Hirden

Hirden[1] (the hird) was a uniformed paramilitary organisation during the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, modelled the same way as the German Sturmabteilungen.[2]

Hirden
Hirden insignia
The insignia of the Hirden
Vidkun Quisling og Oliver Møystad (hirdsjef og sjef for sikkerhetspolitiet) inspiserer Rikshirden

Vidkun Quisling and Oliver Møystad inspecting Rikshirden.
Organization overview
Formed1940
Dissolved1945
TypeParamilitary
JurisdictionGerman-occupied Norway
HeadquartersHirdens hus, Oslo
Parent organizationNasjonal Samling

Overview

Vidkun Quisling's fascist party Nasjonal Samling frequently used words and symbols from the old Norse Viking era. During the Second World War, membership was compulsory for all Nasjonal Samling members. In total, about 8,500 Norwegians were members of Hirden during the war. The organisation was dissolved after the liberation, and many of its former members were prosecuted and convicted for treason and collaboration.

History

During the German occupation Hirden got a more military slant. The intention was that it should form the nucleus of a future Norwegian Nazi army, and a "hirdmarine" (Hirden navy)[3] and a "Hirdens flykorps" (Hirden's air force corps)[4] were created in 1942 in addition to the real Hirden, Rikshirden. However, many Hirden members volunteered to Norwegian military units in the war on Nazi German side or served as guards in the various prison camps. Hirden had a broad mandate to conduct operations against dissidents, independent of all police authorities, many of which included the use of violence.[5]

A 2014 Dagsavisen article said that "8 of 10 died in the prison camps where Hirden performed guard duty under the leadership of SS".[6]

Gallery

Nasjonal Samling NS Aarbok 1944 s123 (uniformer) Rikshirden

Rikshirden's blue uniform with single-breasted jacket with bandoleer and ski pants.

Uniform of the naval hird, Hirdmarinen.

Uniform of the female hird, Kvinnehirden.

Sarpsborg juli 1942 (8617784245)

Vidkun Quisling on the rostrum speaks to Hirden in Halden.

8. Parteitag – Gefallenenehrung (8615544971)

Hirden spectacle march to be greeted by Quisling.

8. Parteitag – Hirdaufmarsch på Karl Johan. (8616649948)

Hirden women march up Oslo's main street.

Den Norske Legion WWII Nazi poster and Hirden flag at Norway's Resistance Museum in Oslo, photo 2017-11-30 b

A recruitment poster for Waffen-SS and Hirden's flag.

Hirdoppmarsj på Universitetsplassen i Oslo. (8615512231)

Quisling speaks to Hirden after oath has been given to him.

Ranks and rank insignia

Nasjonal Samling NS Aarbok 1944 s124 (uniformer) Rikshirdens distinksjoner
Rank insignia

See also

References

  1. ^ NRK. "Stiller ut fargefoto frå 30-talet". Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  2. ^ Erik Veum page 33
  3. ^ Veum pp. 92-98
  4. ^ Veum 98-106
  5. ^ Veum
  6. ^ Pål Nygaard (18 November 2014). "2. Verdenskrig: Etter krigen benektet alle i Vegvesenet at de hadde noe med de jugoslaviske fangene å gjøre. - Kunne de stoppet massedrap?" [World War Two: After the war, everyone in the Public Roads Administration denied involvement with the Jugoslavian prisoners. - Could they have stopped mass murder?]. Dagsavisen. p. 6. Pål Nygaard - Forsker, senter for profesjonsstudier, HiOA (...) 8 av 10 døde i leirene hvor Hirden sto vakt under ledelse av SS.
  7. ^ Hvad enhver NS-mann bør vite - side 5 Retrieved 2017-02-05.

Sources

  • Eirik Veum: Nådeløse nordmenn - Hirden, Kagge Forlag, Oslo 2013, ‹See Tfd›(in Norwegian) ISBN 978-82-489-1451-8

External links

Battle of Haglebu

The Battle of Haglebu (26 April 1945) was a skirmish towards the end of the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War. A patrol of German and Norwegian police troops had been tipped off that weapons were hidden in Haglebu and came up from Eggedal on a search. On the southern shore of Haglebuvannet, the German force divided to search both sides of the lake. On the western side, the Germans received machine-gun fire from the Norwegian resistance movement (Milorg) and soon the Germans came under attack on the eastern side as well. After about four hours, during which the Norwegians repulsed the German assaults, Milorg carried out an orderly withdrawal before German reinforcements arrived.

