Hijri year

The Hijri year (Arabic: سَنة هِجْريّة‎) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 CE. During that year, Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib (now Medina). This event, known as the Hijra, is commemorated in Islam for its role in the founding of the first Muslim community (ummah).

In the West, this era is most commonly denoted as AH (Latin: Anno Hegirae /ˈænoʊ ˈhɛdʒɪriː/, "in the year of the Hijra") in parallel with the Christian (AD), Common (CE) and Jewish eras (AM) and can similarly be placed before or after the date. In Muslim countries, it is also commonly abbreviated H ("Hijra") from its Arabic abbreviation hāʾ (هـ). Years prior to AH 1 are reckoned in English as BH ("Before the Hijra"), which should follow the date.[1]

Because the Islamic lunar calendar has only 354 or 355 days in its year, it slowly rotates relative to the Gregorian year. The year 2019 CE corresponds to the Islamic years AH 1440 – 1441. AH 1440 corresponds to 2018 – 2019 in the Common Era.[a]

Definition

The Hijri era is calculated according to the Islamic lunar calendar and not the Julian or Gregorian solar one. It thus does not begin on January 1, 1 CE, but on the first day of the month of Muharram, which occurred in 622 CE. Its Julian equivalent was April 19.[2][b]

The date of the Hijra itself did not form the Islamic New Year. Instead, the system continues the earlier ordering of the months, with the Hijra occurring around the 8th day of Rabi al-Awwal, 66 days into the first year.

History

Predecessors

By the age of Muhammad, there was already an Arabian lunar calendar, with named months. Likewise, the years of its calendar used conventional names rather than numbers:[4] for example, the year of the birth of Muhammad and of Ammar ibn Yasir (570 CE) was known as the "Year of the Elephant".[5] The first year of the Hijra (622-23 CE) was named the "Permission to Travel" in this calendar.[4]

Establishment

17 years after the Hijra,[4][6] a complaint from Abu Musa Ashaari prompted the caliph Umar to abolish the practice of named years and to establish a new calendar era. Umar chose as epoch for the new Muslim calendar the hijrah, the emigration of Muhammad and 70 Muslims from Mecca to Medina.[7] Tradition credits Othman with the successful proposal, simply continuing the order of the months that had already been established, beginning with Muharram. Adoption of this calendar was then enforced by Umar.[8]

Formula

Different approximate conversion formulas between the Gregorian (AD or CE) and Islamic calendars (AH) are possible:[9][10][11]

AH = 1.030684 × (CE − 621.5643)
CE = 0.970229 × AH + 621.5643 

or

AH = (CE − 622) × 33 ÷ 32
CE = AH + 622 − (AH ÷ 32)

Given that the Islamic New Year does not begin January 1 and that a Hijri year is 11 days shorter than a Common Era year,[12] there is no direct correspondence between years of the two eras. A given Hijri year will usually fall in two successive Western years and in rare cases even in three successive years. For an extreme example, the year 2008 CE maps to the last week of AH 1428,[13] all of 1429,[14] and the first few days of 1430.[15] Similarly, the year 2041 CE will correspond with the last few days of AH 1462, all of 1463, and the first week of 1464.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ See List of Islamic years#Modern.
  2. ^ It is sometimes mistakenly placed on July 16. The error derives from the tabular Islamic calendar which was devised by later Islamic astronomers. This reckons time backwards according to the lunar calendar, which causes it to miss the three intercalary months (about 88 days) added to the then-lunisolar calendar between the time of the Hijra and AH 10, when Muhammad is recorded as having received a revelation prohibiting their use.[3]

