Hiroshima

Hiroshima (広島市 Hiroshima-shi, /hɪˈrɒʃɪmə, ˌhɪroʊˈʃiːmə/;[3] Japanese: [çiɾoɕima]) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu, the largest island of Japan. Hiroshima gained city status on April 1, 1889. On April 1, 1980, Hiroshima became a designated city. As of August 2016, the city had an estimated population of 1,196,274. The gross domestic product (GDP) in Greater Hiroshima, Hiroshima Urban Employment Area, was US$61.3 billion as of 2010.[4][5] Kazumi Matsui has been the city's mayor since April 2011.

Hiroshima was the first city targeted by a nuclear weapon, when the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped an atomic bomb on the city at 8:15 a.m. on August 6, 1945, near the end of World War II.[6]

Hiroshima

広島市
The City of Hiroshima[1]
From top left: Hiroshima Castle, baseball game of Hiroshima Toyo Carp in Hiroshima Municipal Baseball Stadium, Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome), night view of Ebisu-cho, Shukkei-en (Asano Park)
From top left: Hiroshima Castle, baseball game of Hiroshima Toyo Carp in Hiroshima Municipal Baseball Stadium, Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome), night view of Ebisu-cho, Shukkei-en (Asano Park)
Flag of Hiroshima

Flag
Official seal of Hiroshima

Seal
Location of Hiroshima in Hiroshima Prefecture
Location of Hiroshima in Hiroshima Prefecture
Hiroshima is located in Japan
Hiroshima
Hiroshima
 
Hiroshima is located in Asia
Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Hiroshima (Asia)
Hiroshima is located in Earth
Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Hiroshima (Earth)
Coordinates: 34°23′N 132°27′E / 34.383°N 132.450°ECoordinates: 34°23′N 132°27′E / 34.383°N 132.450°E
CountryJapan
RegionChūgoku (San'yō)
PrefectureHiroshima Prefecture
Government
 • MayorKazumi Matsui
Area
 • Designated city906.53 km2 (350.01 sq mi)
Population
(August 1, 2016)
 • Designated city1,196,274
 • Density1,319.6/km2 (3,418/sq mi)
 • Metro
[2] (2015)
1,431,634 (10th)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
TreeCamphor Laurel
FlowerOleander
Phone number082-245-2111
Address1-6-34 Kokutaiji,
Naka-ku, Hiroshima-shi 730-8586
Websitewww.city.hiroshima.lg.jp
Hiroshima
Hiroshima (Chinese characters)
"Hiroshima" in shinjitai kanji
Japanese name
Kyūjitai廣島
Shinjitai広島

History

Sengoku and Edo periods (1589–1871)

Hiroshima was established on the delta coastline of the Seto Inland Sea in 1589 by powerful warlord Mōri Terumoto.[7][8] Hiroshima Castle was quickly built, and in 1593 Mōri moved in. Terumoto was on the losing side at the Battle of Sekigahara. The winner of the battle, Tokugawa Ieyasu, deprived Mōri Terumoto of most of his fiefs, including Hiroshima and gave Aki Province to Masanori Fukushima, a daimyō who had supported Tokugawa.[9] From 1619 until 1871, Hiroshima was ruled by the Asano clan.

Imperial period (1871–1939)

Hiroshima map circa 1930
Map of Hiroshima City in the 1930s (Japanese edition)

After the Han was abolished in 1871, the city became the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture. Hiroshima became a major urban center during the imperial period, as the Japanese economy shifted from primarily rural to urban industries. During the 1870s, one of the seven government-sponsored English language schools was established in Hiroshima.[10] Ujina Harbor was constructed through the efforts of Hiroshima Governor Sadaaki Senda in the 1880s, allowing Hiroshima to become an important port city.

The San'yō Railway was extended to Hiroshima in 1894, and a rail line from the main station to the harbor was constructed for military transportation during the First Sino-Japanese War.[11] During that war, the Japanese government moved temporarily to Hiroshima, and Emperor Meiji maintained his headquarters at Hiroshima Castle from September 15, 1894, to April 27, 1895.[11] The significance of Hiroshima for the Japanese government can be discerned from the fact that the first round of talks between Chinese and Japanese representatives to end the Sino-Japanese War was held in Hiroshima, from February 1 to February 4, 1895.[12] New industrial plants, including cotton mills, were established in Hiroshima in the late 19th century.[13] Further industrialization in Hiroshima was stimulated during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, which required development and production of military supplies. The Hiroshima Prefectural Commercial Exhibition Hall was constructed in 1915 as a center for trade and exhibition of new products. Later, its name was changed to Hiroshima Prefectural Product Exhibition Hall, and again to Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall.[14]

During World War I, Hiroshima became a focal point of military activity, as the Japanese government entered the war on the Allied side. About 500 German prisoners of war were held in Ninoshima Island in Hiroshima Bay.[15] The growth of Hiroshima as a city continued after the First World War, as the city now attracted the attention of the Catholic Church, and on May 4, 1923, an Apostolic Vicar was appointed for that city.[16]

World War II and the atomic bombing (1939–1945)

During World War II, the Second General Army and Chūgoku Regional Army were headquartered in Hiroshima, and the Army Marine Headquarters was located at Ujina port. The city also had large depots of military supplies, and was a key center for shipping.[17]

