Hindi

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register[7] of the Hindustani language. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the official languages of India, along with the English language.[8] It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India.[9] However, it is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution.[10][11]

Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt, and to a lesser extent other parts of India (usually in a simplified or pidginized variety such as Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi).[12][13] Outside India, several other languages are recognized officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects of Hindustani, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri. Such languages include Fiji Hindi, which is official in Fiji,[14] and Caribbean Hindustani, which is a recognized language in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname.[15][16][17][18] Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Hindi is mutually intelligible with Urdu, another recognized register of Hindustani.

As a linguistic variety, Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin, Spanish and English.[19] Alongside Urdu as Hindustani, it is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English.[20]

Hindi
Hindi devnagari
The word "Hindi" in Devanagari script
PronunciationHindi pronunciation: [ˈɦɪndiː]
Native toIndia
RegionNorthern, Eastern, Western and Central India (Hindi Belt)
EthnicityHindustani people (historically), Indian people
Native speakers
unknown; 322 million speakers of Hindustani and various related languages reported their language as 'Hindi' (2011 census)[1]
L2 speakers: 270 million (2016)[2]
Early forms
Vedic Sanskrit
Devanagari
Devanagari Braille
Signed Hindi
Official status
Official language in
 India
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byCentral Hindi Directorate[5]
Language codes
ISO 639-1hi
ISO 639-2hin
ISO 639-3hin
hin-hin
Glottologhind1269[6]
Linguasphere59-AAF-qf
Language region maps of India

Etymology

The term Hindī originally was used to refer to inhabitants of the region east of the Indus. It was borrowed from Classical Persian Hindī (Iranian Persian Hendi), meaning "Indian", from the proper noun Hind "India".[21]

The name Hindavī was used by Amir Khusrow in his poetry.[22]

History

Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is a direct descendant of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit, through Sauraseni Prakrit and Śauraseni Apabhraṃśa (from Sanskrit apabhraṃśa "corrupted"), which emerged in the 7th century A.D.[23]

Modern Standard Hindi is based on the Khariboli dialect,[23] the vernacular of Delhi and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier prestige dialects such as Awadhi, Maithili (sometimes regarded as separate from the Hindi dialect continuum) and Braj. Urdu – another form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the later Mughal period (1800s), and underwent significant Persian influence. Modern Hindi and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century.[24] However, modern Hindi's earlier literary stages before standardization can be traced to the 16th century.[25] In the late 19th century, a movement to further develop Hindi as a standardised form of Hindustani separate from Urdu took form.[26] In 1881, Bihar accepted Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, and thus became the first state of India to adopt Hindi.[27] Modern Standard Hindi is one of the youngest Indian languages in this regard.

After independence, the government of India instituted the following conventions:

  • standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of India set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi; The committee's report was released in 1958 as A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi.
  • standardisation of the orthography, using the Devanagari script, by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some Devanagari characters, and introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages.

On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi written in the Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India replacing Urdu's previous usage in British India.[28][29][30] To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favor of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who even debated in Parliament on this issue. As such, on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following the adoption of Hindi as the official language.[31] Now, it is celebrated as Hindi Day.[32]

Use outside the Hindi Belt

In Northeast India a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has developed as a lingua franca for various tribes in Assam that speak other languages natively.[33] In Arunachal Pradesh, Hindi emerged as a lingua franca among locals who speak over 50 dialects natively.[34]

Status

Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language of the Indian Commonwealth. Under Article 343, the official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi in Devanagari script and English:

(1) The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.[15]
(2) Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorize the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union.[35]

Article 351 of the Indian constitution states

It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.

It was envisioned that Hindi would become the sole working language of the Union Government by 1965 (per directives in Article 344 (2) and Article 351),[36] with state governments being free to function in the language of their own choice. However, widespread resistance to the imposition of Hindi on non-native speakers, especially in South India (such as the those in Tamil Nadu) led to the passage of the Official Languages Act of 1963, which provided for the continued use of English indefinitely for all official purposes, although the constitutional directive for the Union Government to encourage the spread of Hindi was retained and has strongly influenced its policies.[37]

Article 344 (2b) stipulates that official language commission shall be constituted every ten years to recommend steps for progressive use of Hindi language and imposing restrictions on the use of the English language by the union government. In practice, the official language commissions are constantly endeavouring to promote Hindi but not imposing restrictions on English in official use by the union government.

At the state level, Hindi is the official language of the following Indian states: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal.[38][39] Each may also designate a "co-official language"; in Uttar Pradesh, for instance, depending on the political formation in power, this language is generally Urdu. Similarly, Hindi is accorded the status of official language in the following Union Territories: Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, National Capital Territory.

