 in revenue [3].

By 2002, HTVN had all but abandoned its over-the-air strategy and was turning its attention to mostly cable distribution. Still, the network was not bringing in sufficient revenue to cover its expenses, and despite its owners' attempts to acquire revenue from other sources, they filed for Chapter 11 reorganization in July 2002.

In early 2003, Hispanic Television Network, Inc. sold its cable agreements to Hispanic children's network, ¡Sorpresa! and on July 10, 2003, HTVN formally ceased operations [4].

In 2009 a new (and unrelated) effort toward a nationwide over-the-air Spanish-language network launched, Estrella TV.

Contributing factors to network's demise

Many factors contributed to HTVN's demise, but three major issues stand out:

  • Overly aggressive growth. HTVN's owners spent tremendous amounts of money to give HTVN maximum coverage and the very best facilities early on. It was a business strategy that was common in the late 1990s and early 2000s and it often proved disastrous, as revenues couldn't catch up with expenses fast enough to allow the company to continue operating.
  • Too-narrow market focus. HTVN proudly announced that its focus would be on Mexican Hispanics, which are estimated to make up two-thirds of all Hispanics in the United States. However, that strategy reduced the potential market by up to 33% and omitted two of the top three Hispanic television markets in the United States, New York (whose main Hispanic demographic was Puerto Rican) and Miami (predominately of Cuban origin).
  • Slow economy. HTVN launched at a time when the nation's economy was stumbling and conditions were exacerbated with the September 11, 2001 attacks, which further sent the economy reeling, drying up revenue.

See also

American Independent Network

The American Independent Network was one of the first major attempts at building a commercial television network consisting of low-powered television stations. Started by Don Shelton, Randy Moseley, and Lynn Synder, it was similar to the older Channel America (and its successor, America One (A1)), and was the foundation for Urban America TV (UATV). In 2000, several stations sold by USA Networks to Univision carried AIN for about a year while Univision got their second network, TeleFutura, ready to launch on the stations. AIN merged with Hispano Television Ventures in early 2000, forming Hispanic Television Network (HTVN). The new company operated both HTVN and AIN, but the majority of the company's attention was focused on HTVN. HTVN went off the air in 2003, and the AIN went off the air at 6am December 3, 2001 and turned into Urban America Television, with most AIN affiliates either going independent or switching to other networks, like A1 or UATV.

Azteca América

Azteca América (Spanish pronunciation: [asˈteka], sometimes shortened to Azteca) is an American Spanish-language free-to-air television network that is owned by HC2 Holdings, which acquired the network from the Azteca International Corporation subsidiary of TV Azteca.Headquartered in the Los Angeles suburb of Glendale, California, the network's programming is aimed at the Hispanic and Latin American communities in the United States and has access to programming from TV Azteca's three television national networks in Mexico, including a library with over 200,000 hours of original programming and news content from local bureaus in 32 Mexican states. Its programming consists of a mix of telenovelas, Liga MX matches, sports, news programming, and reality and variety series.Azteca is available on pay television (primarily carried on dedicated Spanish language programming tiers, except in some markets with a free-the-air affiliate), with local stations in over 60 markets with large Hispanic and Latin American populations (reaching 89% of the Hispanic population in the U.S. The network's former flagship station KAZA-TV in Los Angeles (until January 2018) was the highest-rated station in Azteca's portfolio.President and CEO Manuel Abud has led the company since March 3, 2014.


KAZD, virtual channel 55 (UHF digital channel 31), is an Azteca América owned-and-operated television station licensed to Lake Dallas, Texas, United States and serving the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex. The station is owned by HC2 Holdings. KAZD's offices are located on McKinney Avenue in downtown Dallas, and its transmitter is located south of Belt Line Road in Cedar Hill. On cable, the station is available on varying channels on Charter Spectrum depending on the metropolitan area municipality it serves, Verizon FiOS channel 3 and AT&T U-verse channel 55.


KCOS-LP was a low-power broadcast television station located in Phoenix, Arizona. It broadcast in analog on UHF channel 28 from the Usery Mountains in Mesa. KCOS-LP was owned by Aracelis Ortiz Corporation of Harlingen, Texas. Despite the similar call letters, KCOS-LP was not related to full-service PBS member station KCOS in El Paso, Texas.


