Hillstream loach

The hillstream loaches or river loaches are a family, the Balitoridae,[3] of small fish from South, Southeast and East Asia. The family includes about 99 species. They are sometimes sold as "lizardfish" or (in Germany) "flossensaugers". Many of the species are popular for aquaria. They have a number of similarities with the Cobitidae, their sibling family of "loaches", such as multiple barbels around the mouth. They should not be confused with the loricariids, which look similar but are a family of catfish.

Most species are rheophilic, living in swift, clear and well-oxygenated streams. Several species of the family live in fast-flowing streams or torrents and have modified ventral fins used for clinging to rocks.[4]

The subfamily Nemacheilinae has recently been separated as a distinct family, Nemacheilidae (stone loaches) and several genera have been separated into the family Gastromyzontidae.[3]

Hillstream loach
Homaloptera zollingeri Bleeker
Balitoropsis zollingeri
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Balitoridae
Swainson, 1839
Genera[3]

References

  1. ^ WoRMS. "Dienbienia". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
  2. ^ a b Randall, Z.S. & Page, L.M. (2015): On the paraphyly of Homaloptera (Teleostei: Balitoridae) and description of a new genus of hillstream loaches from the Western Ghats of India. Zootaxa, 3926 (1): 57–86.
  3. ^ a b c Kottelat, M. (2012): Conspectus cobitidum: an inventory of the loaches of the world (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitoidei). Archived 2013-02-11 at the Wayback Machine The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. No. 26: 1-199.
  4. ^ Banister, K.E. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N., eds. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 100. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
Balitora kwangsiensis

Balitora kwangsiensis is a species of hillstream loach found in Southeast Asia (southern China, Laos, and Vietnam). It inhabits rapid-flowing rivers and grows to a total length of 12 cm (4.7 in).

Beaufortia

Beaufortia may refer to:

Beaufortia (fish), a genus of hillstream loach

Beaufortia (plant), a genus of plants in the family Myrtaceae

Beaufortia (journal), a biological journal published by the University of Amsterdam

Beaufortia kweichowensis

Beaufortia kweichowensis is a species of gastromyzontid loach native to rivers in China. The common names for this popular aquarium species are Chinese hillstream loach, Hong Kong pleco, butterfly hillstream loach, and Chinese sucker fish.

Coldwater fish

Coldwater fish, in the context of aquariums, refers to fish species that prefer colder water temperatures than

average tropical fish, typically below 20 °C (68 °F). Some examples are koi and goldfish. These species tend to grow more slowly and live longer than fish that live in warmer waters, and are generally felt to be easier to keep.

Coldwater fish are fish such as goldfish, koi, and other members of the carp family that are able to survive in cold water temperatures. When kept in a household aquarium, they do not require a heater and are quite comfortable at around 60 °F (15 °C). These fish are also desirable choices for outdoor ponds and can stand temperatures down to 10 °C.

Gastromyzon

Gastromyzon is a genus of gastromyzontid loaches native to Borneo.

Gastromyzon punctulatus

Gastromyzon punctulatus, the hillstream loach, is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Gastromyzon.

Hemimyzon ecdyonuroides

Hemimyzon ecdyonuroides is a species of hillstream loach (a ray-finned fish) in the genus Hemimyzon. It is known from two tributaries of the Mekong, from Sekong River and Sesan River drainages in Vietnam and Laos.

Hemimyzon formosanus

Hemimyzon formosanus is a species of hillstream loach (a ray-finned fish) in the genus Hemimyzon. It is endemic to western portion of Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. Its maximum length is 10 cm (3.9 in). Variations in nucleotide sequences within the mitochondrial control region show strong geographic structuring suggestive of a cryptic species complex.

Hemimyzon khonensis

Hemimyzon khonensis is a species of hillstream loach in the genus Hemimyzon. It is known from a single specimen collected in the Mekong at the Khone Falls in Laos, near the Cambodian border; it is named for the falls. The specimen was 51 mm (2.0 in) in standard length.