National language status for Hindi is a long-debated theme. In 2010, the Gujarat High Court clarified that Hindi is not the national language of India because the constitution does not mention it as such.[10][11][40]

Outside India

Outside Asia, the Awadhi language (A Hindi dialect) with influence from Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Fijian and English is spoken in Fiji.[41][42] It is an official language in Fiji as per the 1997 Constitution of Fiji,[43] where it referred to it as "Hindustani", however in the 2013 Constitution of Fiji, it is simply called "Fiji Hindi".[44] It is spoken by 380,000 people in Fiji.[41]

Hindi is also spoken by a large population of Madheshis (people having roots in north-India but have migrated to Nepal over hundreds of years) of Nepal. Hindi is quite easy to understand for some Pakistanis, who speak Urdu, which, like Hindi, is part of Hindustani. Apart from this, Hindi is spoken by the large Indian diaspora which hails from, or has its origin from the "Hindi Belt" of India. A substantially large North Indian diaspora lives in countries like the United States of America, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, South Africa, Fiji and Mauritius, where it is natively spoken at home and among their own Hindustani-speaking communities. Outside India, Hindi speakers are 8 million in Nepal; 863,077 in United States of America;[45][46] 450,170 in Mauritius; 380,000 in Fiji;[41] 250,292 in South Africa; 150,000 in Suriname;[47] 100,000 in Uganda; 45,800 in United Kingdom;[48] 20,000 in New Zealand; 20,000 in Germany; 16,000 in Trinidad and Tobago;[47] 3,000 in Singapore.

Comparison with Modern Standard Urdu

Linguistically, Hindi and Urdu are two registers of the same language and are mutually intelligible.[49] Hindi is written in the Devanagari script and uses more Sanskrit words, whereas Urdu is written in the Perso-Arabic script and uses more Arabic and Persian words. Hindi is the most commonly used official language in India. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan and is one of 22 official languages of India.

The splitting of Hindi and Urdu into separate languages is largely motivated by politics, namely the Indo-Pakistani rivalry.[50]

Script

Hindi is written in the Devanagari script, an abugida. Devanagari consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and is written from left to right. Unlike for Sanskrit, Devanagari is not entirely phonetic for Hindi, especially failing to mark schwa dropping in spoken Standard Hindi.[51]

Romanization

The Government of India uses Hunterian transliteration as its official system of writing Hindi in the Latin script. Various other systems also exist, such as IAST, ITRANS and ISO 15919.

Vocabulary

Traditionally, Hindi words are divided into five principal categories according to their etymology:

  • Tatsam (तत्सम "same as that") words: These are words which are spelled the same in Hindi as in Sanskrit (except for the absence of final case inflections).[52] They include words inherited from Sanskrit via Prakrit which have survived without modification (e.g. Hindi नाम nām / Sanskrit नाम nāma, "name"; Hindi कर्म karm / Sanskrit कर्म karma, "deed, action; karma"),[53] as well as forms borrowed directly from Sanskrit in more modern times (e.g. प्रार्थना prārthanā, "prayer").[54] Pronunciation, however, conforms to Hindi norms and may differ from that of classical Sanskrit. Amongst nouns, the tatsam word could be the Sanskrit non-inflected word-stem, or it could be the nominative singular form in the Sanskrit nominal declension.
  • Ardhatatsam (अर्धतत्सम "semi-tatsama") words: Such words are typically earlier loanwords from Sanskrit which have undergone sound changes subsequent to being borrowed. (e.g. Hindi सूरज sūraj from Sanskrit सूर्य sūrya)
  • Tadbhav (तद्भव "born of that") words: These are native Hindi words derived from Sanskrit after undergoing phonological rules (e.g. Sanskrit कर्म karma, "deed" becomes Sauraseni Prakrit कम्म kamma, and eventually Hindi काम kām, "work") and are spelled differently from Sanskrit.[52]
  • Deshaj (देशज) words: These are words that were not borrowings but do not derive from attested Indo-Aryan words either. Belonging to this category are onomatopoetic words or ones borrowed from local non-Indo-Aryan languages.
  • Videshī (विदेशी "foreign") words: These include all loanwords from non-indigenous languages. The most frequent source languages in this category are Persian, Arabic, English and Portuguese. Examples are कमेटी kameṭī from English committee and साबुन sābun "soap" from Arabic.

Hindi also makes extensive use of loan translation (calqueing) and occasionally phono-semantic matching of English.[55]

Prakrit

Hindi has naturally inherited a large portion of its vocabulary from Śaurasenī Prākṛt, in the form of tadbhava words. This process usually involves compensatory lengthening of vowels preceding consonant clusters in Prakrit, e.g. Sanskrit tīkṣṇa > Prakrit tikkha > Hindi tīkhā.