The bombing of Tokyo and other cities in Japan during World War II caused widespread destruction and hundreds of thousands of civilian deaths.[18] There were no such air raids on Hiroshima. However, a real threat existed and was recognized. In order to protect against potential firebombings in Hiroshima, school children aged 11–14 years were mobilized to demolish houses and create firebreaks.[19]

On Monday, August 6, 1945, at 8:15 a.m., the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" was dropped on Hiroshima from an American Boeing B-29 Superfortress, the Enola Gay, flown by Colonel Paul Tibbets,[20] directly killing an estimated 70,000 people, including 20,000 Japanese combatants and 2,000 Korean slave laborers. By the end of the year, injury and radiation brought the total number of deaths to 90,000–166,000.[21] The population before the bombing was around 340,000 to 350,000. About 70% of the city's buildings were destroyed, and another 7% severely damaged.

The public release of film footage of the city following the attack, and some of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission research about the human effects of the attack, were restricted during the occupation of Japan, and much of this information was censored until the signing of the Treaty of San Francisco in 1951, restoring control to the Japanese.[22]

As Ian Buruma observed, "News of the terrible consequences of the atom bomb attacks on Japan was deliberately withheld from the Japanese public by US military censors during the Allied occupation—even as they sought to teach the natives the virtues of a free press. Casualty statistics were suppressed. Film shot by Japanese cameramen in Hiroshima and Nagasaki after the bombings was confiscated. "Hiroshima", the account written by John Hersey for The New Yorker, had a huge impact in the US, but was banned in Japan. As [John] Dower says: 'In the localities themselves, suffering was compounded not merely by the unprecedented nature of the catastrophe ... but also by the fact that public struggle with this traumatic experience was not permitted."[23] The US occupation authorities maintained a monopoly on scientific and medical information about the effects of the atomic bomb through the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, which treated the data gathered in studies of hibakusha as privileged information rather than making the results available for the treatment of victims or providing financial or medical support to aid victims.

The book Hiroshima by John Hersey was originally featured in article form and published in the magazine The New Yorker,[24] on 31 August 1946. It is reported to have reached Tokyo, in English, at least by January 1947 and the translated version was released in Japan in 1949.[25] Despite the fact that the article was planned to be published over four issues, "Hiroshima" made up the entire contents of one issue of the magazine.[26][27] Hiroshima narrates the stories of six bomb survivors immediately prior to and four months after the dropping of the Little Boy bomb.[24][28]

Oleander (Nerium) is the official flower of the city of Hiroshima because it was the first to bloom again after the explosion of the atomic bomb in 1945.[29]

AtomicEffects-Hiroshima

Hiroshima after the bombing

Hiroshima aftermath

Hiroshima after the bombing

Postwar period (1945–present)

On September 17, 1945, Hiroshima was struck by the Makurazaki Typhoon (Typhoon Ida). Hiroshima Prefecture suffered more than 3,000 deaths and injuries, about half the national total.[30] More than half the bridges in the city were destroyed, along with heavy damage to roads and railroads, further devastating the city.[31]

Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with help from the national government through the Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Construction Law passed in 1949. It provided financial assistance for reconstruction, along with land donated that was previously owned by the national government and used for military purposes.[32]

Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Atomic Bomb Dome by Jan Letzel and modern Hiroshima

In 1949, a design was selected for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation, was designated the Genbaku Dome (原爆ドーム) or "Atomic Dome", a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum was opened in 1955 in the Peace Park.[33]

Hiroshima also contains a Peace Pagoda, built in 1966 by Nipponzan-Myōhōji. Uniquely, the pagoda is made of steel, rather than the usual stone.[34]

Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament in 1949, at the initiative of its mayor, Shinzo Hamai (1905–1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima received more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate interpretation for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of all nuclear weapons and the Mayor of Hiroshima is the president of Mayors for Peace, an international mayoral organization mobilizing cities and citizens worldwide to abolish and eliminate nuclear weapons by the year 2020.[35][36]

On May 27, 2016, Barack Obama visited Hiroshima, being the first sitting president of the United States to visit since the drop of the atomic bomb.[37]

Schedule Hiroshima is situated on the Ōta River delta, on Hiroshima Bay, facing the Seto Inland Sea on its south side. The river's six channels divide Hiroshima into several islets.

Geography

Climate

Hiroshima has a humid subtropical climate characterized by cool to mild winters and hot humid summers. Like much of the rest of Japan, Hiroshima experiences a seasonal temperature lag in summer; with August rather than July being the warmest month of the year. Precipitation occurs year-round, although winter is the driest season. Rainfall peaks in June and July, with August experiencing sunnier and drier conditions.

