Hispanic America

Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.[1][2]

These countries have significant commonalities with each other and with Spain, its former European metropole. In all of these countries, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages (such as Guaraní, Quechua, Aymara, or Mayan), or English (in Puerto Rico).[3] Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion.[4]

Hispanic America is sometimes grouped together with Brazil under the term "Ibero-America", meaning those countries in the Americas with cultural roots in the Iberian Peninsula.[5] Hispanic America also contrasts with Latin America, which includes not only Hispanic America, but also Brazil, as well as the former French colonies in the Western Hemisphere (areas that are now in either the United States of America or Canada are usually excluded).[6]

Hispanic America (orthographic projection)
Map of countries that make up Hispanic America, in green.
Spanish speakers in the Americas (orthographic projection)
Spanish speakers in the Americas.

History

The Spanish conquest of the Americas began in 1492, and ultimately was part of a larger historical process of world discovery, through which various European powers incorporated a considerable amount of territory and peoples in the Americas, Asia, and Africa between the 15th and 20th centuries. Hispanic America became the main part of the vast Spanish Empire.

Napoleon's takeover of Spain in 1808 and the consequent chaos initiated the dismemberment of the Spanish Empire, as the Hispanic American territories began their struggle for emancipation. By 1830, the only remaining Spanish American and Asian territories were the Philippine archipelago and the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico, until the 1898 Spanish–American War.

Demographics

Countries

Country Population[7] Area[a] GDP (nominal)[8][b] GDP (nominal) per capita GDP (PPP) GDP (PPP) per capita
Argentina Argentina 43,847,430 2,780,400 545.12 12,502.82 874.07 20,047.49
Bolivia Bolivia 10,887,882 1,098,581 34.83 3,169.56 78.66 7,218.49
Chile Chile[9] 17,909,754 756,950 247.03 13,575.99 438.75 24,112.94
Colombia Colombia 48,653,419 1,141,748 282.36 5,792.18 688.82 14,130.18
Costa Rica Costa Rica 4,857,274 51,000 58.11 11,834.84 80.70 16,435.83
Cuba Cuba 11,475,982 110,861 81.56[10] 7,600.00 132.90 11,900.00
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 10,648,791 48,730 72.19 7,159.49 161.84 16,049.46
Ecuador Ecuador 16,385,068 256,370 98.01 5,929.69 183.61 11,108.56
El Salvador El Salvador 6,334,722 21,040 26.71 4,343.44 54.79 8,909.43
Guatemala Guatemala 16,582,469 108,890 68.17 4,088.95 131.70 7,899.20
Honduras Honduras 9,112,867 112,492 21.36 2,608.58 43.17 5,271.47
Mexico Mexico 127,540,423 1,972,550 1,046.00 8,554.61 2,315.65 18,938.32
Nicaragua Nicaragua 6,149,928 129,494 13.05 2,120.31 33.55 5,451.71
Panama Panama 4,034,119 75,571 55.12 13,654.07 92.95 23,023.88
Paraguay Paraguay 6,725,308 406,752 27.44 4,003.28 64.40 9,396.02
Peru Peru 32,215,538 1,285,220 245.20 6,198.61 479.811 12,903.09
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 3,411,307 9,104 101.30 29,696.57 130.97 38,393.07
Uruguay Uruguay 3,444,006 176,215 54.57 15,679.17 74.92 21,527.27
Venezuela Venezuela 31,568,179 916,445 287.27 9,258.34 426.97 13,760.56
Total 411,342,767 11,466,903 3,315.34 8,059.80 6,414.64 15,594.39