Sanskrit

Much of Modern Standard Hindi's vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit as tatsam borrowings, especially in technical and academic fields. The formal Hindi standard, from which much of the Persian, Arabic and English vocabulary has been replaced by neologisms compounding tatsam words, is called Śuddh Hindi (pure Hindi), and is viewed as a more prestigious dialect over other more colloquial forms of Hindi.

Excessive use of tatsam words sometimes creates problems for native speakers. They may have Sanskrit consonant clusters which do not exist in native Hindi, causing difficulties in pronunciation.[56]

As a part of the process of Sanskritization, new words are coined using Sanskrit components to be used as replacements for supposedly foreign vocabulary. Usually these neologisms are calques of English words already adopted into spoken Hindi. Some terms such as dūrbhāṣ "telephone", literally "far-speech" and dūrdarśan "television", literally "far-sight" have even gained some currency in formal Hindi in the place of the English borrowings (ṭeli)fon and ṭīvī.[57]

Persian

Hindi also features significant Persian influence, standardised from spoken Hindustani.[58] Early borrowings, beginning in the mid-12th century, were specific to Islam (e.g. Muhammad, islām) and so Persian was simply an intermediary for Arabic. Later, under the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire, Persian became the primary administrative language in the Hindi heartland. Persian borrowings reached a heyday in the 17th century, pervading all aspects of life. Even grammatical constructs, namely the izafat, were assimilated into Hindi.[59]

Post-Partition the Indian government advocated for a policy of Sanskritization leading to a marginalization of the Persian element in Hindi. However, many Persian words (e.g. muśkil "difficult", bas "enough", havā "air", x(a)yāl "thought") have remained entrenched in Modern Standard Hindi, and a larger amount are still used in Urdu poetry written in the Devanagari script.

Arabic

Arabic also shows influence in Hindi, often via Persian but sometimes directly.[60]

Media

Literature

Hindi literature is broadly divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti (devotional – Kabir, Raskhan); Śṛṇgār (beauty – Keshav, Bihari); Vīgāthā (epic); and Ādhunik (modern).

Medieval Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and the composition of long, epic poems. It was primarily written in other varieties of Hindi, particularly Avadhi and Braj Bhasha, but to a degree also in Khariboli, the basis for Modern Standard Hindi. During the British Raj, Hindustani became the prestige dialect.

Chandrakanta, written by Devaki Nandan Khatri in 1888, is considered the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi.[61] The person who brought realism in the Hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand, who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and progressive movement. Literary, or Sāhityik, Hindi was popularised by the writings of Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Bhartendu Harishchandra and others. The rising numbers of newspapers and magazines made Hindustani popular with the educated people.

The Dvivedī Yug ("Age of Dwivedi") in Hindi literature lasted from 1900 to 1918. It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, who played a major role in establishing Modern Standard Hindi in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of Hindi poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love.

In the 20th century, Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. This is known as Chāyāvād (shadow-ism) and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as Chāyāvādī. Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Mahadevi Varma and Sumitranandan Pant, are the four major Chāyāvādī poets.

Uttar Ādhunik is the post-modernist period of Hindi literature, marked by a questioning of early trends that copied the West as well as the excessive ornamentation of the Chāyāvādī movement, and by a return to simple language and natural themes.

Internet

The Hindi Wikipedia was the first Indic-language wiki to reach 100,000 articles. Hindi literature, music, and film have all been disseminated via the internet. In 2015, Google reported a 94% increase in Hindi-content consumption year-on-year, adding that 21% of users in India prefer content in Hindi.[62]

Many Hindi newspapers also offer digital editions.

Sample text

The following is a sample text in High Hindi, of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations):

Hindi
अनुच्छेद 1 (एक) सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के विषय में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और समानता प्राप्त हैं। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिए।
Transliteration (IAST)
Anucched 1 (ek) – Sabhī manuṣyõ ko gaurav aur adhikārõ ke viṣay mẽ janmajāt svatantratā aur samāntā prāpt hai. Unhẽ buddhi aur antarātmā kī den prāpt hai aur paraspar unhẽ bhāīcāre ke bhāv se bartāv karnā cāhie.
Transcription (IPA)
[ənʊtʃʰːeːd eːk | səbʱiː mənʊʃjõː koː ɡɔːɾəʋ ɔːr ədʱɪkaːɾõ keː maːmleː mẽː dʒənmədʒaːt sʋətəntɾətaː ɔːr səmaːntaː pɾaːpt hɛː ‖ ʊnʱẽ bʊdʱːɪ ɔːɾ əntəɾaːtmaː kiː deːn pɾaːpt hɛː ɔːɾ pəɾəspəɾ ʊnʱẽː bʱaːiːtʃaːɾeː keː bʱaːʋ seː bəɾtaːʋ kəɾnə tʃaːhɪeː ‖]
Gloss (word-to-word)
Article 1 (one) All human-beings to dignity and rights' matter in from-birth freedom and equality acquired is. Them to reason and conscience's endowment acquired is and always them to brotherhood's spirit with behaviour to do should.
Translation (grammatical)
Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also