Albeit a small battle and local in nature, the Battle of Haglebu had a large effect on the course of the war in Norway. The battle marked a defeat for Norwegians who collaborated with the Germans. This may have contributed to the collaborators' acceptance of the German surrender, which prevented further fighting between Milorg and the collaborators. The resistance allegedly committed a war crime by executing a prisoner; the Norwegian Waffen SS soldier Tom Henry Zakariassen (21) was shot after surrendering. Zachariassen was allegedly executed by Lieutenant Peter Fredrik Holst, who was never prosecuted for the alleged war crime.

Beisfjord massacre

The Beisfjord massacre (Norwegian: Beisfjord-massakren) was a massacre on 18 July 1942 at Lager I Beisfjord (German for "Beisfjord Camp No.1", Norwegian: Beisfjord fangeleir) in Beisfjord, Norway of 288 political prisoners. The massacre had been ordered a few days earlier by the Reichskommissar for Norway Josef Terboven.

Blood Road

The Blood Road (Norwegian: Blodveien) is a route northeast of Rognan in the municipality of Saltdal in Nordland county, Norway that was built by prisoners during the Second World War. The route was a new section of Norwegian National Road 50 between Rognan and Langset on the east side of Saltdal Fjord (Saltdalsfjorden), where there was a ferry service before the war. The specific incident that gave the road its name was a cross of blood that was painted on a rock cutting in June 1943. The blood came from a prisoner that was shot along the route, and the cross was painted by his brother.The prisoners lived in a primitive camp in the village of Botn, just 2 kilometers (1.2 mi) outside Rognan. The prisoners of war had very small daily rations, long working hours, poor clothing for winter use, primitive barracks, and miserable sanitation, and they were treated cruelly. The Botn camp was first led by the SS, and under their direction mass executions were also carried out.

When the Wehrmacht took over management of the Botn camp in October 1943, the conditions gradually improved. The conditions further improved when the Red Cross learned of the camps and several inspections were conducted.

The Botn camp was one of five original prisoner-of-war camps in Northern Norway. The camp held prisoners from Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union, and Poland. The youngest prisoners of war were barely 12 years old. The conditions at all five camps were poor with high mortality. The number of prisoners in the Botn camp can only be estimated from testimonies of survivors. Almost 900 prisoners in total arrived at the camp; of these, about half died through execution, punishment, malnutrition, and exhaustion.

By the war's end there were around 7,500 prisoners of war in Saltdal, but the number is uncertain. There were up to 18 camps from Saltfjellet (a mountain) and north to Saltdal Fjord, but the treatment that prisoners received in these camps was considerably better. In the trials held after the war, the camps were referred to as extermination camps. It shocked the Norwegian authorities that the Norwegian youths as young as 16 had served as guards in the camp. The youths were members of the Hirdvaktbataljon (Guard Battalion of the Hird) set up under the NS Ungdomsfylking (the Nasjonal Samling youth organization), and they treated the prisoners of war cruelly. In the postwar trials several Norwegian guards received prison sentences, and some of the German SS officers were sentenced to death by firing squad.

Collaboration with the Axis Powers

Within nations occupied by the Axis powers in World War II, some citizens and organizations, prompted by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, antisemitism, opportunism, self-defense, or often a combination, knowingly collaborated with the Axis Powers. Some of these collaborators committed war crimes, crimes against humanity, or atrocities of the Holocaust.Collaboration has been defined as cooperation between elements of the population of a defeated state and representatives of a victorious power. Stanley Hoffmann subdivided collaboration into involuntary (reluctant recognition of necessity) and voluntary (exploitation of necessity). According to Hoffmann, collaborationism can be subdivided into "servile" and "ideological"; the former is deliberate service to an enemy, whereas the latter is deliberate advocacy of cooperation with a foreign force which is seen as a champion of desirable domestic transformations. In contrast, Bertram Gordon uses the terms "collaborator" and "collaborationist", respectively, in reference to non-ideological and ideological collaborations.The term "collaborator" has also been applied to persons, organizations, or countries that were not under occupation by the Axis Powers but that ideologically, financially, or militarily, before or during World War II, supported Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, or World War II-era Imperial Japan.

Egil Holst Torkildsen

Egil Holst Torkildsen (21 July 1916 – 17 July 1979) was a Norwegian national socialist editor and activist.A strong proponent of pan-German national socialism, he was a member of the National Socialist Workers' Party of Norway (NNSAP) during the 1930s, until reluctantly joining Nasjonal Samling (NS) in 1940, some months after the NNSAP was dissolved. He was editor of Norsk Folkeblad in 1939–40, and a staff member of Hirden until he was hired as editor of Germaneren, the paper of Germanske SS Norge (GSSN) in 1942. Along with the leader of GSSN, Leif Schøren, Torkildsen was set aside by NS in January 1945 and sent to Germany after attempts of a pro-German coup against Vidkun Quisling and NS. He was enrolled in the Waffen-SS during the final stage of the war. Arriving in Berlin on 2 April, he fled on 16 April, and reached Denmark fourteen days later.Torkildsen was sentenced to five years imprisonment for treason after the war. As a wanted traitor, Torkildsen fled from Norway in 1947 along with four other Norwegian Nazis on the sailboat Mi Casa, and arrived in A Coruña, Spain. From Spain he travelled to Buenos Aires, Argentina, where he became chairman of a local association of Norwegian Nazis. In 1956 Torkildsen contacted Norwegian authorities asking to return to Norway. He died in 1979 and is buried at Vestre gravlund in Oslo.