Largest cities

City Country Population Metro
Mexico City  Mexico 8,851,080 23,137,152
Buenos Aires  Argentina 3,050,728 15,941,973
Lima  Peru 9,752,000 12,140,000
Bogotá  Colombia 8,080,734 9,367,587
Santiago  Chile 5,428,590 7,200,000
Caracas  Venezuela 3,273,863 5,239,364
Guatemala City  Guatemala 2,149,188 4,500,000
Guadalajara  Mexico 1,564,514 4,424,584
Monterrey  Mexico 1,133,814 4,106,054
Medellín  Colombia 2,636,101 3,731,447
Guayaquil  Ecuador 2,432,233 3,328,534
Havana  Cuba 2,350,000 3,073,000
Maracaibo  Venezuela 2,201,727 2,928,043
Santo Domingo  Dominican Republic 965,040[11] 2,908,607[12]
Puebla  Mexico 1,399,519 2,728,790
Asunción  Paraguay 525,294 2,698,401
Cali  Colombia 2,068,386 2,530,796
San Juan  Puerto Rico 434,374 2,509,007
San José, Costa Rica  Costa Rica 1,543,000 2,158,898
Toluca  Mexico 820,000 1,936,422
Montevideo  Uruguay 1,325,968 1,868,335
Quito  Ecuador 1,397,698 1,842,201
Managua  Nicaragua 1,380,300 1,825,000
Barranquilla  Colombia 1,148,506 1,798,143
Santa Cruz  Bolivia 1,594,926 1,774,998
Valencia  Venezuela 894,204 1,770,000
Tijuana  Mexico 1,286,157 1,751,302
Tegucigalpa  Honduras 1,230,000 1,600,000
La Paz  Bolivia 872,480 1,590,000
San Salvador  El Salvador 540,090 2,223,092
Barquisimeto  Venezuela 1,116,000 1,500,000
León  Mexico 1,278,087 1,488,000
Córdoba  Argentina 1,309,536 1,452,000
Juárez  Mexico 1,301,452 1,343,000
San Pedro Sula  Honduras 1,250,000 1,300,000
Maracay  Venezuela 1,007,000 1,300,000
Rosario  Argentina 908,163 1,203,000
Panama City  Panama 990,641 1,500,000
Torreón  Mexico 548,723 1,144,000
Bucaramanga  Colombia 516,512 1,055,331

Languages

Colonias europea en América siglo XVI-XVIII
European colonies and claimed areas in the Americas, ca. 1750.
Map-Romance Latin America
Linguistic map of Latin America. Spanish America in green, Portuguese America (Brazil) in orange, and French Guiana and French Caribbean in blue.
Map-Most Widely Spoken Native Languages in Latin America
Quechua, Guarani, Aymara, Nahuatl, Mayan languages, Mapudungun.

Spanish is the official language in most Hispanic American countries, and it is spoken by the vast majority of the population. Native American languages are widely spoken in Peru, Guatemala, Bolivia, Paraguay and Mexico, and to a lesser degree, in Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, and Chile amongst other countries. In some Hispanic American countries, the population of speakers of indigenous languages tend to be very small or even non-existent (e.g. Uruguay). Mexico is possibly the only country that contains the largest variety of indigenous languages than any other Hispanic American country, and the most spoken native language is Nahuatl.

In Peru, Quechua is an official language, alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. In Ecuador, while holding no official status, the closely related Quichua is a recognized language of the indigenous people under the country's constitution; however, it is only spoken by a few groups in the country's highlands. In Bolivia, Aymara, Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. Guaraní, along with Spanish, is an official language of Paraguay, and is spoken by a majority of the population (who are, for the most part, bilingual), and it is co-official with Spanish in the Argentine province of Corrientes. In Nicaragua, Spanish is the official language, but on the country's Caribbean coast English and indigenous languages such as Miskito, Sumo, and Rama also hold official status. Colombia recognizes all indigenous languages spoken within its territory as official, though fewer than 1% of its population are native speakers of these languages. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico, which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish.

Other European languages spoken in Hispanic America include: English, by some groups in Puerto Rico; German, in southern Chile and portions of Argentina, Venezuela, and Paraguay; Italian, in Argentina, Venezuela, and Uruguay; Ukrainian, Polish, and Russian in Argentina; and Welsh, in southern Argentina.[13][14][15][16][17][18] Yiddish and Hebrew can be heard around Buenos Aires. Non-European or Asian languages include Japanese in Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay; Korean in Argentina and Paraguay; Arabic in Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, and Chile; and Chinese throughout South America.

In several nations, especially in the Caribbean region, creole languages are spoken. Creole languages of mainland Latin America, similarly, are derived from European languages and various African tongues.

The Garifuna language is spoken along the Caribbean coast in Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Belize mostly by the Garifuna people a mixed race Zambo people who were the result of mixing between Indigenous Caribbeans and escaped Black slaves. Primarily an Arawakan language, it has influences from Caribbean and European languages.

Culture

Cuisine

Hispanic cuisine as the term is applied in the Western Hemisphere, is a misnomer. What is usually considered Hispanic cuisine in the United States is mostly Mexican and Central American cuisine. Mexican cuisine is composed of mainly indigenous—Aztec and Mayan—and Spanish influences.

Mexican cuisine is considered intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO and can be found all over the United States.