References

Notes

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  34. ^ How Hindi became the language of choice in Arunachal Pradesh Archived 11 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
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  39. ^ Roy, Anirban (28 February 2018). "Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi make it to list of official languages in". India Today. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
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  41. ^ a b c "Hindi, Fiji". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  42. ^ "Fiji Hindi alphabet, pronunciation and language". www.omniglot.com. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  43. ^ "Section 4 of Fiji Constitution". servat.unibe.ch. Archived from the original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
  44. ^ "Constitution of Fiji". Official site of the Fijian Government. Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  45. ^ "Hindi most spoken Indian language in US, Telugu speakers up 86% in 8 years".
  46. ^ "United States- Languages". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  47. ^ a b Frawley, p. 481
  48. ^ "United Kingdom- Languages". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  49. ^ "Hindi and Urdu are classified as literary registers of the same language". Archived from the original on 2 June 2016.
  50. ^ Sin, Sarah J. (2017). Bilingualism in Schools and Society: Language, Identity, and Policy, Second Edition. Routledge. ISBN 9781315535555. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  51. ^ Bhatia, Tej K. (1987). A History of the Hindi Grammatical Tradition: Hindi-Hindustani Grammar, Grammarians, History and Problems. Brill. ISBN 9789004079243.
  52. ^ a b Masica, p. 65
  53. ^ Masica, p. 66
  54. ^ Masica, p. 67
  55. ^ Arnold, David; Robb, Peter (2013). Institutions and Ideologies: A SOAS South Asia Reader. Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 9781136102349.
  56. ^ Ohala, Manjari (1983). Aspects of Hindi Phonology. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 38. ISBN 9780895816702.
  57. ^ Arnold, David; Robb, Peter (2013). Institutions and Ideologies: A SOAS South Asia Reader. Routledge. p. 82. ISBN 9781136102349.
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Bibliography

Dictionaries
Further reading
  • Bhatia, Tej K A History of the Hindi Grammatical Tradition. Leiden, Netherlands & New York, NY: E.J. Brill, 1987. ISBN 90-04-07924-6

External links

Ajay Devgn

Vishal Devgan (born 2 April 1969), known professionally as Ajay Devgn, is an Indian film actor, director and producer. He is widely considered as one of the most popular and influential actors of Hindi cinema, who has appeared in over a hundred Hindi films. Devgn has won numerous accolades, including two National Film Awards and four Filmfare Awards. In 2016, he was honoured by the Government of India with the Padma Shri, the fourth-highest civilian honour of the country.Devgn began his professional career with Phool Aur Kaante in 1991 and received a Filmfare Award for Best Male Debut for his performance. He then starred in successful films such as Jigar (1992), Sangram (1993), Vijaypath (1994), Dilwale (1994), Suhaag (1994), Naajayaz (1995), Diljale (1996) and Ishq (1997). In 1998, he appeared in a critically acclaimed performance in Mahesh Bhatt's drama Zakhm and he received his first National Film Award for Best Actor for his role in the movie. In 1999, his most-talked-about film was Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam in which he played Vanraj, a man who tries to unite his wife with her lover.

In the early 2000s, he gave critically acclaimed performances in Ram Gopal Varma's fictional exposé of the Mumbai underworld Company. He played the character of a gangster, for which he won Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor. The same year he gave another critically acclaimed performance in Deewangee, for which he received the Filmfare Best Villain Award. In 2003, he won his second National Film Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of Bhagat Singh in Rajkumar Santoshi's biopic The Legend of Bhagat Singh. Throughout his career he has performed in many critically and commercially successful films including Raincoat (2004), Gangajal, (2004), Yuva (2004), Apaharan (2005), Omkara (2006), Golmaal: Fun Unlimited (2006),

Cash (2007), Halla Bol (2008), Golmaal Returns (2008), All the Best: Fun Begins (2009), Once Upon a Time in Mumbaai (2010), Golmaal 3 (2010), Raajneeti (2010), Singham (2011), Bol Bachchan (2012), Son of Sardaar (2012), Singham Returns (2014), Drishyam (2015), Shivaay (2016), Baadshaho (2017), Golmaal Again (2017) and Raid (2018). Devgn has starred in more than a hundred Hindi films. Having done so, he has established himself as one of the leading actors of Hindi cinema.In addition, Devgn owns a production company Ajay Devgn FFilms, which was established in 2000. In 2008, he debuted as a film director with U Me Aur Hum. He is married to film actress Kajol since 1999 and the couple have two children. In August 2009, Devgn changed his surname from Devgan to Devgn on the request of his family.