Ernst Rolf

Ernst Ragnar Johansson (20 January 1891– 25 December 1932), professionally known as Ernst Rolf was a Swedish actor, singer and composer and musical revue artist. Rolf was born in Falun in the Swedish province of Dalarna, where his father was a tailor and member of the temperance movement. His musical talent was evident from the start when even as a young child he performed at IOGT meetings. He would sing while his older brother Birger played the piano.In 1906 Rolf found work at the Åhlén & Holm mail order company in Insjön, Dalarna. He made his stage debut in a performance of The Wizard of Oz, playing Dorothy in an all-male cast. In 1907 he began touring the country as a singer and comedian, quickly becoming one of Sweden's most famous and successful entertainers.During the 1920s Rolf was known for producing revues that were acclaimed for their dazzling sets, first class actors and stirring music. He was also a lyricist and composer, who wrote, for instance, the words to Finska Valsen (The Finnish Waltz) and the music for Från Frisco Till Cap (From Frisco to the Cape). He recorded his first song in 1910 and throughout his career made over eight hundred recordings. He acted in a number of films as well.

German occupation of Norway

The German occupation of Norway during World War II began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway. Conventional armed resistance to the German invasion ended on 10 June 1940 and the Germans controlled Norway until the capitulation of German forces in Europe on 8/9 May 1945. Throughout this period, Norway was continuously occupied by the Wehrmacht. Civil rule was effectively assumed by the Reichskommissariat Norwegen (Reich Commissariat of Norway), which acted in collaboration with a pro-German puppet government, the Quisling regime, while the Norwegian King Haakon VII and the prewar government escaped to London, where they acted as a government in exile. This period of military occupation is in Norway referred to as the "war years" or "occupation period".

H7 (monogram)

H7 was the royal cypher of the Norwegian head of state, King Haakon VII, who reigned from 1905 to 1957. When Germany invaded Norway in 1940 as a part of World War II, the royal family fled the country and Haakon VII later spearheaded the Norwegian resistance in-exile in the United Kingdom. H7 became one of several symbols used by the Norwegian populace to mark solidarity with and loyalty to the King, and adherence to the Norwegian resistance movement.

Henrik Rogstad

Henrik Rogstad (13 April 1916, Trondheim – 10 May 1945) was a politician for the Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling. During the Second World War he was a fylkesfører (Gauleiter) in the county of Sør-Trøndelag.Rogstad was a member of the Nasjonal Samling Ungdomsfylking fascist youth organisation and became active within the party in 1940. At the initiative of Rolf Jørgen Fuglesang Rogstad was appointed fylkesfører for Sør-Trøndelag. He was a pan-Germanist and helped the German occupational forces to make up lists of people that could be taken hostages during the martial law in Trondheim in 1942. Rogstad was appointed leader of the paramilitary organisation Hirden after its original leader Karl Marthinsen was assassinated in February 1945. In April of the same year he was also appointed chief of the police unit Statspolitiet.In May 1945, Rogstad along with Jonas Lie and Sverre Riisnæs held up at the farm Skallum in Bærum. When the German capitulation was a fact he committed suicide by gunshot.

Johan Bernhard Hjort

Johan Bernhard Hjort (25 February 1895 – 24 February 1969) was a Norwegian supreme court lawyer. Having joined the law firm of Harald Nørregaard in 1932, he continued the firm after World War II as Advokatfirmaet Hjort, which today is one of Norway's leading law firms. Hjort was also noted for his involvement with the fascist party, Nasjonal Samling, in the 1930s, but left the party in 1937 and became an active member of the anti-Nazi resistance during World War II. He was imprisoned by the Nazis and is credited with saving the lives of many prisoners through his involvement with the White Buses. After World War II, he rose to become one of Norway's preeminent lawyers, and was noted for his defence of gay rights and controversial artists, as chairman of the Riksmålsforbundet language society, and as a liberal public figure.

Nasjonal Samling

Nasjonal Samling (Norwegian pronunciation: [nɑʂʊˈnɑːl ˈsɑmlɪŋ], NS; literally "National Rally") was a Norwegian far-right party active from 1933 to 1945. It was the only legal party of Norway from 1942 to 1945. It was founded by former minister of defence Vidkun Quisling and a group of supporters such as Johan Bernhard Hjort – who led the party's paramilitary wing (Hirden) for a short time before leaving the party in 1937 after various internal conflicts. The party celebrated its founding on 17 May, Norway's national holiday, but was founded on 13 May 1933.