References

  1. ^ Official site, Government of Sharjah, retrieved 21 January 2017.
  2. ^ Fazlur Rehman Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events (London: Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd., 2001), p. 157.
  3. ^ Quran 9:36–37.
  4. ^ a b c Aisha El-Awady (2002-06-11). "Ramadan and the Lunar Calendar". Islamonline.net. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
  5. ^ Hajjah Adil, Amina, "Prophet Muhammad", ISCA, Jun 1, 2002, ISBN 1-930409-11-7
  6. ^ Hakim Muhammad Said (1981). "The History of the Islamic Calendar in the Light of the Hijra". Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
  7. ^ The Beginning of Hijri calendar – Paul Lunde, Saudi Aramco World Magazine (November/December 2005), retrieved 1/1/2019
  8. ^ Umar bin Al-Khattab (2002). "Islamic Actions and Social Mandates: The Hijri Calendar". witness-pioneer.org. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
  9. ^ Islamic and Christian Dating Systems
  10. ^ Clark, Malcolm (2013). Islam for dummies. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. p. 489. ISBN 1118053966.
  11. ^ Hodgson, Marshall G. S. (1977). The venture of Islam conscience and history in a world civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 21. ISBN 0226346862.
  12. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Hejira]
  13. ^ ""Islamic New Year Observed Today; President Airs Wish for Peace on Amon Jadid Exhorts Muslims to Assist in Nat'l Resurgence" - Manila Bulletin, January 20, 2007 | Questia, Your Online Research Library". Questia.com. Retrieved 2013-05-22.
  14. ^ "Islamic New year to be observed on 11th January | AAJ News". Aaj.tv. 2008-01-10. Retrieved 2013-05-22.
  15. ^ Islamic Crescents' Observation Project, Visibility of Muharram Crescent 1430 AH
  • F. A. Shamsi (1984). "The Date of Hijrah". Islamic Studies. 23: 189–224 & 289–332.

External links

AH

AH and variants may refer to:

Ah!, an exclamation

Abu al-Hassan al-Kharaqani

Abu 'l-Hassan Ali ibn Ahmad (or ibn Jaʻfar) ibn Salmān al-Kharaqāni (Arabic: شیخ ابوالحسن خرقانی‎) is one of the master Sufis of Islam. He was born in 963 (352 Hijri year) from Persian parents in Khorasan in a village called Qaleh Now-e Kharaqan (today located in Semnan Province, Iran near Bastam) and died on the day of Ashura in 1033 (10th Muharram, 425 Hijri).

He was the disciple of Abul-Abbas Qassab Amoli but claimed a deep spiritual relation with Bayazid Bastami, a well-known Sufi Master who died almost a century before him but had spoken about the personality and state of Kharaqani. He was also influenced by Abul Hasan Hankari. His school of jurisprudence was Shafi‘i.

Attar of Nishapur, a famous Persian poet and Sufi, devoted a large part of his book Tadhkirat al-Awliya (Biography of the Saints) about the personality, state and stories of Kharaqani. Attar has him as Sultān-e Salātin-e Mashāyekh "King of kings of Sufi Masters", "Ocean of the spiritual knowledge, "Sun of the Lord", "Mystery of the Lord" and "Qibla of his people".Kharaqani was the Master of the famous Persian Sufi and poet, Abdullah Ansari. Avicenna, Mahmud of Ghazni, Abū-Sa'īd Abul-Khayr and Nasir Khusraw traveled to Kharaqan to meet him and expressed their deep admiring feelings and respect for him.

Rumi, Attar of Nishapur, Khwaja Abdullah Ansari, Jami and others have narrated many poems about Abu'l-Hasan and have reported his several stories. He was illiterate but had wide inspirational knowledge about the Quran and Hadith; his sayings and speeches are significantly magnificent due to their philosophical views.

The book Nūr al-ʿUlūm "Light of the Sciences" is dedicated to Abu'l-Hassan. It is believed to have been written by his murids after his death. A single manuscript copy is currently held in the British Museum.

Al-Raghib al-Isfahani

Abul-Qasim al-Hussein bin Mufaddal bin Muhammad, better known as Raghib Isfahani (Persian: ابوالقاسم حسین ابن محمّد الراغب الاصفهانی‎), was an eleventh-century Muslim scholar of Qur'anic exegesis and the Arabic language.

Emblem of Afghanistan

The National Emblem of Afghanistan has appeared in some form on the flag of Afghanistan since the beginning of the 20th century.