Bollywood

Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood and formerly known as Bombay cinema, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra. The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Hollywood". The industry is related to Tamil film industry (Kollywood), Telugu film industry (Tollywood) and other industries, making up Indian Cinema – the world's largest.Although the American film industry had produced over 150 musical films by 1930 after The Jazz Singer (1927, the world's first musical talkie), India took more than three years to import the sound technology before producing its first musical talkie: Alam Ara in 1931. Bollywood has produced major motion pictures in this genre since then, exceeding Hollywood's total musicals since the 1960s (when musical films declined in the West). Bollywood is known for its musicals, although non-musicals are also produced. Bollywood films tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu (or Hindustani), mutually intelligible by Hindi and Urdu speakers, and modern Bollywood films increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish.Indian cinema is the world's largest film industry in film production, with an annual output of 1,986 feature films in 2017. Bollywood is its largest film producer, with 364 Hindi films produced in 2017. Bollywood represents 43 percent of Indian net box-office revenue; Tamil and Telugu cinema represent 36 percent, and the remaining regional cinema constituted 21 percent in 2014. Bollywood is one of the largest centers of film production in the world. In 2001 ticket sales, Indian cinema (including Bollywood) reportedly sold an estimated 3.6 billion tickets worldwide, compared to Hollywood's 2.6 billion tickets sold.

Crore

A crore (; abbreviated cr) or koti denotes ten million (10,000,000 or 107 in scientific notation) and is equal to 100 lakh in the Indian numbering system as 1,00,00,000 with the local style of digit group separators (a lakh is equal to one hundred thousand and is written as 1,00,000).

Devanagari

Devanagari ( DAY-və-NAH-gər-ee; देवनागरी, IAST: Devanāgarī, Sanskrit pronunciation: [deːʋɐˈnaːɡɐɽiː]), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी), is a left-to-right abugida (alphasyllabary), based on the ancient Brāhmī script, used in the Indian subcontinent. It was developed in ancient India from the 1st to the 4th century CE, and was in regular use by the 7th century CE. The Devanagari script, composed of 47 primary characters including 14 vowels and 33 consonants, is one of the most adopted writing systems in the world, being used for over 120 languages. The ancient Nagari script for Sanskrit had two additional consonantal characters.The orthography of this script reflects the pronunciation of the language. Unlike the Latin alphabet, the script has no concept of letter case. It is written from left to right, has a strong preference for symmetrical rounded shapes within squared outlines, and is recognisable by a horizontal line that runs along the top of full letters. In a cursory look, the Devanagari script appears different from other Indic scripts such as Bengali, Odia, or Gurmukhi, but a closer examination reveals they are very similar except for angles and structural emphasis.Among the languages using it – as either their only script or one of their scripts – are Sanskrit, Hindi, Nepali, Pali, Prakrit, Apabhramsha, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Braj Bhasha, Chhattisgarhi, Haryanvi, Magahi, Nagpuri, Rajasthani, Bhili, Dogri, Marathi, Maithili, Kashmiri, Konkani, Sindhi, Bodo, Nepalbhasa, Mundari and Santali. The Devanagari script is closely related to the Nandinagari script commonly found in numerous ancient manuscripts of South India, and it is distantly related to a number of southeast Asian scripts.

Hindustani language

Hindustani (Hindi: हिन्दुस्तानी, Urdu: ہندوستانی), also known as Hindi-Urdu and historically also known as Hindavi, Dehlavi and Rekhta, was a historical lingua franca of Northern India and Pakistan. It is an Indo-Aryan language, deriving its base primarily from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi. The language incorporates a large amount of vocabulary from Prakrit, Sanskrit (via Prakrit and Tatsama borrowings), as well as Persian and Arabic (via Persian). It is now a pluricentric language, with two official forms, Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu, which are its standardised registers.

According to Ethnologue's 2019 estimates, if Hindi and Urdu are taken together as Hindustani, the language would be the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with approximately 409.8 million native speakers and 785.6 million total speakers.The colloquial registers are mostly indistinguishable and even though the official standards are nearly identical in grammar, they differ in literary conventions and in academic and technical vocabulary, with Urdu adopting stronger Persian and Arabic influences, and Hindi relying more heavily on Sanskrit. Before the partition of India, the terms Hindustani, Hindi and Urdu were synonymous; they all covered what would be mostly called Hindi and Urdu today. The term Hindustani is still used for the colloquial language and the lingua franca of North India and Pakistan, for example for the language of Bollywood films, as well as for several languages of the Hindi-Urdu belt spoken outside the Indian subcontinent, such as Fijian Hindi of Fiji and the Caribbean Hindustani of Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, and the rest of the Caribbean. Hindustani is also spoken by a small number of people in Mauritius and South Africa.

