Hiki Yoshikazu

Hiki Yoshikazu (比企 能員, died October 8, 1203) was a Japanese warrior-noble of the Kamakura period related to the ruling Minamoto clan through his daughter's marriage. He, and much of the Hiki clan, were killed for allegedly conspiring to have one of the Minamoto heirs killed, in order to gain power himself.

Originally from Musashi province, Hiki Yoshikazu rose to prominence in the shogunal court as a result of being adopted by Minamoto no Yoritomo's nurse.

Hiki's daughter was married to Minamoto no Yoriie, the second shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate. Seriously ill, Yoriie proposed to name both his younger brother Sanetomo, and his young son (Hiki's grandson) Minamoto no Ichiman to succeed him; the two would split power, governing separate parts of the country.[1] It seemed natural that Hiki would then be the regent, even if unofficially, to young Ichiman. He therefore suggested to Yoriie, who would be assassinated shortly afterwards by a separate faction (the Hōjō clan), that they arrange to have Sanetomo killed. Hōjō Masako, Yoriie's mother and wife of the first shōgun Yoritomo, overheard this conversation.

Though Masako may have sought to have Hiki formally accused of treason and executed, the Hōjō, under Hōjō Tokimasa, got to him first. In their schemes to dominate the regency and control the shogunate as a puppet government under their clan, Hōjō warriors assassinated Hiki Yoshikazu, and then attacked the palace of young Ichiman, setting a fire and killing both the young heir and a great number of members of the extended Hiki family.

Notes

  1. ^ According to Japanese Wikipedia's "源一幡" (Minamoto no Ichiman) article, the Gukanshō and the Azuma Kagami give different versions of the events. This is the Azuma Kagami's version. According to the Gukanshō, when in 1203 Yoriie became seriously ill, the Hōjō clan supported his younger brother Senman (future third shōgun Minamoto no Sanetomo) as a successor, while the Hiki supported son Ichiman. To avoid power falling into the hands of the Hiki, the Hōjō decided to get rid of the Hiki and their protege. This is the version of events described in the article Minamoto no Ichiman.
    According to the same Wikipedia article, the Azuma Kagami claims Ichiman was killed by the Hiki, and not by the Hōjō.

References

  • Frederic, Louis (2002). "Japan Encyclopedia." Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Sansom, George (1958). 'A History of Japan to 1334'. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
Glossary of Japanese history

This is the glossary of Japanese history including the major terms, titles and events the casual (or brand-new) reader might find useful in understanding articles on the subject.

Hiki

Hiki may refer to:

Hurricane Hiki, the wettest tropical cyclone on record in the United States

Hiki District, Saitama, a district in Saitama Prefecture, Japan

Kii-Hiki Station, a railway station in Shirahama, Nishimuro District, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan

Hiki Yoshikazu (died 1203), Japanese warrior-noble of the Kamakura period related to the ruling Minamoto clan through his daughter's marriage

Hōjō Masako

Hōjō Masako (北条 政子, 1156 – August 16, 1225) was a political leader, and the eldest daughter of Hōjō Tokimasa (the first shikken, or regent, of the Kamakura shogunate) by his wife Hōjō no Maki. She was the sister of Hōjō Yoshitoki, and was married to Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shōgun of the Kamakura period. She was also the mother of O-Hime, Minamoto no Yoriie and Minamoto no Sanetomo, the second and third shōguns.

Hōjō Tokimasa

Hōjō Tokimasa (北条 時政, 1138 – February 6, 1215) was the first Hōjō shikken (regent) of the Kamakura bakufu and head of the Hōjō clan. He was shikken from 1203 until his abdication in 1205.

Hōjō Yoshitoki

Hōjō Yoshitoki (北条 義時, 1163 – July 1, 1224) was the second Hōjō shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate and head of the Hōjō clan. He was the eldest son of Hōjō Tokimasa and his wife Hōjō no Maki. He was shikken from the abdication of his father Tokimasa in 1205 until his death in 1224.