Wards

Hiroshima has eight wards (ku):

Ward Japanese Population Area (km²) Density
(per km²)
Map
Aki-ku(Aki ward) 安芸区 80,702 94.08 857 Hiroshima wards
Asakita-ku(Asa-North ward) 安佐北区 148,426 353.33 420
Asaminami-ku(Asa-south ward) 安佐南区 241,007 117.24 2,055
Higashi-ku(East ward) 東区 121,012 39.42 3,069
Minami-ku(South ward) 南区 141,219 26.30 5,369
Naka-ku(Central ward)
*administrative center
中区 130,879 15.32 8,543
Nishi-ku(West ward) 西区 189,794 35.61 5,329
Saeki-ku(Saeki ward) 佐伯区 137,838 225.22 612
Population as of March 31, 2016

Places of interest

Hiroshima has many interesting places to visit. A popular destination outside the city is Itsukushima Island, also known as Miyajima, which is a sacred island with many temples and shrines. But inside Hiroshima there are many popular destinations as well, and according to online guidebooks, these are the most popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima:[39]

  1. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum
  2. The Atomic Bomb Dome
  3. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park
  4. Mazda Zoom-Zoom Stadium Hiroshima
  5. Hiroshima Castle
  6. Shukkei-en
  7. Mitaki-dera Temple
  8. Hiroshima Gogoku Shrine
  9. Kamiyacho and Hatchobori (A major center in Hiroshima which is a shopping area. It is directly connected to the Hiroshima Bus Center )
  10. Senko-ji Temple (Senko-ji Park)

Other popular places in the city include the Namiki-dōri shopping area.

Demographics

Rijo Street
Down town of Hiroshima City
Hiroshima-Hondori Shopping Street at dusk 2
Hondōri Shopping Street
Hiroshima Zero Gate2 20160911
Hiroshima Zero Gate

In 2017, the city has an estimated population of 1,195,327. The total area of the city is 905.08 square kilometres (349.45 sq mi), with a population density of 1321 persons per km².[40]

The population around 1910 was 143,000.[41] Before World War II, Hiroshima's population had grown to 360,000, and peaked at 419,182 in 1942.[42] Following the atomic bombing in 1945, the population dropped to 137,197.[42] By 1955, the city's population had returned to pre-war levels.[43]

Events

Hiroshima FF 2011
Hiroshima Flower Festival 2011

Culture

Hiroshima has a professional symphony orchestra, which has performed at Wel City Hiroshima since 1963.[44] There are also many museums in Hiroshima, including the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, along with several art museums. The Hiroshima Museum of Art, which has a large collection of French renaissance art, opened in 1978. The Hiroshima Prefectural Art Museum opened in 1968, and is located near Shukkei-en gardens. The Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, which opened in 1989, is located near Hijiyama Park. Festivals include Hiroshima Flower Festival and Hiroshima International Animation Festival.

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, which includes the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, draws many visitors from around the world, especially for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony, an annual commemoration held on the date of the atomic bombing. The park also contains a large collection of monuments, including the Children's Peace Monument, the Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims and many others.

Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. Hiroshima Gokoku Shrine is within the walls of the castle. Other attractions in Hiroshima include Shukkei-en, Fudōin, Mitaki-dera, and Hijiyama Park.

Cuisine

Okonomiyaki 2
A man making an okonomiyaki at a restaurant in Hiroshima

Hiroshima is known for okonomiyaki, a savory (umami) pancake cooked on an iron plate, usually in front of the customer. It is cooked with various ingredients, which are layered rather than mixed together as done with the Osaka version of okonomiyaki. The layers are typically egg, cabbage, bean sprouts (moyashi), sliced pork/bacon with optional items (mayonnaise, fried squid, octopus, cheese, mochi, kimchi, etc.), and noodles (soba, udon) topped with another layer of egg and a generous dollop of okonomiyaki sauce (Carp and Otafuku are two popular brands). The amount of cabbage used is usually 3 to 4 times the amount used in the Osaka style. It starts out piled very high and is generally pushed down as the cabbage cooks. The order of the layers may vary slightly depending on the chef's style and preference, and ingredients will vary depending on the preference of the customer.

Sports

Hiroshima has several professional sports clubs. The city's main football club are Sanfrecce Hiroshima, who play at the Hiroshima Big Arch. As Toyo Kogyo Soccer Club, they won the Japan Soccer League five times between 1965 and 1970 and the Emperor's Cup in 1965, 1967 and 1969. After adopting their current name in 1992, the club won the J.League in 2012 and 2013. The city's main women's football club is Angeviolet Hiroshima. Defunct clubs include Rijo Shukyu FC, who won the Emperor's Cup in 1924 and 1925, and Ẽfini Hiroshima SC.

Hiroshima Toyo Carp are the city's major baseball club, and play at the Mazda Zoom-Zoom Stadium Hiroshima. Members of the Central League, the club won the Japan Series in 1979, 1980 and 1984. Other sports clubs include Hiroshima Dragonflies (basketball), Hiroshima Maple Reds (handball) and JT Thunders (volleyball).

The Woodone Open Hiroshima was part of the Japan Golf Tour between 1973 and 2007. The city also hosted the 1994 Asian Games, using the Big Arch stadium, which is now used for the annual Mikio Oda Memorial International Amateur Athletic Game. The now-called Hiroshima Prefectural Sports Center was one of the host arenas of the 2006 FIBA World Championship (basketball).

Economy and infrastructure

Health care

Hospitals

  • Hiroshima City Hospital
  • Hiroshima City Asa Hospital
  • Hiroshima City Funairi Hospital
  • Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital
  • Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital & Atomic-bomb Survivors Hospital
  • Hiroshima University Hospital
  • Japan Post Hiroshima Hospital
  • JR Hiroshima Hospital

Media

The Chūgoku Shimbun is the local newspaper serving Hiroshima. It publishes both morning paper and evening editions. Television stations include Hiroshima Home Television, Hiroshima Telecasting, Shinhiroshima Telecasting, and the RCC Broadcasting. Radio stations include Hiroshima FM, Chugoku Communication Network, FM Fukuyama, FM Nanami, and Onomichi FM. Hiroshima is also served by NHK, Japan's public broadcaster, with television and radio broadcasting.