In the United States, with its growing Hispanic population, food staples from Mexican cuisine and the cuisine from other Hispanic countries have become widely available. Over the years, the blending of these cuisines has produced unique American forms such as Tex-Mex cuisine. This cuisine, which originated in Texas, is based on maize products, heavily spiced ground beef, cheese and tomato sauces with chilies. This cuisine is widely available not just in the United States but across other countries, where American exports are found. In Florida, Cuban food is widely available. All of these Hispanic foods in the United States have evolved in character as they have been commercially americanized by large restaurant chains and food companies.

The cuisine of Spain has many regional varieties, with Mediterranean flavors based on olive oil, garlic, and tomatoes and due to its long Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines, has been graced with a great variety and availability of seafood. In the inland communities of Spain, there is a long tradition of cured meat of different kinds, in addition to an abundance of dishes such as roasts and stews, based on beef, pork, lamb, and poultry. The European and Arab heritage of Spain is reflected in its food, along with cosmopolitan influences beginning in the many new ingredients brought in from the New World since the 16th century, e.g. tomatoes, potatoes, or chocolate, and the more modern tastes introduced from Europe since the 19th century, especially through French and Italian dishes. It is only in the last ten years that Hispanic American dishes have been introduced in Spain. In the United States and Canada, the number of Hispanic restaurants has become a growing trend, following the tapas-style restaurants fashion that first appeared in North America in the 1990s.

Cuban, Dominican, and Puerto Rican cuisines, on the other hand, tend to use a lot of pork and can depend heavily on starchy root vegetables, plantain, and rice. The most prominent influences on their Spanish culinary traditions were introduced by African slaves, and to a lesser degree, French influence from Haiti and later Chinese immigrants. The use of spicy chile peppers of varying degrees of strength used as flavour enhancers in Mexican tradition is practically unknown in traditional Spanish–Caribbean dishes. The cuisine of Haiti, a country with a Francophone majority, is very similar to its regional neighbors in terms of influences and ingredients used.

The Argentine diet is heavily influenced by the country's position as one of the world's largest beef and wine producers, and by the impact that European immigration had on its national culture. Grilled meats are a staple of most meals as are pastas, potatoes, rice, paella and a variety of vegetables (Argentina is a huge exporter of agricultural products). Italian influence is also seen in the form of pizza and ice cream, both of which are integral components of national cuisine.

Uruguayan cuisine is similar to that of Argentina, though seafood is much more dominant in this coastal nation. As another one of the world's largest producers, wine is as much a staple drink to Uruguayans as beer is to Germans.

In Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile, potato dishes are typical since the potato is originally from this region. Beef and chicken are common sources of meat. In the Highlands is the cuy, a South American name for guinea pig, a common meat. Given the coastal location, both countries have extensive fishing fleets, which provide a wealth of seafood options, including the signature South American dish, ceviche. While potato is an important ingredient in the Highlands, Rice is the main side dish on the coast.

This diversity in staples and cuisine is also evident in the differing regional cuisines within the national borders of the individual countries.

Symbols

Flag

Flag of the Hispanicity
Flag of Hispanic Heritage. Motto: Justicia, Paz, Unión y Fraternidad ("Justice, Peace, Union and Fraternity").[19]

While relatively unknown, there is a flag representing the countries of Spanish America, its people, history and shared cultural legacy.

It was created in October 1933 by Ángel Camblor, captain of the Uruguayan army. It was adopted by all the states of Spanish America during the Pan-American Conference of the same year in Montevideo, Uruguay.[19]

The white background stands for peace, the Inti sun god of Inca mythology symbolizes the light shining on the Americas, and the three crosses represent Christopher Columbus' caravels, the Niña, Pinta, and Santa María, used in his first voyage from Spain to the New World in 1492. The deep lilac color of the crosses evokes the color of the lion on the coat of arms of the medieval Crown of Castile.[20]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Values listed in km².
  2. ^ Values listed in billions USD.