Hemimyzon macroptera

Hemimyzon macroptera is a species of hillstream loach (a ray-finned fish) in the genus Hemimyzon. It is found in clear-water streams with rocky bottom in the Nanpan River basin, Yunnan, China. It is naturally scarce but widespread.

Hemimyzon nanensis

Hemimyzon nanensis is a species of hillstream loach in the genus Hemimyzon. It occurs in the Chao Phraya basin, Thailand.

Hemimyzon nujiangensis

Hemimyzon nujiangensis is a species of hillstream loach endemic to Yunnan, China.

Homaloptera confuzona

Homaloptera confuzona is a species of hillstream loach in the genus Homaloptera found in Laos, Cambodia and Thailand. It lives in the lower Mekong drainage and coastal streams of Cambodia and southeastern Thailand. The maximum size is about 40 cm (16 in) SL.Homaloptera confuzona is eaten locally. It occasionally occurs in the aquarium fish trade.

Jinshaia abbreviata

Jinshaia abbreviata is a species of hillstream loach endemic to China. It is one of three species in the genus Jinshaia.

Neohomaloptera

Neohomaloptera johorensis is a species of hillstream loach found in Malaysia and Indonesia. It is the only member of its genus.

Protonemacheilus longipectoralis

Protonemacheilus longipectoralis is a species of hillstream loach that is endemic to China. It is the only species in its genus.

Sinogastromyzon nantaiensis

Sinogastromyzon nantaiensis is a species of hillstream loach (a ray-finned fish) in the genus Sinogastromyzon. It is endemic to Taiwan. It is found in the Kaoping and Tsengwen River basins in the southern Taiwan. Its maximum length is 8 cm (3.1 in).

Suckerfish

Suckerfish or sucker may refer to:

a fish species of the family Echeneidae, sometimes called sucker mouth

a fish species of the family Catostomidae, commonly known as sucker

a fish species of the genus Hypostomus, often called sucker fish

Chinese sucker fish (Beaufortia kweichowensis), a hillstream loach species native to the riverine fauna of China

Waterfall climbing cave fish

The waterfall climbing cave fish (Cryptotora thamicola), also known as the cave angel fish, is a species of troglobitic hillstream loach endemic to Thailand. It reaches a length of 2.8 centimetres (1.1 in) SL. This fish is known for its fins, which can grapple onto terrain, and its ability to climb. This fish is the only known member of its genus.

The species has been recorded from eight subterranean sites within a large karst system (Pang Mapha karst formation) in Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand. The species has an extent of occurrence of nearly 200 km2, but an area of occupancy of 6 km2; the connectivity of this karst systems is unknown, some caves are definitely connected. The species is found in eight of the caves. It has been recorded from the Susa (from where it was first collected in May 1985) and Tham Mae Lana (Borowsky and Vidthayanon 2001). It may also occur in other submerged caves in the area. However, the species has a potential threat of agricultural pollution which could impact the whole karst system, making it one location.Like other cavefish, it is depigmented and has no visible eyes. This species coexists with another hypogean (underground-living) loach, Schistura oedipus. The species is specialized for fast subterranean flowing water in the deeper zone of the cave (more than 500m from the entrance). It depends on cave microorganisms and organic matter, and is very sensitive to disturbance, water quality and hydrographic change.The species is protected under Thai law, and is found within a National Park (Pai Basin NP), but this does not necessarily protect the species as there is little restrictions on agricultural practices and regulation of tourism is needed to reduce the potential impacts to the species habitat at some sites. Human disturbance from tourism activity (some of the habitat sites are popular for caving tourism and sightseeing) may threaten the species. Agriculture and deforestation are future major threats.In 2016 it was reported that the waterfall climbing cave fish walks with a tetrapod-like diagonal-couplets lateral sequence gait, displaying a robust pelvic girdle attached to the vertebral column.

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