Transportation

Air

Hiroshima is served by Hiroshima Airport (IATA: HIJ, ICAO: RJOA), located 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of the city, with regular flights to Tokyo, Sapporo, Sendai, Okinawa, and also to China, Taiwan and South Korea.

Trains

Streetcars

Hiroden 5006B 20150502
A Hiroshima tram, 2015

Hiroshima is notable, in Japan, for its light rail system, nicknamed Hiroden, and the "Moving Streetcar Museum." Streetcar service started in 1912,[45] was interrupted by the atomic bomb, and was restored as soon as was practical. (Service between Koi/Nishi Hiroshima and Tenma-cho was started up three days after the bombing.[46])

Streetcars and light rail vehicles are still rolling down Hiroshima's streets, including streetcars 651 and 652, which survived the atomic blast and are among the older streetcars in the system. When Kyoto and Fukuoka discontinued their trolley systems, Hiroshima bought them up at discounted prices, and, by 2011, the city had 298 streetcars, more than any other city in Japan.[46]

Automobiles

Hiroshima is served by Japan National Route 2, Japan National Route 54, Japan National Route 183, Japan National Route 261 Japan National Route 433, Japan National Route 487, Japan National Route 488, Hiroshima Prefectural Route 37 (Hiroshima-Miyoshi Route), Hiroshima Prefectural Route 70 (Hiroshima-Nakashima Route), Hiroshima Prefectural Route 84 (Higashi Kaita Hiroshima Route), Hiroshima Prefectural Route 164 (Hiroshima-Kaita Route), and Hiroshima Prefectural Route 264 (Nakayama-Onaga Route).

Tourism

The Japanese city and Perfecture of Hiroshima may have been devastated by the atomic bomb over 73 years ago, but today, this site of the destruction is one of the top tourist destinations in the entire country. Statistics released by the nation's tourist agency revealed that around 363,000 visitors went to the metropolis during 2012, with US citizens making up the vast majority of that figure, followed by Australians and Chinese.[47]

Education

HiroshimaUniv SatakeMemorialHall
Satake Memorial Hall at Hiroshima University (in Higashihiroshima City)

Hiroshima University was established in 1949, as part of a national restructuring of the education system. One national university was set up in each prefecture, including Hiroshima University, which combined eight existing institutions (Hiroshima University of Literature and Science, Hiroshima School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education, Hiroshima Women's School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education for Youth, Hiroshima Higher School, Hiroshima Higher Technical School, and Hiroshima Municipal Higher Technical School), with the Hiroshima Prefectural Medical College added in 1953. But, in 1972 the relocation of Hiroshima University was decided from urban areas of Hiroshima City to wider campus in Higashihiroshima City. By 1995 almost all campuses were relocated to Higashihiroshima. But, School of Medicine, School of Dentistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Graduate School in these fields in Kasumi Campus and Law School and Center for Research on Regional Economic System in Higashi-Senda Campus are still in Hiroshima City.[48]

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Hiroshima has six overseas sister cities:[49]

Within Japan, Hiroshima has a similar relationship with Nagasaki.