References

  1. ^ All of the following dictionaries only list "Spanish America" as the name for this cultural region. None list "Hispanic America." All list the demonym for the people of the region discussed in this article as the sole definition, or one of the definitions, for "Spanish American". Some list "Hispanic," "Hispanic American" and "Hispano-American" as synonyms for "Spanish American." (All also include as a secondary definition for these last three terms, persons residing in the United States of Hispanic ancestry.) The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3rd ed.) (1992). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-44895-6. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.) (2003). Springfield: Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-87779-807-9. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language (2nd ed.) (1987). New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-50050-4. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles (2007). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2. Webster's New Dictionary and Thesaurus (2002). Cleveland: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 978-0-471-79932-0
  2. ^ "Hispanic America" is used in some older works such as Charles Edward Chapman's 1933 Colonial Hispanic America: A History and 1937 Republican Hispanic America: A History (both New York: The Macmillan Co.); or translated titles that faithfully reproduce Hispanoamérica, such as Edmund Stephen Urbanski (1978), Hispanic America and its Civilization: Spanish Americans and Anglo-Americans, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. The Cambridge University Press textbook by two distinguished historians of early Latin America, James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz is entitled, Early Latin America: A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil 1983.
  3. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Languages". Retrieved 2009-04-11.
  4. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Religions". Retrieved 2009-04-11.
  5. ^ The adjective "Ibero-American" usually refers only to countries of the Western Hemisphere, but in the title of the Organization of Ibero-American States it refers to Iberian and (Ibero-)American countries, plus Equatorial Guinea.
  6. ^ "Latin America" The Free Online Dictionary (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2000, 4th ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2003.)
  7. ^ "Population, total | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-07-11.
  8. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 2017-07-11.
  9. ^ "Demografia de Chile" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 27, 2009.
  10. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-07-11.
  11. ^ IX Dominican Republic Census
  12. ^ "Expansión Urbana de las ciudades capitales de RD: 1988-2010" (in Spanish). Santo Domingo: Oficina Nacional de Estadística. 1 May 2015. ISBN 978-9945-8984-3-9. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
  13. ^ "Reference for Welsh language in southern Argentina, Welsh immigration to Patagonia". Bbc.co.uk. 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  14. ^ "The Welsh Immigration to Argentina". 1stclassargentina.com.
  15. ^ Jeremy Howat. "Reference for Welsh language in southern Argentina, Welsh immigration to Patagonia". Argbrit.org. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  16. ^ "Reference for Welsh language in southern Argentina, Welsh immigration to Patagonia". Patagonline.com. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  17. ^ "Reference for Welsh language in southern Argentina, Welsh immigration to Patagonia". Andesceltig.com. 2009-09-29. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  18. ^ "Reference for Welsh language in southern Argentina, Welsh immigration to Patagonia". Glaniad.com. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  19. ^ a b Raeside, Rob (ed.) (1999-10-11). "Flag of the Race". Flags of the World. Retrieved 2006-12-23.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  20. ^ Image of the standard of the Crown of Castile
Canarian Spanish

Canarian Spanish (Spanish: español de las Canarias, español canario, habla canaria, isleño, dialecto canario or vernacular canario) is a variant of standard Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands by the Canarian people. The variant is similar to the Andalusian Spanish variety spoken in Western Andalusia and (especially) to Caribbean Spanish and other Hispanic American Spanish vernaculars because of Canarian emigration to the Caribbean and Hispanic America over the years. Canarian Spanish is the only Spanish dialect in Spain to be called usually español, instead of castellano.

Canarian Spanish heavily influenced the development of Caribbean Spanish and other Latin American Spanish vernaculars because Hispanic America and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean islands were originally largely settled by colonists from the Canary Islands and Andalusia; those dialects, including the standard language, were already quite close to Canarian and Andalusian speech. In the Caribbean, Canarian speech patterns were never regarded as either foreign or very different from the local accent.The incorporation of the Canary Islands into the Crown of Castile began with Henry III (1402) and was completed under the Catholic Monarchs. The expeditions for their conquest started off mainly from ports of Andalusia, which is why the Andalusians predominated in the Canaries. There was also an important colonising contingent from Portugal in the early conquest of the Canaries, along with the Andalusians and the Castilians from mainland Spain. In earlier times, Portuguese settled alongside the Spanish in the north of Gran Canaria, but they died off or were absorbed by the Spanish. The population that inhabited the islands before the conquest, the Guanches, spoke a variety of Berber (also called Amazigh) dialects. After the conquest, the indigenous Guanche language was rapidly and almost completely eradicated in the archipelago. Only some names of plants and animals, terms related to cattle ranching and numerous island placenames survive.Their geography made the Canary Islands receive much outside influence, with drastic cultural and linguistic changes. As a result of heavy Canarian emigration to the Caribbean, particularly during colonial times, Caribbean Spanish is strikingly similar to Canarian Spanish.

Eurochannel

Eurochannel is a world television channel focused on European culture and lifestyle through movies, series and other programs dedicated to European culture. Eurochannel broadcasts in original audio with subtitles in English, Spanish and Portuguese.

Eurochannel is available in Hispanic America, France, Brazil, United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Angola, Mozambique, Portugal and Macedonia, reaching more than 25 million people in 24 countries through 11 million households.

In United States, Eurochannel is available on Google Play on all Android devices.