Kimotsuki Kanetake

Kimotsuki Kanetake (肝付兼武) (1823–1888) was a retainer, and scholar for the Shimazu clan of southern Kyushu during the late Edo period

Midaidokoro

The midaidokoro (御台所) was the official wife of the shōgun. During the Edo period, she resided in the Ōoku of Edo Castle and sometimes wielded considerable political power behind the scenes.

Minamoto no Ichiman

Minamoto no Ichiman (源 一幡, 1198 – October 8, 1203) was the eldest son of second Kamakura shōgun Minamoto no Yoriie. His mother Wakasa no Tsubone was Hiki Yoshikazu's daughter, and the child was brought up by the Hiki clan. The child died at six, victim of the struggle for power that ensued after Minamoto no Yoritomo's sudden death.When in 1203 Yoriie became seriously ill, the Hōjō clan supported his brother Senman (future third shōgun Minamoto no Sanetomo) as a future successor, while the Hiki supported son Ichiman. To avoid power falling into the hands of the Hiki, the Hōjō decided to get rid of the Hiki and their protégé.On a pretext, Hōjō Tokimasa invited Hiki Yoshikazu to his home and assassinated him. A battle between the clans ensued; the Hiki were defeated by a coalition of the Hōjō, Wada, Miura and Hatakeyama clans and exterminated. Six-year-old Ichiman also died during the fight. The Hiki residence was destroyed by fire and in its place in the Hikigayatsu valley now lies the Buddhist temple of Myōhon-ji. In its cemetery still stands Ichiman's grave, next to the Hiki clan's cenotaph.

Ichiman's younger brother Kugyō was forced to become a Buddhist priest and in 1219 at age 20 assassinated his uncle Sanetomo. Kugyō was himself immediately executed for his crime, thus bringing the Seiwa Genji dynasty to a sudden end.

Minamoto no Yoriie

Minamoto no Yoriie (Japanese: 源 頼家, September 11, 1182 – August 14, 1204) was the second shōgun (1202–1203) of Japan's Kamakura shogunate, and the first son of first shōgun Yoritomo. His buddhist name was Hokke-in-dono Kingo Da'i Zengo (法華院殿金吾大禅閤).

Myōhon-ji

Myōhon-ji (妙本寺) is one of the oldest Nichiren sect temples in Kamakura, Kanagawa. Its official name is Chōkō-zan Myōhon-ji (長興山妙本寺). "Chōkō" comes from the posthumous name of Nichiren's father and "Myōhon" from his mother's.

Ryukyu Islands

The Ryukyu Islands (琉球諸島, Ryūkyū-shotō), also known as the Nansei Islands (南西諸島, Nansei-shotō, lit. "Southwest Islands") or the Ryukyu Arc (琉球弧, Ryūkyū-ko), are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the westernmost. The larger are mostly high islands and the smaller mostly coral. The largest is Okinawa Island.

The climate of the islands ranges from humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) in the north to tropical rainforest climate (Köppen climate classification Af) in the south. Precipitation is very high and is affected by the rainy season and typhoons. Except the outlying Daitō Islands, the island chain has two major geologic boundaries, the Tokara Strait (between the Tokara and Amami Islands) and the Kerama Gap (between the Okinawa and Miyako Islands). The islands beyond the Tokara Strait are characterized by their coral reefs.

The Ōsumi and Tokara Islands, the northernmost of the islands, fall under the cultural sphere of the Kyushu region of Japan; the people are ethnically Japanese and speak a variation of the Kagoshima dialect of Japanese. The Amami, Okinawa, Miyako, and Yaeyama Islands have a native population collectively called the Ryukyuan people, named for the former Ryukyu Kingdom that ruled them. The varied Ryukyuan languages are traditionally spoken on these islands, and the major islands have their own distinct languages. In modern times, the Japanese language is the primary language of the islands, with the Okinawan Japanese dialect prevalently spoken. The outlying Daitō Islands were uninhabited until the Meiji period, when their development was started mainly by people from the Izu Islands south of Tokyo, with the people there speaking the Hachijō language.