Jaya Prada

Jaya Prada (born 3 April 1962) is an Indian film actress and politician.Jaya Prada is the recipient of three Filmfare Awards South and has starred in many Telugu, Tamil, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Bengali and Marathi films. She had been one of the most influential & successful actress in both Telugu & Hindi film history and ruled the silver screen in the late 1970s,1980s and early 1990s in both Hindi and South Indian films. She left the film industry at the peak of her career, as she joined the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) in 1994 and entered politics. She was a Member of Parliament (MP) from Rampur from 2004 to 2014.

Some of her memorable films include Anthuleni Katha (1976), Seeta Kalyanam (1976), Adavi Ramudu (1977), Yamagola (1977), Sanaadi Appanna (1977), Siri Siri Muvva (1978), Sargam (1979), Kaamchor (1982), Kaviratna Kalidasa (1983), Sagara Sangamam (1983), Tohfa (1984), Sharaabi (1984), Maqsad (1984), Sanjog (1985), Aakhree Raasta (1986), Simhasanam (1986), Sindoor (1987) , Samsaram (1988), Elaan-E-Jung (1989), Aaj Ka Arjun (1990), Thanedaar (1990), Zakhmi Zameen(1990), Maa (1992), Devadoothan (2000), Pranayam (2011), and Krantiveera Sangolli Rayanna (2012). She won the Filmfare Award for Best Actress – Telugu for her performance in Sagara Sangamam. She has also been awarded Filmfare Special Award for her performance in Siri Siri Muvva & Anthuleni Katha (1976).

She has been considered by many as the most beautiful face ever graced indian cinema. So much so, that even the reticent cinematic maestro Satyajit Ray is said to have called her “the most beautiful face on the Indian screen".

Kishore Kumar

Kishore Kumar (4 August 1929 – 13 October 1987; born Abhas Kumar Ganguly) was an Indian playback singer, actor, lyricist, composer, producer, director, and screenwriter. He is considered as one of the most popular and successful singers of Hindi film industry and from soft numbers to peppy tracks to romantic moods, Kumar sang in different genres but some of his rare compositions which were considered classics were lost in time. According to Ashok Kumar, Kumar's success lies in the fact that his voice used to hit the microphone straight at its most sensitive point.Apart from Hindi, he sang in many Indian languages including Bengali, Marathi, Assamese, Gujarati, Kannada, Bhojpuri, Malayalam and Urdu. He has also sung in private albums in several languages especially in Bengali. He won 8 Filmfare Awards for Best Male Playback Singer and holds the record for winning the most Filmfare Awards in that category. He was awarded the "Lata Mangeshkar Award" by the Madhya Pradesh government in the year 1985–86. In the year 1997, the Madhya Pradesh Government initiated an award called the "Kishore Kumar Award" as a contribution to Hindi cinema. Recently, Kishore Kumar's unreleased last song was sold for Rs 15.6 lakh (1.56 million) at the Osian's Cinefan Auction, New Delhi in 2012.

Languages of India

Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 78.05% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 19.64% of Indians. Languages spoken by the remaining 2.31% of the population belong to the Austroasiatic, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai and a few other minor language families and isolates. India (780) has the world's second highest number of languages, after Papua New Guinea (839).Article 343 of the Indian constitution stated that the official language of the Union should become Hindi in Devanagari script instead of the extant English. But this was thought to be a violation of the constitution's guarantee of federalism. Later, a constitutional amendment, The Official Languages Act, 1963, allowed for the continuation of English in the Indian government indefinitely until legislation decides to change it. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union were supposed to be the international form of Indian numerals, distinct from the numerals used in most English-speaking countries. Despite the misconceptions, Hindi is not the national language of India. The Constitution of India does not give any language the status of national language.The Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution lists 22 languages, which have been referred to as scheduled languages and given recognition, status and official encouragement. In addition, the Government of India has awarded the distinction of classical language to Kannada, Malayalam, Odia, Sanskrit, Tamil and Telugu. Classical language status is given to languages which have a rich heritage and independent nature.

According to the Census of India of 2001, India has 122 major languages and 1599 other languages. However, figures from other sources vary, primarily due to differences in definition of the terms "language" and "dialect". The 2001 Census recorded 30 languages which were spoken by more than a million native speakers and 122 which were spoken by more than 10,000 people. Two contact languages have played an important role in the history of India: Persian and English. Persian was the court language during the Mughal period in India. It reigned as an administrative language for several centuries until the era of British colonisation. English continues to be an important language in India. It is used in higher education and in some areas of the Indian government. Hindi, the most commonly spoken language in India today, serves as the lingua franca across much of North and Central India. However, there have been anti-Hindi agitations in South India, most notably in the state of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Maharashtra, West Bengal, Assam, Punjab and other non-Hindi regions have also started to voice concerns about Hindi.