French America

French America (French: Amérique française) is the French-speaking community of people and their diaspora, notably those tracing back origins to New France, the early French colonization of the Americas. The Canadian province of Quebec is the centre of the community and is the point of origin of most of French America. It also includes communities in all provinces of Canada (especially in New Brunswick, where francophones are roughly one third of the population), Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Haiti, Saint Martin, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Lucia, Martinique, and Guadeloupe in the Caribbean; French Guiana (Overseas region of France) in South America. Also there are minorities of French speakers in part of the United States (New England, Louisiana, Florida), Dominica, Grenada and Trinidad and Tobago.

The Ordre des francophones d’Amérique is a decoration given in the name of the community to its members. It can also be described as the Francophonie of the Americas.

Because French is a Romance language, French America is sometimes considered to be part of Latin America, but this term more often refers to Hispanic America and Portuguese America, or simply the Americas south of the United States.

Fusion Media Group

The Fusion Media Group (FMG; formerly Fusion Media Network) is a division of Univision Communications. The company was launched in April 2016 after Univision bought out Disney's stake in Fusion through the Fusion Media Network joint venture between Univision & Disney-ABC. While Univision is focused on serving Hispanic America in Spanish, FMG is the company’s multi-platform, English language division dedicated to serving young, diverse America.

Hispanic

The term Hispanic (Spanish: hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to the Spanish language or the country of Spain, depending on the context.

It commonly applies to countries once under colonial possession by the Spanish Empire following Spanish colonization of the Americas, parts of the Asia-Pacific region and Africa. Principally, what are today the countries of Hispanic America, the Spanish Philippines, Spanish Guinea and Spanish Sahara where Spanish may or may not be the predominant or official language and their cultures are heavily derived from Spain although with strong local indigenous or other foreign influences.

It could be argued that the term Hispanic should apply to all Spanish-speaking cultures or countries, as the historical roots of the word specifically pertain to the Iberian region. It is difficult to label a nation or culture with one term, such as Hispanic, as the ethnicities, customs, traditions, and art forms (music, literature, dress, culture, cuisine, and others) vary greatly by country and region. The Spanish language and Spanish culture are the main distinctions.Hispanus was used to define people of ancient Roman Hispania, which roughly comprised the Iberian Peninsula, including the contemporary states of Spain, Portugal, and Andorra, and the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.

Hispanicization

Hispanicisation or hispanisation, also known as castilianization or castilianisation (Spanish: castellanización) refers to the process by which a place or person becomes influenced by Hispanic culture or a process of cultural and/or linguistic change in which something non-Hispanic becomes Hispanic. Hispanicization is illustrated by spoken Spanish, production and consumption of Hispanic food, Spanish language music, and participation in Hispanic festivals and holidays. In the former Spanish colonies, the term is also used in the narrow linguistic sense of the Spanish language replacing indigenous languages.

Hispanist

A Hispanist is a scholar specializing in Hispanic studies, that is Spanish language, literature, linguistics, history, or civilization by foreigners (i.e., non-Spaniards). It was used in the title of a publication by Miguel de Unamuno in 1906 and discussed at length for the U.S. by Hispanist Richard L. Kagan of Johns Hopkins University.The work carried out by Hispanists includes translations of literature and they may specialize in certain genres, authors or historical periods of the Iberian Peninsula and Hispanic America.

List of colonial universities in Hispanic America

The list of universities established in the viceroyalties of the Hispanic America comprises all universities established by the Spanish Empire in Latin America from the Discovery of the Americas in 1492 to the Wars of Independence in the early 19th century.

The transfer of the European university model to the overseas colonies in the Americas represented a decisive turning point in the educational history of the continents: Nothing remotely resembling a university existed in the New World before Europeans arrived and settled there. Yet by the end of the eighteenth century, numerous universities and other institutions of higher education could be found in North, Central and South America. They had not been invented de novo; they were implants from the European university tradition and its stocks.

The Christian mission of the Indians and the increasing demand for skilled hands in the administration of the rapidly growing colonial empire made the Spanish colonists realize the need to offer a university education on soil in the Americas. The foundation of a colonial university required, following the medieval tradition, either a papal bull (or papal brief) or a royal privilege granting the right to confer academic degrees to the students. Usually a bestowment from both clerical and secular authorities was sought and achieved. Universities were all subjected to the king's supervision, only San Nicolas in Bogotá held the status of a private university.