Notes

  1. ^ The City of Hiroshima official web site (in English)
  2. ^ "UEA Code Tables". Center for Spatial Information Science, Univesity of Tokyo. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  3. ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  4. ^ Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo.
  5. ^ Conversion rates – Exchange rates – OECD Data
  6. ^ Hakim, Joy (5 January 1995). A History of US: Book 9: War, Peace, and All that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195095142.
  7. ^ "The Origin of Hiroshima". Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-01-30. Retrieved 2007-08-17.
  8. ^ Scott O'Bryan (2009). "Hiroshima: History, City, Event". About Japan: A Teacher's Resource. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
  9. ^ Kosaikai, Yoshiteru (2007). "History of Hiroshima". Hiroshima Peace Reader. Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation.
  10. ^ Bingham (US Legation in Tokyo) to Fish (US Department of State), September 20, 1876, in Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, transmitted to congress, with the annual message of the president, December 4, 1876, p. 384
  11. ^ a b Kosakai, Hiroshima Peace Reader
  12. ^ Dun (US Legation in Tokyo) to Gresham, February 4, 1895, in Foreign relations of United States, 1894, Appendix I, p. 97
  13. ^ Jacobs, Norman (1958). The Origin of Modern Capitalism and Eastern Asia. Hong Kong University. p. 51.
  14. ^ Sanko (1998). Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome). The City of Hiroshima and the Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation.
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ "Diocese of Hiroshima". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  17. ^ United States Strategic Bombing Survey (June 1946). "U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey: The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki". nuclearfiles.org. Archived from the original on 2004-10-11. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
  18. ^ Pape, Robert (1996). Bombing to Win: Airpower and Coercion in War. Cornell University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-8014-8311-0.
  19. ^ "Japan in the Modern Age and Hiroshima as a Military City". The Chugoku Shimbun. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
  20. ^ The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of History and Heritage Resources.
  21. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions – Radiation Effects Research Foundation". Rerf.or.jp. Archived from the original on 2007-09-19. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  22. ^ Ishikawa and Swain (1981), p. 5
  23. ^ Seldon, Mark (December 2016). "American Fire Bombing and Atomic Bombing of Japan in History and Memory". The Asia-Pacific Journal. 14 – via Japan Focus.
  24. ^ a b Roger Angell, From the Archives, "Hersey and History", The New Yorker, July 31, 1995, p. 66.
  25. ^ http://www.japantimes.co.jp/culture/2009/08/16/books/the-pure-horror-of-hiroshima/#.UdhVsfnVDTc The pure horror of Hiroshima, published in The Japan Times by Donald Richie.
  26. ^ Sharp, "From Yellow Peril to Japanese Wasteland: John Hersey's 'Hiroshima'", Twentieth Century Literature 46 (2000): 434–452, accessed March 15, 2012.
  27. ^ Jon Michaub, "Eighty-Five From the Archive: John Hersey" The New Yorker, June 8, 2010, np.
  28. ^ John Hersey, Hiroshima (New York: Random House, 1989).
  29. ^ 広島市 市の木・市の花. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
  30. ^ Excite エキサイト. Archived from the original on 2012-07-10.
  31. ^ Ishikawa and also Swain (1981), p. 6
  32. ^ "Peace Memorial City, Hiroshima". Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
  33. ^ "Fifty Years for the Peace Memorial Museum". Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. Retrieved 2007-08-17.
  34. ^ "Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park". Japan Deluxe Tours. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  35. ^ "Surviving the Atomic Attack on Hiroshima, 1944". Eyewitnesstohistory.com. 1945-08-06. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
  36. ^ "Library: Media Gallery: Video Files: Rare film documents devastation at Hiroshima". Nuclear Files. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
  37. ^ "President Obama Visits Hiroshima". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
  38. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency.
  39. ^ "Hiroshima – Most famous Sights | Planetyze". Planetyze. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
  40. ^ 広島市勢要覧 (PDF). Government of Hiroshima City.
  41. ^ Terry, Thomas Philip (1914). Terry's Japanese Empire. Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 640.
  42. ^ a b "2006 Statistical Profile". The City of Hiroshima. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
  43. ^ de Rham-Azimi, Nassrine, Matt Fuller, and Hiroko Nakayama (2003). Post-conflict Reconstruction in Japan, Republic of Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, East Timor. United Nations Publications. p. 69.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  44. ^ "Wel City Hiroshima". Wel-hknk.com. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
  45. ^ 広島市交通科学館 [Hiroshima City Transportation Museum].
  46. ^ a b "Peace Newspaper produced by Japanese teenagers: Peace Seeds:feature story".
  47. ^ "Hiroshima increasingly popular with tourists | Inside Japan Tours". insidejapantours.com. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
  48. ^ "History of Hiroshima University". Hiroshima University. Archived from the original on 2007-06-29. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  49. ^ "Introduction to our Sister and Friendship Cities". City.hiroshima.jp. Archived from the original on 2011-05-03. Retrieved 2010-05-10.
  50. ^ "Friendly relationship at Official website of Volgograd". Volgadmin.ru. 1994-12-01. Archived from the original on 2008-12-20. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
  51. ^ "Twinnings of the City of Hannover". Hanover.de – Offizielles Portal der Landeshauptstadt und der Region Hannover (in German). Presse- und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit der Landeshauptstadt Hannover. Retrieved 2014-10-13. External link in |website= (help)

References

  • Ishikawa, Eisei, David L. Swain (1981). Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings. Basic Books.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Kowner, Rotem (2002). "Hiroshima". In M. Ember; C. Ember (eds.). Encyclopedia of Urban Cultures (Vol. II). Grolier. pp. 341–348. ISBN 978-0717256983.

Further reading

External links

  1. ^ Gyanpedia.in
1994 Asian Games

The 1994 Asian Games (Japanese: 1994年アジア競技大会, 1994-nen Ajia kyōgi taikai), also known as the XII Asiad and the 12th Asian Games, were held from October 2 to 16, 1994, in Hiroshima, Japan. The main theme of this edition was to promote peace and harmony among Asian nations. It was emphasized by the host because the venue was the site of the first atomic bomb attack 49 years earlier. Due to the 1991 Gulf War, Iraq was suspended from the games.There were a total number of 6,828 athletes and officials involved, from 42 countries, with a total number of 34 events. Debut sports at this edition of the Asiad were baseball, karate and modern pentathlon.

Astram Line

Hiroshima New Transit Line 1 (広島新交通1号線, Hiroshima Shin Kōtsū 1-gō-sen), also known as the Astram Line (アストラムライン, Asutoramurain), is a rubber-tired transit system operated by Hiroshima Rapid Transit in Hiroshima, Japan. Astram opened August 20, 1994 for the 1994 Asian Games in Hiroshima. The line connects between central Hiroshima and Hiroshima Big Arch, which was the main stadium of the Asian Games. On March 14, 2015, a new station, Shin-Hakushima, opened to make a new connection between the Astram Line and JR lines.