KTVP-LD is a low-power broadcast television station located in Phoenix, Arizona, broadcasting in digital on UHF channel 22 from South Mountain in Phoenix, and is an affiliate of Good News TV, a Christian television channel owned by the Arizona Conference Corporation of Seventh-day Adventists. KTVP-LD is owned by HC2 Holdings.

Latele Novela Network

Latele Novela Network (Spanish pronunciation: [laˈteleˈnoβela]) is a Spanish-language television network in the United States. Latele Novela is the first premier National Hispanic Television Network dedicated entirely to telenovelas in Spanish for the US Hispanic Market.

List of Spanish-language television networks in the United States

The following is a list of Spanish-language television networks in the United States. As of 2016 the largest Hispanic/Latino television audiences in the U.S. are in California (Los Angeles, San Francisco area), New York, Florida (Miami area), Texas (Houston, Dallas, Ft. Worth, San Antonio), Illinois (Chicago), and Arizona (Phoenix).

List of United States over-the-air television networks

In the United States, for most of the history of broadcasting, there were only three or four major commercial national terrestrial networks. From 1946 to 1956, these were ABC, CBS, NBC and DuMont (though the Paramount Television Network had some limited success during these years). From 1956 to 1986, the "Big Three" national commercial networks were ABC, CBS, and NBC (with a few limited attempts to challenge them, such as National Telefilm Associates [and its NTA Film Network] and the Overmyer Network). From 1954 to 1970, National Educational Television was the national clearinghouse for public TV programming; the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) succeeded it in 1970.

Today, more than fifty national free-to-air networks exist. Other than the non-commercial educational (NCE) PBS, which is composed of member stations, the largest terrestrial television networks are the traditional Big Three television networks (ABC, CBS and NBC). Many other large networks exist, however, notably Fox and The CW which air original programming for two hours each night instead of three like the original "Big Three" do, as well as syndication services like MyNetworkTV and Ion Television which feature reruns of recent popular shows with little to no original programming. Fox has just about the same household reach percentage as the Big Three, and is therefore often considered a peer to ABC, NBC, and CBS since it has also achieved equal or better ratings since the late 1990s. Most media outlets now include Fox in what they refer to as the "Big Four" TV networks.

The transition to digital broadcasting in 2009 has allowed for television stations to offer additional programming options through digital subchannels, one or more supplementary programming streams to the station's primary channel that are achieved through multiplexing of a station's signal. A number of new commercial networks airing specialty programming such as movies, reruns of classic series and lifestyle programs have been created from companies like Weigel Broadcasting, Luken Communications and even owners of the major networks such as Fox Corporation, National Amusements (through the CBS Corporation subsidiary), The Walt Disney Company (through the Walt Disney Television subsidiary) and Comcast (through the NBCUniversal subsidiary). Through the use of multicasting, there have also been a number of new Spanish-language and non-commercial public TV networks that have launched.

Free-to-air networks in the U.S. can be divided into four categories:

Commercial networks – which air English-language programming to a general audience (for example, CBS);

Spanish-language networks – fully programmed networks which air Spanish-language programming to a primarily Latin American audience (for example, Telemundo and Univision);

Educational and other non-commercial broadcast networks – which air English- and some foreign-language television programming, intended to be educational in nature or otherwise of a sort not found on commercial television (for example, PBS);

Religious broadcast networks – which air religious study and other faith-based programs, and in some cases, family-oriented secular programs (for example, Daystar).Each network sends its signal to many local affiliate television stations across the country. These local stations then air the "network feed," with programs broadcast by each network being viewed by up to tens of millions of households across the country. In the case of the largest networks, the signal is sent to over 200 stations. In the case of the smallest networks, the signal may be sent to just a dozen or fewer stations.

As of the 2016–17 television season, there are an estimated 118.4 million households in the U.S. with at least one TV set.

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Rafael Pérez Perry

Rafael Pérez Perry (October 24, 1911 – May 10, 1978) was a businessman and a pioneer in Puerto Rico's radio and television broadcasting industry. He owned one of the most successful radio stations on the island (WKBM AM) and in 1954 founded Puerto Rico's television Channel 11, which now is known as Tele Once and owned and operated by Univision, the largest Hispanic television network in the United States.


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