The new foundations modeled their charters mainly on that of the University of Salamanca, the oldest and most venerable Spanish university. The curriculum of smaller universities was confined to the artes, a kind of basic studies, and Catholic theology (plus church law). A leading role was assumed by the gradually evolving full universities which additionally offered courses in medicine and jurisprudence, thus comprising all four classic faculties. The influential first universities were founded in the colonial centers Lima, Mexico City and Santo Domingo. When it became apparent that the vast distances of the Spanish realm required a greater geographical spread of universities, they contributed to the creation of further foundations.A key role in the development of the university system was played by the Catholic orders, especially by the Jesuits, but also the Dominicans and Augustinians. The founding and operation of most universities resulted from the – usually local – initiative of one of these orders, which sometimes quarreled openly over the control of the campus and the curriculum. The (temporary) dissolution of the Jesuit order in the late 18th century proved to be a major setback for the university landscape in Latin America, several of the suppressed Jesuit universities were reopened only decades later.The successful export of the university, a genuine European creation, to another continent demonstrated its "extraordinary effectiveness and adaptability" as the highest educational institution and marked the beginning of its universal adoption in the modern age (see also List of the oldest universities). Yet there is no denying that at the end of the colonial era the intellectual and academic life in the younger colonial colleges of the British territories appeared more vital. Nevertheless, the Spanish colonial universities fulfilled their primary task, the education of the clerical and secular colonial elite, and could thus assume an important function in aiding the development of the young republics after the separation from the motherland.In Portuguese Brazil, by contrast, no university existed far beyond the colonial period (the first was established as late as 1912 in Curitiba as University of Paraná). The lower local demand for theological and legal specialists was largely met by Jesuit colegios, while students aspiring to higher education had to take up studies overseas at the University of Coimbra. Instead of universities for general studies, the Portuguese favored the creation of professional academies to respond to the local needs of technicians and skilled professionals, including creating the first school of higher studies in engineering of the Americas.

Marcos Llunas

Marcos Gómez Llunas (born 29 September 1971, Madrid) better known as Marcos Llunas is a Spanish singer-songwriter, known in Spain and Latin America. His debut single "Para reconquistarte" reached the No.1 spot all over Hispanic America. He is also known for his successful participation in the 1997 Eurovision Song Contest. Llunas is the father of the singer turned actor spanish Izan Llunas.

Llunas, son of Spanish singer Dyango, released his self-titled first album in 1993. His biggest hit was "Para reconquistarte", it became a smash-hit all over Hispanic America during the whole 1993, it peaked at the number one position and spent several weeks at the top in Argentina, Mexico, Chile and Uruguay. He later recorded several moderately successful singles, and in 1995, in Paraguay, won the OTI Song Festival for Spain with the song "Eres mi debilidad". Llunas, was nominated for a Lo Nuestro Award for Pop New Artist of the Year at the 7th Lo Nuestro Awards.In 1997, Llunas was chosen internally by broadcaster Televisión Española as the Spanish representative for the 42nd Eurovision Song Contest with his self-penned song "Sin rencor" ("No Hard Feelings"). At the contest, held in Dublin on 3 May, "Sin rencor" finished in sixth place of the 25 entries.In the years following his Eurovision appearance, Llunas recorded in Portuguese and Catalan in addition to Spanish, and became particularly successful in Latin American markets. He released a career retrospective album in 2004. Between 2002 and 2007 he made appearances as a juror on Spanish television talent shows Operación Triunfo and Lluvia de estrellas.

In 2007, he was one of the contestants on the Mexican talent show Disco de oro, a competition between successful singers from different decades that aired on TV Azteca.

In 2012, he released an album that paid tribute to his father Dyango.

Naming customs of Hispanic America

The naming customs of Hispanic America are similar to the Spanish naming customs practiced in Spain, with some modifications to the surname rules. Many Hispanophones in the countries of Hispanic America have two given names, plus a paternal surname (primer apellido or apellido paterno) and a maternal surname (segundo apellido or apellido materno).

Panhispanism

Panhispanism is a political trend aimed to achieve social, economic, and political cooperation (at the extreme, unification) of the Spanish-speaking countries, principally those of Hispanic America, due to the distance between Spain, Western Sahara and Equatorial Guinea. It focuses principally on the former Spanish Empire's territories in North, Central and South America. It has been present consistently in literature, revolutionary movements, and political institutions. The term may be also used to talk specifically about projects of Hispanic American unity held by Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín.