The latest incarnation of the emblem has the inscription of the shahadah in Arabic at the top. Below it is the image of a mosque with a mihrab and minbar, or pulpit, within. Attached to the mosque are two flags, taken to stand for flags of Afghanistan. Beneath the mosque is an inscription that states the name of the nation. Around the mosque are sheaves of wheat, and underneath that, the Hijri year 1298 (1919 in the Gregorian calendar), the year Afghanistan gained independence from the British influence.

Erwadi Santhanakoodu Festival

The Erwadi Santhanakoodu Festival is a monthlong festival held in Ervadi dargah, located in Ramanathapuram district, to commemorate the anniversary of Sulthan Syed Ibrahim Shaheed Badhusha nayagam whose grave is in Ervadi. The festival is organised as a National Integrity festival by the local Dargah Huqdhar Management Committee (D.H.M.C.), constituting the heirs of badhusha nayagam called as Mujavirs or Levvais. It is a month-long festival happening every Hijri year in the full Islamic month of Zil Qa'dah.

It is organised to commemorate the anniversary of Sulthan Syed Ibrahim Shaheed Badhusha Oliyullah, at the famous Erwadi Dargah which always stands as a symbol of religious harmony. Every year hundreds of thousands of people from a variety of religions and communities within Tamil Nadu and elsewhere throng Erwadi on this day to witness the festival, marking the sandal anointing ceremony of the tomb.

A sense of unity in diversity is exemplified by the ‘Santhanakoodu’ festival with all community people's participation and contribution and going in a procession, led by a decorated elephant, dancing horse and preceded by a dancing folk arts troupe at midnight. People of all faiths, hue and colour throng the pathway leading to the dargah with reverence, once the procession reach the dargah, people of all religions enter the dargah and offer obeisance. The day is declared a holiday by the district administration and Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation operates special buses throughout the night for the benefit of devotees.

Islamic New Year

The Islamic New Year, also known as Arabic New Year or Hijri New Year (Arabic: رأس السنة الهجرية‎ Raʼs al-Sanah al-Hijrīyah), is the day that marks the beginning of a new Hijri year, and is the day on which the year count is incremented. The first day of the year is observed on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. The epoch (reference date) of the Islamic era was set as 622 Common Era (CE), the year of the emigration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra. All religious duties, such as prayer, fasting in the month of Ramadan, and pilgrimage, and the dates of significant events, such as celebration of holy nights and festivals, are calculated according to the Islamic calendar.

While some Islamic organizations prefer determining the new month (and hence the new year) by local sightings of the moon, most Islamic institutions and countries, including Saudi Arabia, follow astronomical calculations to determine future dates of the Islamic calendar. There are various schema for calculating the tabular Islamic calendar (i.e. not based on observation), which results in differences of typically one or even two days between countries using such schema and those that use lunar sightings. For example, the Umm al-Qura calendar used in Saudi Arabia was reformed several times in recent years. The current scheme was introduced in 1423 AH (15 March 2002).A day in the Islamic calendar is defined as beginning at sunset. For example, 1 Muharram 1432 was defined to correspond to 7 or 8 December 2010 in official calendars (depending on the country). For an observation-based calendar, a sighting of the new moon at sunset of 6 December would mean that 1 Muharram lasted from the moment of sunset of 6 December to the moment of sunset of 7 December, while in places where the new moon was not sighted on 6 December, 1 Muharram would last from the moment of sunset of 7 December to the moment of sunset of 8 December.

Kazlıçeşme, Zeytinburnu

Kazlıçeşme is one of the seven neighborhoods of Zeytinburnu district in Istanbul, Turkey. Chartered in 1957, it is the largest neighborhood of Zeytinburnu. The locality took its name from the historic fountain (Turkish: çeşme) with a relief goose (Turkish: kaz) figure below the fountain's inscription, which dates it back to Hijri year AH 953 (AD 1537).Stretching between Bakırköy district in the southwest and Fatih district in the northeast, where it borders to the historic Walls of Constantinople, the area covers the entire coast line of Zeytinburnu at the Sea of Marmara. The 13 km (8.1 mi) long shoreline road Kennedy Avenue connecting Sirkeci with Bakırköy runs through Kazlıçeşme.