Languages with official status in India

There is no national language in India. The Constitution of India designates 22 official languages for the Government of India and as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English as the official languages of the Union. Hindi or English is used in official purposes such as parliamentary proceedings, judiciary, communications between the Central Government and a State Government. States within India have the liberty and powers to specify their own official language(s) through legislation and therefore there are 22 officially recognized languages in India of which Hindi is the most used. The number of native Hindi speakers is about 25% of the total Indian population; however, including dialects of Hindi termed as Hindi languages, the total is around 44% of Indians, mostly accounted from the states falling under the Hindi belt. Other Indian languages are each spoken by around 10% or less of the population.States specify their own official language(s) through legislation. The section of the Constitution of India dealing with official languages therefore includes detailed provisions which deal not just with the languages used for the official purposes of the union, but also with the languages that are to be used for the official purposes of each state and union territory in the country, and the languages that are to be used for communication between the union and the states.

During the British Rule, English was used for purposes at the federal level. The Indian constitution adopted in 1950 envisaged that Hindi would be gradually phased in to replace English over a fifteen-year period, but gave Parliament the power to, by law, provide for the continued use of English even thereafter. Plans to make Hindi the sole official language of the Republic met with resistance in some parts of the country. Hindi continues to be used today, in combination with other (at the central level and in some states) official languages.

The legal framework governing the use of languages for official purpose currently includes the Constitution, the Official Languages Act, 1963, Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, and various state laws, as well as rules and regulations made by the central government and the states.

List of highest-grossing Indian films

This is a ranking of the highest grossing Indian films which includes films from various languages based on the conservative global box office estimates as reported by reputable sources. There is no official tracking of domestic box office figures within India, and Indian sites publishing data are frequently pressured to increase their domestic box office estimates.Indian films have been screened in markets around the world since the early 20th century. As of 2003, there are markets in over 90 countries where films from India are screened. During the first decade of the 21st century, there was a steady rise in the ticket price, a tripling in the number of theaters and an increase in the number of prints of a film being released, which led to a large increase in the box office collections.The majority of highest-grossing Indian films are Bollywood (Hindi) films. As of 2014, Bollywood represents 43% of the net box office revenue in India, while Tamil and Telugu cinema represent 36%, and other regional industries constitute 21%. See List of highest-grossing films in India for domestic gross figures and List of highest-grossing Indian films in overseas markets for overseas gross figures.

Lists of Bollywood films

This is a list of films produced by Bollywood film industry of Mumbai ordered by year and decade of release. Although "Bollywood" films are generally listed under the Hindi language, most are in Hindi with partial Urdu and Punjabi and occasionally other languages. Hindi films can achieve national distribution across at least 22 of India’s 29 states.Speakers of Hindi, Urdu, and Punjabi understand the mixed language usage of Bollywood thus extending the viewership to people all over the Indian subcontinent (throughout India and its neighboring countries). Here are some examples - partly English: Om Shanti Om, Dhoom 2 and No Entry; partly Urdu: Jodhaa Akbar, Fanaa, Saawariya and Kurbaan; partly Punjabi: Singh Is Kinng, Jab We Met, Patiala House, and Thande Koyle. The film Veer Zaara is an equal mix of Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu.

Padma Shri

Padma Shri (Hindi: पद्म श्री, also Padma Shree) is the fourth highest civilian award in the Republic of India, after the Bharat Ratna, the Padma Vibhushan and the Padma Bhushan. It is awarded by the Government of India, every year on India's Republic Day.

Ram Gopal Varma

Ram Gopal Varma is an Indian film director, screenwriter and producer, known for his works in Telugu cinema, Bollywood, and television. Varma directed films across multiple genres, including parallel cinema and docudrama noted for their gritty realism, technical finesse, and craft. Regarded as one of the pioneers of new age Indian cinema, Varma garnered the National Film Award for scripting the political crime drama, Shool (1999).