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively. The United States dropped the bombs after obtaining the consent of the United Kingdom, as required by the Quebec Agreement. The two bombings killed 129,000–226,000 people, most of whom were civilians. They remain the only use of nuclear weapons in the history of armed conflict.

In the final year of the war, the Allies prepared for what was anticipated to be a very costly invasion of the Japanese mainland. This undertaking was preceded by a conventional and firebombing campaign that devastated 67 Japanese cities. The war in Europe had concluded when Germany signed its instrument of surrender on May 8, 1945. As the Allies turned their full attention to the Pacific War, Japan faced the same fate. The Allies called for the unconditional surrender of the Imperial Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945 – the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction". Japan ignored the ultimatum and the war continued.

By August 1945, the Allies' Manhattan Project had produced two types of atomic bombs, and the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was equipped with the specialized Silverplate version of the Boeing B-29 Superfortress that could deliver them from Tinian in the Mariana Islands. Orders for atomic bombs to be used on four Japanese cities were issued on July 25. On August 6, one of the modified B-29s dropped a uranium gun-type ("Little Boy") bomb on Hiroshima. Three days later, on August 9, a plutonium implosion ("Fat Man") bomb was dropped by another B-29 on Nagasaki. The bombs immediately devastated their targets. Over the next two to four months, the acute effects of the atomic bombings killed 90,000–146,000 people in Hiroshima and 39,000–80,000 people in Nagasaki; roughly half of the deaths in each city occurred on the first day. Large numbers of people continued to die from the effects of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, compounded by illness and malnutrition, for many months afterward. In both cities, most of the dead were civilians, although Hiroshima had a sizable military garrison.

Japan announced its surrender to the Allies on August 15, six days after the bombing of Nagasaki and the Soviet Union's declaration of war. On September 2, the Japanese government signed the instrument of surrender, effectively ending World War II. The effects of the bombings on the social and political character of subsequent world history and popular culture has been studied extensively, and the ethical and legal justification for the bombings is still debated to this day.

Central League

The Central League (セントラル・リーグ, Sentoraru Rīgu) or Ce League (セリーグ, Se Rīgu) is one of the two professional baseball leagues that constitute Nippon Professional Baseball in Japan. The winner of the league championship plays against the winner of the Pacific League in the annual Japan Series. It currently consists of six teams from around the country. Unlike the Pacific League, designated hitters are not used during Central League home games.

Debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

The debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki concerns the ethical, legal, and military controversies surrounding the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August 1945 at the close of World War II (1939–45). The Soviet Union declared war on Japan an hour before 9 August and invaded Manchuria at one minute past midnight; Japan surrendered on 15 August.

On 26 July 1945, United States President Harry S. Truman, United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chairman of the Chinese Nationalist Government Chiang Kai-shek issued the Potsdam Declaration, which outlined the terms of surrender for the Empire of Japan as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference. This ultimatum stated if Japan did not surrender, it would face "prompt and utter destruction". Some debaters focus on the presidential decision-making process, and others on whether or not the bombings were the proximate cause of Japanese surrender.

Over the course of time, different arguments have gained and lost support as new evidence has become available and as new studies have been completed. A primary and continuing focus has been on the role of the bombings in Japan's surrender and the U.S.'s justification for them based upon the premise that the bombings precipitated the surrender. This remains the subject of both scholarly and popular debate. In 2005, in an overview of historiography about the matter, J. Samuel Walker wrote, "the controversy over the use of the bomb seems certain to continue". Walker stated, "The fundamental issue that has divided scholars over a period of nearly four decades is whether the use of the bomb was necessary to achieve victory in the war in the Pacific on terms satisfactory to the United States."Supporters of the bombings generally assert that they caused the Japanese surrender, preventing massive casualties on both sides in the planned invasion of Japan: Kyūshū was to be invaded in November 1945 and Honshū four months later. It was thought Japan would not surrender unless there was an overwhelming demonstration of destructive capability. Those who oppose the bombings argue it was militarily unnecessary, inherently immoral, a war crime, or a form of state terrorism. Critics believe a naval blockade and conventional bombings would have forced Japan to surrender unconditionally. Some critics believe Japan was more motivated to surrender by the Soviet Union's invasion of Manchuria and other Japanese-held areas.

Edion Stadium Hiroshima

The Hiroshima Big Arch (広島ビッグアーチ, Hiroshima Biggu Āchi), known under current sponsorship as Edion Stadium Hiroshima (エディオンスタジアム広島, Edion Sutajiamu Hiroshima), is a multi-purpose stadium in Hiroshima, Japan. It used mostly for association football matches and also for athletics. The venue is the home of J. League club Sanfrecce Hiroshima. It has a capacity of 36,894. It is an all-seater. It was formerly known as Hiroshima Park Stadium.

Enola Gay

The Enola Gay () is a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, named after Enola Gay Tibbets, the mother of the pilot, Colonel Paul Tibbets. On 6 August 1945, during the final stages of World War II, it became the first aircraft to drop an atomic bomb. The bomb, code-named "Little Boy", was targeted at the city of Hiroshima, Japan, and caused the near-complete destruction of the city. Enola Gay participated in the second atomic attack as the weather reconnaissance aircraft for the primary target of Kokura. Clouds and drifting smoke resulted in a secondary target, Nagasaki, being bombed instead.