List of Islamic years

This is a list of Hijri years (Latin: anno Hegirae or AH) with the corresponding common era years where applicable. For Hijri years since 1298 (AD 1880/1881) the Gregorian date of 1 Muharram, the first day of the year in the Islamic calendar, is given.

The first Hijri year (AH 1) was retrospectively considered to have begun on the Julian calendar date 15 July 622 (known as the ‘astronomical’ or ‘Thursday’ epoch, Julian day 1,948,439) or 16 July 622 (the ‘civil’ or ‘Friday’ epoch, Julian day 1,948,440), denoted as "1 Muharram, AH 1". Years prior to this are reckoned in English as BH ("Before the Hijra").In principle, each Islamic month begins with sighting of the new crescent moon (after a New Moon) at sunset. Because of this, the calendar is dependent on observational conditions and cannot be predicted or reconstructed with certainty, but tabular calendars are in use which determine the dates algorithmically. Because of this, dates may vary by up to two days between traditions or countries.

List of Mahdi claimants

In Muslim eschatology, the Mahdi is a Messianic figure who, it is believed, will appear on Earth before the Day of Judgment, and will rid the world of wrongdoing, injustice and tyranny. People claiming to be the Mahdi have appeared across the Muslim world – in South Asia, Africa and the Middle East – and throughout history since the birth of Islam (AD 610).

A claimant Mahdi can wield great temporal, as well as spiritual, power: claimant Mahdis have founded states (e.g. the late 19th-century Mahdiyah in Sudan), as well as religions and sects (e.g. Bábism, or the Ahmadiyya movement). The continued relevance of the Mahdi doctrine in the Muslim world was most recently emphasised during the 1979 seizing of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, by at least 200 militants led by Juhayman al-Otaibi, who had declared his brother-in-law, Muhammad bin abd Allah al-Qahtani, the Mahdi.

Muhammad Ilyas Kandhlawi

Muḥammad Ilyās ibn Muḥammad Ismā‘īl Kāndhlawī Dihlawī was an Indian Islamic scholar who revived the Tablighi Jamaat Islamic revivalist movement. Tablighi Jamaat was another group started for the reformation of Muslims, which was begun in 1925 in Mewat province by Muhammad Ilyas Kandhlawi."

Patrol of Waddan

The Patrol of al-Abwa or Waddan occurred on the 12th of Rajab in the second Hijri year or in Safar of the same year. Muhammad took a force of 70 men and when he reached Waddan, the Quraysh were not present. However, the Banu Damrah met with Muhammad and they established a peace agreement for mutual cooperation and safety. No fighting occurred during this campaign.

Piruz Nahavandi

For the eighteenth Sasanian King of Persia see Peroz I.Piruz Nahavandi also spelled Pirouz Nahawandi (Persian: پیروز نهاوندی‎, Pīruz Nahāvandī or Persian: فیروز نهاوندی‎ Fīruz Nahāvandī), also known by the Arabic teknonymy Abu Lu'lu'ah (Arabic: أَبُو لُؤْلُؤَة‎) was a Persian Sasanian general who served under the chief-commander of the Sassanian army Rostam Farrokhzad, but was captured in the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (or Battle of Nahavand) in 636 CE when the Sasanians were defeated by the Muslim army of Umar ibn al-Khattab on the western bank of the Euphrates River. After he was brought to Arabia, he managed to assassinate Umar in the Hijri year 23 (644–645). He also has been emphasized by some Iranologists as an important general in the Sassanian army and possibly a member of the House of Karen who played a significant role in the Persian front during Arab conquest of Persia. Nahavandi also has been reported as an expert blacksmith and carpenter. His name indicates that he is originally from the ancient city of Nahavand, a town in Iran (Persia). He killed himself after assassinating Umar. Thus, his death took place on the same day of Umar's assassination, although Umar lived for about four days after the attack.

Public holidays in Libya

This is a list of public holidays in Libya.