Pardo

Pardo is a term used in the Portuguese and Spanish colonies in the Americas to refer to the multiracial descendants of Europeans, Indigenous Americans, South Asians, and West Africans. They are defined as neither exclusively mestizo (Indigenous American-European descent), nor mulatto (West African-European descent), nor zambo (Indigenous American-West African descent).In Brazil, the word pardo has had a general meaning, since the beginning of the colonization. In the famous letter by Pero Vaz de Caminha, for example, in which Brazil was first described by the Portuguese, the Indigenous Americans were called "pardo": "Pardo, naked, without clothing". The word has ever since been used to cover African/European mixes, South Asian/European mixes, Amerindian/European/South Asian/African mixes and Indigenous Americans themselves.For example, Diogo de Vasconcelos, a widely known historian from Minas Gerais, mentions the story of Andresa de Castilhos. According to 18th-century accounts, Andresa de Castilhos was described by the following: "I declare that Andresa de Castilhos, parda woman ... has been freed ... is a descendant of the native gentiles of the land ... I declare that Andresa de Castilhos is the daughter of a white man and a (Christian) neophyte (Indigenous) woman".The historian Maria Leônia Chaves de Resende says that the word pardo was used to classify people with partial or full Amerindian ancestry. A Manoel, natural son of Ana carijó, was baptised as 'pardo'; in Campanha several Indigenous Americans were classified as 'pardo'; the Amerindian João Ferreira, Joana Rodriges and Andreza Pedrosa, for example, were described as 'freed pardo'; a Damaso identifies as a 'freed pardo' of the 'native of the land'; etc. According to Chaves de Resende, the growth of the pardo population in Brazil includes the descendants of Amerindian and not only those of African descent: "the growth of the 'pardo' segment had not only to do with the descendants of Africans, but also with the descendants of the Amerindian, in particular the carijós and bastards, included in the condition of 'pardo'".The American historian Muriel Nazzari in 2001 noted that the "pardo" category has absorbed those persons of Amerindian descent in the records of São Paulo: "This paper seeks to demonstrate that, though many Indians and mestizos did migrate, those who remained in São Paulo came to be classified as pardos."

Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies

Slavery in the Spanish American colonies was an economic and social institution central to the operation of the Spanish Empire – it bound Africans and indigenous people to a relationship of colonial exploitation. Spanish colonists provided the Americas with a colonial precedent for slavery; however, early on opposition from the enslaved Indians and influential Spaniards moved the Crown to limit the bondage of indigenous people, and initiated debates that challenged the idea of slavery based on race. Spaniards regarded some indigenous people as tribute under the encomienda system during the late 1400s and part of the 1500s.Spanish slavery in the Americas did not diverge drastically from that in other European colonies. It reshuffled the Atlantic World's populations through forced migrations, helped transfer American wealth to Europe, and promoted racial and social hierarchies (castas) throughout the empire. Spanish enslavers justified their wealth and status earned at the work of the mines at the expense of captive workers by considering them inferior beings with limited capacities and holding them as personal property (chattel slavery), often under barbarous conditions. In fact, Spanish colonization set some egregious records in the field of slavery. The Asiento, the official contract for trading in slaves in the vast Spanish territories was a major engine of the Atlantic slave trade. When Spain first enslaved Native Americans on Hispaniola, and then replaced them with captive Africans, it established unfree labor as the basis for colonial mass-production. Subsequently, in the mid-nineteenth century when most countries in the hemisphere reformed to disallow chattel slavery, Cuba and Puerto Rico – the last two remaining Spanish American colonies – maintained slavery the longest.Enslaved people challenged their captivity in ways that ranged from introducing non-European elements into Christianity (syncretism) to mounting alternative societies outside the plantation system (Maroons). The first open black rebellion occurred in Spanish plantations in 1521. Resistance, particularly to the enslavement of indigenous people, also came from Spanish religious and legal ranks. The first speech in the Americas for the universality of human rights and against the abuses of slavery was also given on Hispaniola, a mere nineteen years after the first contact. Resistance to Amerindian captivity in the Spanish colonies produced the first modern debates over race and the legitimacy of slavery. And uniquely in the Spanish American colonies, laws like the New Laws of 1542, were enacted early in the colonial period to protect natives from bondage. To complicate matters further, Spain's haphazard grip on its extensive American dominions and its erratic economy acted to impede the broad and systematic spread of plantations similar to those of the French in Saint Domingue or of the British in Jamaica. Altogether, the struggle against slavery in the Spanish American colonies left a notable tradition of opposition that set the stage for current conversations about human rights.