Administratively, the islands are divided into Kagoshima Prefecture (specifically the islands administered by Kagoshima District, Kumage Subprefecture/District, and Ōshima Subprefecture/District) in the north and Okinawa Prefecture in the south, with the divide between the Amami and Okinawa Islands, with the Daitō Islands part of Okinawa Prefecture. The northern (Kagoshima) islands are collectively called the Satsunan Islands, while the southern part of the chain (Okinawa Prefecture) are called the Ryukyu Islands in Chinese.

Shimazu Estate

The Shimazu Estate (島津荘, Shimazu no shō) was a shōen (estate or manor) in southern Kyushu of Japan. It was the largest shōen of medieval Japan. The Shimazu clan was named after this estate as the clan succeeded the position of jitō (land steward).

Shimazu Tadahisa

Shimazu Tadahisa (島津 忠久, died August 1, 1227) was the founder of the Shimazu samurai clan.

According to a record of his life, he was reportedly born in Sumiyoshi Taisha in Osaka. He was initially Koremune no Tadahisa (惟宗忠久) but after being given the territory of Shimazu, Hyūga Province to rule from by Minamoto no Yoritomo, he took the name of Shimazu.

Tadahisa was a son of the Shōgun Minamoto no Yoritomo (1147–1199) by the sister of Hiki Yoshikazu.

He married a daughter of Koremune Hironobu, descendant of the Hata clan, whose name Tadahisa at first took.

He received the domain of Shioda (Shinano province) in 1186 and was then named Shugo of Satsuma province. He sent Honda Sadachika to take possession of the province in his name and accompanied Yoritomo in his expedition to Mutsu in 1189. He went to Satsuma in 1196, subdued Hyūga and Ōsumi provinces, and built a castle in the domain of Shimazu (Hyūga) which name he also adopted. He is buried in Kamakura, near his father's tomb.

Shimazu clan

The Shimazu clan (島津氏, Shimazu-shi) were the daimyō of the Satsuma han, which spread over Satsuma, Ōsumi and Hyūga provinces in Japan.

The Shimazu were identified as one of the tozama or outsider daimyō families in contrast with the fudai or insider clans which were hereditary vassals or allies of the Tokugawa clan.

Tomb of Minamoto no Yoritomo

The tomb of Minamoto no Yoritomo (源頼朝の墓) (see photo below) is a monument in Kamakura, Kanagawa, Japan, located some hundred meters north of the site where the palace called Ōkura Bakufu, seat of Minamoto no Yoritomo's government, once stood. Although there is no evidence his remains are actually there, it is commonly assumed to be the resting place of Minamoto no Yoritomo, founder and first shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate. The cenotaph consists of a 186 cm gorintō (a Buddhist stone stupa) surrounded by a stone tamagaki (a fence usually delimiting the sacred soil of a Shinto shrine), and was built during the Edo period (1603–1868), far after the shōgun's death in 1199. In the course of history, the site's prestige has attracted other structures, so that now it is occupied by the Site of the Hokke-dō, (the spot where Yoritomo's Hokke-dō, or funeral temple, used to stand during the Edo period), Shirahata Shrine (白幡神社, Shirahata Jinja) (not to be confused with the homonymous shrine part of Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū), and the black stone stele commemorating the Hokke-dō and the mass suicide of the Miura clan. A couple of hundred meters further to the east lie the yagura (an artificial cave used during the Kamakura period as a grave or as a cenotaph) of the Miura clan, the twin tombs of Oe no Hiromoto and of his son Mōri Suemitsu, and the grave of Yoritomo's illegitimate son Shimazu Tadahisa. The grave of Yoritomo and the ruins of the Hokke-dō are national Historic Sites.