Sidi Saiyyed Mosque

The Sidi Saiyyed Mosque, popularly known as Sidi Saiyyid ni Jali locally, built in 1572-73 AD (Hijri year 980), is one of the most famous mosques of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. As attested by the marble tablet fixed on the wall of the mosque, it was built by Sidi Saiyyid in the retinue of Bilal Jhajar Khan, general in the army of the last Sultan Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah III of the Gujarat Sultanate.The mosque was built in the last year of the existence of Gujarat Sultanate. The mosque is entirely arcuated and is known for its ten intricately carved stone latticework windows (jalis) on the side and rear arches. The rear wall is filled with square stone pierced panels in geometrical designs. The two bays flanking the central aisle have reticulated stone slabs carved in designs of intertwined trees and foliage and a palm motif. This intricately carved lattice stone window is the Sidi Saiyyed Jali, the unofficial symbol of city of Ahmedabad and the inspiration for the design of the logo of the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad.The central window arch of the mosque, where one would expect to see another intricate jali, is instead walled with stone. This is possibly because the mosque was not completed according to plan before the Mughals invaded Gujarat.

Solar Hijri calendar

The Solar Hijri calendar (Persian: گاه‌شماری هجری خورشیدی‎, translit. gāh-shomāri-ye hejri-ye khorshidi; Pashto: لمريز لېږدیز کلیز‎), also called the Solar Hejri calendar or Shamsi Hijri calendar, and abbreviated as SH, is the official calendar of Iran and Afghanistan. It begins on the March equinox (Nowruz) as determined by astronomical calculation for the Iran Standard Time meridian (52.5°E, UTC+03:30) and has years of 365 or 366 days.

Its determination of the start of each year is astronomically accurate year-to-year as opposed to the more fixed Gregorian calendar or "Common Era calendar" which, averaged out, has the same year length, achieving the same accuracy (a more simply patterned calendar of 365 days for three consecutive years plus an extra day in the next year, save for exceptions to the latter in three out of every four centuries). The start of the year and its number of days remain fixed to one of the two equinoxes, the astronomically important days which have the same duration of day as night. It results in less variability of all celestial bodies when comparing a specific calendar date from one year to others.Each of the twelve months corresponds with a zodiac sign. The first six months have 31 days, the next five have 30 days, and the last month has 29 days in usual years but 30 days in leap years. The New Year's Day always falls on the March equinox.

Tabular Islamic calendar

The Tabular Islamic calendar (an example is the Fatimid or Misri calendar) is a rule-based variation of the Islamic calendar. It has the same numbering of years and months, but the months are determined by arithmetical rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculations. It was developed by early Muslim astronomers of the second hijra century (the 8th century of the Common Era) to provide a predictable time base for calculating the positions of the moon, sun, and planets. It is now used by historians to convert an Islamic date into a Western calendar when no other information (like the day of the week) is available. Its calendar era is the Hijri year.

It is used by some Muslims in everyday life, particularly in Ismaili communities, believing that this calendar was developed by Ali. It is believed that when Ali drew up this calendar, the previous events of the earlier prophets also fell into line with this calendar. It is their belief that all Fatimid Imams and their Da'is have followed this tradition.

Each year has 12 months. The odd numbered months have 30 days and the even numbered months have 29 days, except in a leap year when the 12th and final month Dhul-Hijjah has 30 days.

Year of Sorrow

In the Islamic tradition, the Year of Sorrow (Arabic: عام الحزن‎, translit. ‘Ām al-Ḥuzn, also translated Year of Sadness) is the Hijri year in which Muhammad's wife Khadijah and his uncle and protector Abu Talib died. The year approximately coincided with 619 CE or the tenth year after Muhammad's first revelation.

After the death of Abu Talib, Muhammad became vulnerable due to the loss of clan protection granted by Abu Talib (who was also the chief of Banu Hashim). He began to be the target of physical attacks by his Meccan opponents. He visited Ta'if to look for help and invite the inhabitants to Islam, but was rejected. On the way back to Mecca, he petitioned several prominent Meccans to ask for protection. Chief Mut'im ibn 'Adi, from the Banu Nawfal clan, acceded to his request, escorted Muhammad into the city and announced the clan's protection of Muhammad.

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