Spanish American wars of independence

The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, after the French invasion of Spain during Europe's Napoleonic Wars. Although there has been research on the idea of a separate Spanish American ("creole") identity separate from that of Iberia, political independence was not initially the aim of most Spanish Americans, nor was it necessarily inevitable. After the restoration of rule by Ferdinand VII in 1814, and his rejection of the Spanish liberal constitution of 1812, the monarchy as well as liberals hardened their stance toward its overseas possessions, and they in turn increasingly sought political independence.The violent conflicts started in 1809 with short-lived governing juntas established in Chuquisaca and Quito in opposing the government of the Supreme Central Junta of Seville. In 1810, numerous new juntas appeared across the Spanish domains in the Americas when the Central Junta fell to the French invasion. Although various regions of Spanish America objected to many crown policies, "there was little interest in outright independence; indeed there was widespread support for the Spanish Central Junta formed to lead the resistance against the French." While some Spanish Americans believed that independence was necessary, most who initially supported the creation of the new governments saw them as a means to preserve the region's autonomy from the French. Over the course of the next decade, the political instability in Spain and the absolutist restoration under Ferdinand VII convinced many Spanish Americans of the need to formally establish independence from the mother country.

These conflicts were fought both as irregular warfare and conventional warfare, and as wars of national liberation and civil wars. The conflicts among the colonies and with Spain eventually resulted in a chain of newly independent countries stretching from Argentina and Chile in the south to Mexico in the north in the first third of the 19th century. Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule until the Spanish–American War in 1898. The new republics from the beginning abolished the formal system of racial classification and hierarchy, casta system, the Inquisition, and noble titles. Slavery was not abolished immediately but ended in all of the new nations within a quarter century. Criollos (those of Spanish descent born in the New World) and mestizos (those of mixed American Indian and Spanish blood or culture) replaced Spanish-born appointees in most political governments. Criollos remained at the top of a social structure that retained some of its traditional features culturally, if not legally. For almost a century thereafter, conservatives and liberals fought to reverse or to deepen the social and political changes unleashed by those rebellions.

The events in Spanish America were related to the wars of independence in the former French colony of St-Domingue, Haiti, and the transition to independence in Brazil. Brazil's independence, in particular, shared a common starting point with that of Spanish America, since both conflicts were triggered by Napoleon's invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, which forced the Portuguese royal family to flee to Brazil in 1807. The process of Latin American independence took place in the general political and intellectual climate that emerged from the Age of Enlightenment and that influenced all of the Atlantic Revolutions, including the earlier revolutions in the United States and France. A more direct cause of the Spanish American wars of independence were the unique developments occurring within the Kingdom of Spain and its monarchy during this era.

Spanish Baroque architecture

Spanish Baroque is a strand of Baroque architecture that evolved in Spain, its provinces, and former colonies.

Spanish language

Spanish ( (listen); español ) or Castilian ( (listen), castellano ), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. The oldest Latin texts with traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century, and the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo, then capital of the Kingdom of Castile, in the 13th century. Beginning in 1492, the Spanish language was taken to the viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the newly-discovered the Americas, as well as territories in Africa, Oceania and the Philippines.Around 75% of modern Spanish vocabulary is derived from Latin.

Ancient Greek has also contributed substantially to Spanish vocabulary, especially through Latin, where it had a great impact.

Spanish vocabulary has been in contact with Arabic from an early date, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin.

It has also been influenced by Basque, Iberian, Celtiberian, Visigothic, and by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages.Additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages, particularly the Romance languages—French, Italian, Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Occitan, and Sardinian—as well as from Nahuatl, Quechua, and other indigenous languages of the Americas.Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. It is also used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and by many other international organizations.

Tonada

The tonada is a folk music style of Spain and some countries of Hispanic America (mainly Argentina, Chile, Peru, Bolivia and Venezuela). In nowadays Spain, the traditional sung piece known as tonada is considered as having been originated in Asturias and Cantabria, although tonada (from "tone") is a Spanish word which can mean anything sung, played or danced, musicological usage in Spanish and English is more specific.

Town square

A town square is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. Other names for town square are civic center, city square, urban square, market square, public square, piazza, plaza, and town green.

Most town squares are hardscapes suitable for open markets, concerts, political rallies, and other events that require firm ground. Being centrally located, town squares are usually surrounded by small shops such as bakeries, meat markets, cheese stores, and clothing stores. At their center is often a fountain, well, monument, or statue. Many of those with fountains are actually called fountain square.

In urban planning, a city square or urban square is a planned open area in a city.

Valdés, Asturias

Valdés is a Spanish municipality in the province of Asturias. Its capital is Luarca. It borders the Bay of Biscay on the north, the municipalities of Navia and Villayón on the west, Tineo on the south, Salas on the southeast, and Cudillero on the east. The rivers Esva, Negro and Barayo flow through the area. The national road N-634 is the main road serving the municipality.

The surname " Valdés", widespread throughout Spain and Hispanic America, is believed to have ultimately originated from the town of Valdés.

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