Yoshikazu

Yoshikazu (written: 良一, 良和, 義一, 義和, 義量, 義員, 嘉一, 佳和, 芳一, 芳和, 美一, 能員, 由一, 由和, 慶和 or 祥三) is a masculine Japanese given name. Notable people with the name include:

Ashikaga Yoshikazu (足利 義量, 1407–1425), Japanese shōgun

Yoshikazu Fujita (藤田 慶和, born 1993), Japanese rugby union player

Yoshikazu Fukumura (福村 芳一, born 1946), Japanese conductor

Yoshikazu Goto (後藤 義一, born 1964), Japanese footballer and manager

Hiki Yoshikazu (比企 能員, died 1203), Japanese warrior

Yoshikazu Isoda (礒田 由和, born 1965), Japanese footballer

Yoshikazu Iwamoto (born 1945), Japanese musician

Yoshikazu Katō (加藤 義一, born 1972), Japanese film director and screenwriter

Yoshikazu Kawaguchi (川口 由一, born 1939), Japanese farmer, writer and educator

Yoshikazu Kotani (小谷 嘉一, born 1982), Japanese actor and singer

Yoshikazu Mera (米良 美一, born 1971), Japanese singer

Yoshikazu Minami (photographer) (南 良和, born 1935), Japanese photographer

Yoshikazu Minami (shogi) (南 芳一, born 1963), Japanese shogi player

Yoshikazu Nagai (永井 良和, born 1952), Japanese footballer and manager

Yoshikazu Nonomura (野々村 芳和, born 1972), Japanese footballer

Yoshikazu Okada (岡田 良一, 1901–1974), Japanese religious leader

Yoshikazu Sakai, Japanese Paralympic swimmer

Yoshikazu Shirakawa (白川 義員, born 1935), Japanese photographer

Yoshikazu Suo (周防 義和, born 1953), Japanese musician

Yoshikazu Suzuki (鈴木 良和, born 1982), Japanese footballer

Yoshikazu Takeuchi (竹内 義和, born 1955), Japanese writer

Yoshikazu Tanaka (田中 良和, born 1977), Japanese businessman

Yoshikazu Taru (多留 嘉一, born 1964), Japanese professional wrestler

Yoshikazu Uchida (内田 祥三, 1885–1972), Japanese architect and structural engineer

Washūyama Yoshikazu (鷲羽山 佳和, born 1949), Japanese sumo wrestler

Yoshikazu Yahiro (八尋 義和, born 1970), Japanese guitarist

Yoshikazu Yokoshima (born 1952), Japanese golfer

Yoshikazu Yasuhiko (安彦 良和, born 1947), Japanese animator and manga artist

Ōe no Hiromoto

Ōe no Hiromoto (大江 広元, 1148–1225) was a kuge (court noble) and vassal of Japan's Kamakura shogunate, and contributed to establishing the shogunate's governmental structure.

A great-grandson of the famous scholar Ōe no Masafusa, he was born to Ōe no Koremitsu and adopted by Nakahara Hirosue but later returned to the Ōe family in 1216. There is another theory that Hiromoto was born to Fujiwara no Mitsuyoshi. As a minor noble, he originally served at the Imperial Court in Kyoto.

In 1184 he was invited to Kamakura by Minamoto no Yoritomo, who later founded the Kamakura shogunate. He became the first head (bettō) of the new Kumonjo (Board of Public Documents) in the same year and then of the Mandokoro (Administrative Board) in 1191. On Hiromoto's advice, Yoritomo appointed jitō and shugo in 1185, which helped to strengthen shogunal control over the provinces. In 1190 Ōe followed Yoritomo to Kyoto and remained there to negotiate with the imperial court until 1192.

After Yoritomo's death, Ōe won the trust of his widow, Hōjō Masako, and assisted in the Hōjō clan's seizure of power. He was involved in several important events in the shogunate. In 1199 real power was moved from second shōgun Minamoto no Yoriie to the council of influential gokenin. In 1203 the shōgun was arrested along with his supporter Hiki Yoshikazu. Hiromoto also helped the Hōjō clan crush enemies as Hatakeyama Shigetada, Hiraga Asamasa and Wada Yoshimori.

In the Jōkyū War he insisted on making a sudden attack to Kyoto and contributed to the shogunate's overwhelming victory. He died after backing up Hōjō Yasutoki's succession. His fourth son founded the Mōri clan.

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