After the war, the Enola Gay returned to the United States, where it was operated from Roswell Army Air Field, New Mexico. In May 1946, it was flown to Kwajalein for the Operation Crossroads nuclear tests in the Pacific, but was not chosen to make the test drop at Bikini Atoll. Later that year it was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution, and spent many years parked at air bases exposed to the weather and souvenir hunters, before being disassembled and transported to the Smithsonian's storage facility at Suitland, Maryland, in 1961.

In the 1980s, veterans groups engaged in a call for the Smithsonian to put the aircraft on display, leading to an acrimonious debate about exhibiting the aircraft without a proper historical context. The cockpit and nose section of the aircraft were exhibited at the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) in downtown Washington, D.C., for the bombing's 50th anniversary in 1995, amid controversy. Since 2003, the entire restored B-29 has been on display at NASM's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. The last survivor of its crew, Theodore Van Kirk, died on 28 July 2014 at the age of 93.

Fukuyama, Hiroshima

Fukuyama (福山市, Fukuyama-shi) is a city located on the Ashida River in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

As of January 31, 2010, the city has an estimated population of 465,238 and a population density of 898.02 persons per km². The total area is 461.23 km2 (178.08 sq mi).

After Hiroshima, it is the largest city in Hiroshima Prefecture and is located on the far east side of the prefecture. The city's symbol is the rose and it holds an annual Rose Festival in the month of May. Fukuyama is a vital commercial, industrial and communications center. It produces machinery, koto (Japanese harps), rubber products, electronics, textiles, and processed foods.

Ground zero

In terms of nuclear explosions and other large bombs, the term "ground zero" (also known as "surface zero") describes the point on the Earth's surface closest to a detonation. In the case of an explosion above the ground, ground zero refers to the point on the ground directly below the nuclear detonation and is sometimes called the hypocenter (from Greek ὑπο- "under-" and center).

Generally, the term "ground zero" is also used in relation to earthquakes, epidemics, and other disasters to mark the point of the most severe damage or destruction. The term is distinguished from the term zero point in that the latter can also be located in the air, underground, or underwater.

Hiroshima Dragonflies

The Hiroshima Dragonflies (広島ドラゴンフライズ) are a professional basketball team based in Hiroshima, Japan. In October 2014 they commenced competing in the Western Conference of the Japanese National Basketball League. In September 2016 they joined the B.League, the NBL's successor league, and play in the lower division's Western Conference.

Hiroshima Peace Memorial

The Hiroshima Peace Memorial (広島平和記念碑, Hiroshima Heiwa Kinenhi), originally the Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, and now commonly called the Genbaku Dome, Atomic Bomb Dome or A-Bomb Dome (原爆ドーム, Genbaku Dōmu), is part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park in Hiroshima, Japan and was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. The ruin of the hall serves as a memorial to the people who were killed in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945. Over 70,000 people were killed instantly, and another 70,000 suffered fatal injuries from the radiation.

Hiroshima Prefecture

Hiroshima Prefecture (広島県, Hiroshima-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region on Honshu island. The capital is the city of Hiroshima. It has a population of around 2.8 million.

Hiroshima Toyo Carp

The Hiroshima Toyo Carp (広島東洋カープ, Hiroshima Tōyō Kāpu) are a professional baseball team based in Hiroshima, Japan. They compete in the Central League of Nippon Professional Baseball. The team is primarily owned by the Matsuda family, led by Hajime Matsuda (松田元, Matsuda Hajime), who is a descendant of Mazda founder Jujiro Matsuda. Mazda is the largest single shareholder (34.2%), which is less than the portion owned by the Matsuda family (about 60%). Because of that, Mazda is not considered as the owner firm. However, the company connection is highlighted in the club name—until 1984, Mazda's official name was Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd. (東洋工業株式会社, Tōyō Kōgyō Kabushiki Gaisha).

Kitahiroshima, Hokkaido

Kitahiroshima (北広島市, Kitahiroshima-shi) is a city located in Ishikari, Hokkaido, Japan. "Kita" is the Japanese word for "north", so the town's name, Kitahiroshima-shi, is translated as "North-Hiroshima city" or "city of North-Hiroshima".

As of April 30, 2017, the city has an estimated population of 58,918, with 27,221 households, and the density of 500 persons per km². The total area is 118.54 square kilometres (45.77 sq mi).

Kure, Hiroshima

Kure (呉市, Kure-shi) is a port and major shipbuilding city situated on the Seto Inland Sea in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. With a strong industrial heritage Kure hosts the second oldest naval dockyard in Japan and remains an important base for the Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force (JMSDF).

As of 1 May 2015, the city has an estimated population of 228,030 and a population density of 646 persons per km². The total area is 352.80 km².

Little Boy

"Little Boy" was the code name for the type of atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II. It was the first nuclear weapon used in warfare. The bomb was dropped by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces. It exploded with an energy of approximately 15 kilotons of TNT (63 TJ) and caused widespread death and destruction throughout the city. The Hiroshima bombing was the second nuclear explosion in history, after the Trinity test, and the first uranium-based detonation.