In 2004, he was featured in the BBC World series Bollywood Bosses. In 2006, Grady Hendrix of Film Comment, published by the Film Society of Lincoln Center cited Varma as "Bombay’s Most Successful Maverick" for his works on experimental films.Varma is known for presenting the Indian Political Trilogy, and the Indian Gangster Trilogy; film critic Rajeev Masand had labeled the series as one of the "most influential movies of Hindi cinema. The first installment of the trilogy, Satya, was also listed in CNN-IBN's 100 greatest Indian films of all time. Varma's recent avant-garde works include hits such as the dramatized re-enactment of "Rayalaseema factionism" in Rakta Charitra (2010), the "2008 Mumbai attacks" in The Attacks of 26/11 (2013), the "Operation Cocoon" in Killing Veerappan (2016), and the "Vijayawada riots" in Vangaveeti (2016).Starting his career as a civil engineer, he made an entry into Telugu cinema with the path-breaking crime thriller, Siva (1989) screened at the 13th International Film Festival of India, and has garnered Varma, the state Nandi Awards for Best direction, Best first film of a director, and the Filmfare Award for Best Film – Telugu. Subsequently, the film was included in CNN-IBN's list of 100 greatest Indian films of all time. Varma's next movie Kshana Kshanam (1991) was screened at the Ann Arbor Film Festival. The sleeper hit won him another Nandi Award for Best Direction, and the Nandi Award for Best Screenplay Writer. The 1993 political drama, Gaayam received six state Nandi Awards. In 1999, He directed Prema Katha for which he received his third Nandi Award for Best Director.

Sanjay Dutt

Sanjay Balraj Dutt (born 29 July 1959) is an Indian actor and film producer who works in Hindi films. He is the recipient of several awards, including two Filmfare Awards and three Screen Awards. Dutt has appeared in 187 films, ranging from romance to comedy genres, but is usually typecasted in roles of criminals, gangsters and police officers in drama and action films. The media refer to him as "Deadly Dutt" for his portrayals of such characters.

The son of actors Sunil Dutt and Nargis, Dutt made his acting debut in Rocky (1981), which was directed by his father. The crime thriller Naam (1985) proved to be a turning point in his career, which was followed by a series of commercially successful films in that decade, including Jeete Hain Shaan Se (1988), Mardon Wali Baat (1988), Ilaaka (1989), Hum Bhi Insaan Hain (1989) and Kanoon Apna Apna (1989). He earned nominations for the Filmfare Award for Best Actor for Saajan (1991) and Khalnayak (1993). Dutt earned his first Best Actor at the ceremony for playing a common man-turned-gangster in Vaastav: The Reality (1999). Along with Vaastav: The Reality, he also won accolades for playing an army officer in Mission Kashmir (2001), a soft-hearted goofy gangster in Munna Bhai M.B.B.S. (2003) and its sequel Lage Raho Munna Bhai (2006).

Dutt was arrested under the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act in 1993. Charges of terrorism were dropped but he was convicted of illegal possession of weapons. After serving his sentence with good behaviour and conduct, he was released in 2016. Dutt's life receives considerable media coverage in India, and in 2018, Sanju, a biopic based on his life (which also saw a special appearance by him), was released to positive reviews and emerged as one of the highest-grossers of Indian cinema.

Sharmila Tagore

Sharmila Tagore (also known as Begum Ayesha Sultana Khan following conversion to Islam and marriage; born 8 December 1944) is an Indian film actress known for her works in Hindi cinema as well as Bengali cinema. She has received two National Film Awards and two Filmfare Awards for her performances. She was one of the highest paid actresses in 70s and also one of the iconic veteran actresses of Indian Cinema.

She led the Indian Film Censor Board from October 2004 till March 2011. In December 2005 she was chosen as a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador. She was one of the International Competition's Jury Members at the 2009 Cannes Film Festival. In 2013, she was awarded Padma Bhushan by the Government of India.

StarPlus

StarPlus is an Indian pay television channel owned by Star India. The network's programming consists of family dramas, comedies, youth-oriented reality shows, shows on crime and television films. It is also distributed internationally by The Walt Disney Company India, subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company.

Urdu

Urdu (; Urdu: اُردُو‎ ALA-LC: Urdū [ˈʊrduː] (listen)) (also known as Lashkari, locally written لشکری)—or, more precisely, Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi. It is a registered regional language of Nepal.

Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani. The Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious, social, and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy.According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with approximately 66 million speakers. According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, Urdu, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt (as Hindustani), is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with approximately 329.1 million native speakers, and 697.4 million total speakers.

Waheeda Rehman

Waheeda Rehman (born 3 February 1938) is an Indian actress who has appeared in mainly Hindi films, as well as Telugu, Tamil and Bengali films. She is noted for her contributions to different genres of films from the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s. She has received the Centenary Award for Indian Film Personality, the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award, the National Film Award for Best Actress and two Filmfare Awards for Best Actress throughout her career. She has been cited as Bollywood's "most beautiful" actress by various media outlets, a title for which she has received substantial publicity.

Zee TV

Zee TV is an Indian pay television channel owned by Zee Entertainment Enterprises, a media and entertainment company based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. A part of the Essel Group, it started to broadcast on 2 October 1992 as the first Hindi-language subscription channel in India.Zee TV HD was launched on 15 August 2011 along with Zee Cinema HD, Zee Studio HD. It overhauled its old logo on 15 October 2017, along with all other channels of the Zee Entertainment Enterprises.

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