Oliver Møystad

Oliver Møystad (15 June 1892 – 28 June 1956) was a Norwegian engineer, farmer and forest owner. During the Norwegian Campaign in April 1940 he commanded Norwegian troops at the Battle of Midtskogen. During the German occupation of Norway, he served as leader of the collaborationist security police from 1941 to 1943, and Hirden from 1942 to 1944. After the war, Møystad was sentenced for treason to 10 years of forced labor and NOK 150,000 in fines during the legal purge in Norway after World War II. He was released in 1950.

Sturmabteilung

The Sturmabteilung (SA; German pronunciation: [ˈʃtʊɐ̯mʔapˌtaɪlʊŋ] (listen)), literally Storm Detachment, was the Nazi Party's original paramilitary. It played a significant role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Its primary purposes were providing protection for Nazi rallies and assemblies, disrupting the meetings of opposing parties, fighting against the paramilitary units of the opposing parties, especially the Red Front Fighters League (Rotfrontkämpferbund) of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), and intimidating Romani, trade unionists, and, especially, Jews – for instance, during the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses.

The SA were also called the "Brownshirts" (Braunhemden) from the color of their uniform shirts, similar to Benito Mussolini's blackshirts. The SA developed pseudo-military titles for its members, with ranks that were later adopted by several other Nazi Party groups, chief amongst them the Schutzstaffel (SS), which originated as a branch of the SA before being separated. Brown-colored shirts were chosen as the SA uniform because a large number of them were cheaply available after World War I, having originally been ordered during the war for colonial troops posted to Germany's former African colonies.The SA became disempowered after Adolf Hitler ordered the "blood purge" of 1934. This event became known as the Night of the Long Knives (die Nacht der langen Messer). The SA continued to exist, but was effectively superseded by the SS, although it was not formally dissolved until after Nazi Germany's final capitulation to the Allies in 1945.

The Holocaust in Norway

In 1941–1942 during the German occupation of Norway, there were at least 2,173 Jews in Norway. At least 775 of them were arrested, detained and/or deported. More than half of the Norwegians who died in camps in Germany were Jews. 742 Jews were murdered in the camps and 23 Jews died as a result of extrajudicial execution, murder and suicide during the war, bringing the total of Jewish Norwegian dead to at least 765 Jews, comprising 230 complete households. "Nearly two-thirds of the Jews in Norway fled from Norway". Of these, around 900 Jews were smuggled out of the country by the Norwegian resistance movement, mostly to Sweden but some also to the United Kingdom). Between 28 and 34 of those deported survived their continued imprisonment in camps (following their deportation)—and around 25 (of these) returned to Norway after the war.

Vidkun Quisling

Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling (; Norwegian: [ˈvɪdkʉn ˈkvɪslɪŋ] (listen); 18 July 1887 – 24 October 1945) was a Norwegian traitor, military officer and politician who nominally headed the government of Norway during the occupation of the country by Nazi Germany during World War II. He first came to international prominence as a close collaborator of explorer Fridtjof Nansen, organizing humanitarian relief during the Russian famine of 1921 in Povolzhye. He was posted as a Norwegian diplomat to the Soviet Union, and for some time also managed British diplomatic affairs there. He returned to Norway in 1929, and served as Minister of Defence in the governments of Peder Kolstad (1931–32) and Jens Hundseid (1932–33), representing the Farmers' Party.

In 1933, Quisling left the Farmers' Party and founded the fascist party Nasjonal Samling (National Union). Although he achieved some popularity after his attacks on the political left, his party failed to win any seats in the Storting and by 1940 it was still little more than peripheral. On 9 April 1940, with the German invasion of Norway in progress, he attempted to seize power in the world's first radio-broadcast coup d'état, but failed after the Germans refused to support his government. From 1942 to 1945 he served as Prime Minister of Norway, heading the Norwegian state administration jointly with the German civilian administrator Josef Terboven. His pro-Nazi puppet government, known as the Quisling regime, was dominated by ministers from Nasjonal Samling. The collaborationist government participated in Germany's genocidal Final Solution.

Quisling was put on trial during the legal purge in Norway after World War II. He was found guilty of charges including embezzlement, murder and high treason against the Norwegian state, and was sentenced to death. He was executed by firing squad at Akershus Fortress, Oslo, on 24 October 1945. The word "quisling" became a byword for "collaborator" or "traitor" in several languages, reflecting the contempt with which Quisling's conduct has been regarded, both at the time and since his death.

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