Little Boy was developed by Lieutenant Commander Francis Birch's group at the Manhattan Project's Los Alamos Laboratory during World War II, a development of the unsuccessful Thin Man nuclear bomb. Like Thin Man, it was a gun-type fission weapon, but it derived its explosive power from the nuclear fission of uranium-235, whereas Thin Man was based on fission of plutonium-239. Fission was accomplished by shooting a hollow cylinder of enriched uranium (the "bullet") onto a solid cylinder of the same material (the "target") by means of a charge of nitrocellulose propellant powder. It contained 64 kg (141 lb) of enriched uranium, although less than a kilogram underwent nuclear fission. Its components were fabricated at three different plants so that no one would have a copy of the complete design.

After the war ended, it was not expected that the inefficient Little Boy design would ever again be required, and many plans and diagrams were destroyed. However, by mid-1946, the Hanford Site reactors began suffering badly from the Wigner effect, the dislocation of atoms in a solid caused by neutron radiation, and plutonium became scarce, so six Little Boy assemblies were produced at Sandia Base. The Navy Bureau of Ordnance built another 25 Little Boy assemblies in 1947 for use by the Lockheed P2V Neptune nuclear strike aircraft which could be launched from the Midway-class aircraft carriers. All the Little Boy units were withdrawn from service by the end of January 1951.

Okonomiyaki

Okonomiyaki (お好み焼き, o-konomi-yaki) (listen ) is a Japanese savory pancake containing a variety of ingredients. The name is derived from the word okonomi, meaning "how you like" or "what you like", and yaki meaning "cooked" (usually fried). Okonomiyaki is mainly associated with the Kansai or Hiroshima areas of Japan, but is widely available throughout the country. Toppings and batters tend to vary according to region. In Tokyo, there is a semi-liquid okonomiyaki called 'monjayaki.'

Sanfrecce Hiroshima

Sanfrecce Hiroshima (Japanese: サンフレッチェ広島, translit. Sanfuretche Hiroshima) is a professional football club based in Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan. The club play in the J1 League, which is the top tier of football in the country.

The Beatles Anthology

The Beatles Anthology is a television documentary, a three-volume set of double albums, and a book focusing on the history of the Beatles. Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr all participated in the making and approval of the works, which are sometimes referred to collectively as the Anthology project, while John Lennon had archival interviews.

The documentary series was first broadcast in November 1995, with expanded versions released on VHS and Laserdisc in 1996 and on DVD in 2003. The documentary used interviews with the Beatles and their associates to narrate the history of the band as seen through archival footage and performances. The Anthology book, released in 2000, paralleled the documentary in presenting the group's history through quotes from interviews.

The initial volume of the album set (Anthology 1) was released the same week of the documentary's airdate, with the subsequent two volumes (Anthology 2 and Anthology 3) released in 1996. They included unreleased performances and outtakes presented in roughly chronological order, along with two new songs based on demo tapes recorded by Lennon after the group broke up: "Free as a Bird" and "Real Love", both produced by Jeff Lynne.

Transcriptions
RomanizationHiroshima
Climate data for Hiroshima, Hiroshima (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.8
(65.8)
21.5
(70.7)
23.7
(74.7)
29.0
(84.2)
31.5
(88.7)
34.4
(93.9)
38.7
(101.7)
37.9
(100.2)
36.9
(98.4)
31.2
(88.2)
26.3
(79.3)
22.3
(72.1)
38.7
(101.7)
Average high °C (°F) 9.7
(49.5)
10.6
(51.1)
14.0
(57.2)
19.7
(67.5)
24.1
(75.4)
27.2
(81.0)
30.8
(87.4)
32.5
(90.5)
29.0
(84.2)
23.4
(74.1)
17.4
(63.3)
12.3
(54.1)
20.9
(69.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
6.0
(42.8)
9.1
(48.4)
14.7
(58.5)
19.3
(66.7)
23.0
(73.4)
27.1
(80.8)
28.2
(82.8)
24.4
(75.9)
18.3
(64.9)
12.5
(54.5)
7.5
(45.5)
16.3
(61.3)
Average low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
2.1
(35.8)
4.8
(40.6)
9.9
(49.8)
14.7
(58.5)
19.4
(66.9)
23.8
(74.8)
24.8
(76.6)
20.8
(69.4)
14.2
(57.6)
8.5
(47.3)
3.7
(38.7)
12.4
(54.3)
Record low °C (°F) −8.5
(16.7)
−8.3
(17.1)
−7.2
(19.0)
−1.4
(29.5)
1.8
(35.2)
6.6
(43.9)
14.1
(57.4)
13.7
(56.7)
8.6
(47.5)
1.5
(34.7)
−2.6
(27.3)
−8.6
(16.5)
−8.6
(16.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.6
(1.76)
66.6
(2.62)
123.9
(4.88)
141.7
(5.58)
177.6
(6.99)
247.0
(9.72)
258.6
(10.18)
110.8
(4.36)
169.5
(6.67)
87.9
(3.46)
68.2
(2.69)
41.2
(1.62)
1,537.6
(60.54)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 5
(2.0)
4
(1.6)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(1.2)
12
(4.7)
Average snowy days 8.7 7.1 2.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 4.5 23.1
Average relative humidity (%) 68 67 64 63 66 72 74 71 70 68 69 69 68
Mean monthly sunshine hours 137.2 139.7 169.0 190.1 206.2 161.4 179.5 211.2 165.3 181.8 151.6 149.4 2,042.3
Source: [38]

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.