Hiiumaa (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈhiːumɑː]; Swedish & German: Dagö; Finnish: Hiidenmaa) is the second largest island in Estonia, with an area of 989 km2. It is in the Baltic Sea, north of the island of Saaremaa, part of the West Estonian archipelago. Its largest town is Kärdla. Along with several smaller neighboring islands, the island makes up Hiiu County; one of the 15 counties of Estonia.
The Hiiu Shoal (Nekmangrund) is located off the northwestern shore of Hiiumaa Island.
Tahkuna peninsula is the most northern part of Hiiumaa
|Archipelago||West Estonian archipelago|
|Area||989 km2 (382 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||68 m (223 ft)|
|County, parish||Hiiu County, Hiiumaa Parish|
|Largest settlement||Kärdla (pop. 3,287 [as of 1 January 2012])|
|Pop. density||8.7 /km2 (22.5 /sq mi)|
Hiiumaa is the main island of Hiiu County, called Hiiumaa or Hiiu maakond in Estonian. The Swedish and German name of the island is Dagö ("Day" island), Dagø in Danish. In modern Finnish, it is called Hiidenmaa, literally Hiisi's Land. In Old Gutnish, it was Dagaiþ (day isthmus), from which the local North Germanic name "Daë" is derived.
Archaeological evidence of the first human settlement in Hiiumaa dates to the 4th century BC. The first documented record of the island of Dageida was made by contemporary chroniclers in 1228, when Hiiumaa and the rest of Estonia were conquered by Germanic crusaders. In 1254, Hiiumaa was divided between the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek and the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order, acting partly on behalf of the Hanseatic League.
The island was part of Swedish Estonia from 1563 to 1721, after which it passed to the Russian Empire as part of the Governorate of Estonia, though Dagö's Swedish population kept most of their privileges. Most of the island's previously numerous Swedish-speaking population emigrated or were "Estonianised" during the period of Imperial Russian rule, although a minority remains to this day. Estonian Swedes are also known as "aibofolke" (meaning island people in Swedish) or "rannarootslased" (meaning coastal Swedes in Estonian).
The waters near Hiiumaa were active during World War II:
Hiiumaa Island was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940, by Nazi Germany in 1941, and by the Soviets again in 1944. It was part of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic until the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. During the Soviet era, Hiiumaa was declared a restricted zone, closed to foreigners and to most mainland Estonians. Since 1991, the island has been a part of independent Estonia.
Hiiumaa is an island in Estonia located north of Saaremaa in the Baltic Sea. It is the northernmost island in the Muhu archipelago, which includes Saaremaa and Muhu. The Soela Strait separates Hiiumaa from Saaremaa to its south, and the Muhu Strait separates it from the mainland of Estonia.
Road transport from Estonian mainland to Hiiumaa involves a 90-minute (28 km) ferry crossing from Rohuküla to Heltermaa, which is 25 km by road from Kärdla. There are about 10 ferry departures a day operated by TS Laevad. In the summer weekends, getting car space on the ferry usually requires advance booking. There are about 2 scheduled buses a day between Tallinn (the capital of Estonia) and Kärdla. In the winter, the island can be reached, conditions permitting, via a 26.5 km ice road (the longest in Europe) across the frozen Baltic Sea.
Since the end of the 1990s the island shelters a conservation project aimed at restoring populations of European mink, an endangered species of which there is about only 1,000 individual specimens left in Europe as of 2017. This project started with removing from the island all American minks that had escaped from breeding farms, and reintroducing some European minks. The latter started breeding.
Smoked cooked plaice is a traditional summertime delicacy.
Hiiumaa travel guide from Wikivoyage
Elmrahu is an island belonging to the country of Estonia. The island is located west of the island Külalaid and is just off the coast of the much larger island HiiumaaHeltermaa
Heltermaa is a village in Hiiumaa Parish, Hiiu County in northwestern Estonia. The village is home to the seaport connecting Hiiumaa with the mainland (Rohuküla harbour) by ferry line.Hiiu County
Hiiu County (Estonian: Hiiu maakond), or Hiiumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia, being the smallest county both in terms of area and population. It consists of Hiiumaa (German, Swedish: Dagö), the second largest island of Estonia, and several smaller islands near it. The county borders Lääne County to the east and Saare County to the south.Hiiumaa Parish
Hiiumaa Parish (Estonian: Hiiumaa vald) is a rural municipality of Estonia on the island of Hiiumaa. Hiiumaa Parish was established by merging Emmaste Parish, Hiiu Parish, Käina Parish and Pühalepa Parish after the municipal elections held on 15 October 2017. Kärdla is the administrative centre of the municipality. The current mayor (vallavanem) is Reili Rand. The municipalities of Emmaste and Pühalepa contested their forced merger with Hiiu and Käina to form the new Hiiumaa municipality, which includes the whole island and what is Hiiu County.Kurisu, Hiiumaa Parish
Kurisu is a village in Hiiumaa Parish, Hiiu County in northwestern Estonia.Kärdla
Kärdla (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈkærˑ'dlɑ]; Swedish: Kärrdal; German: Kertel) is the only town on the island of Hiiumaa, Estonia. It is the capital of Hiiu County and the centre of Hiiumaa Parish.Kõlunõmme
Kõlunõmme is a village in Hiiumaa Parish, Hiiu County in northwestern Estonia.Kõrgessaare
Kõrgessaare (German: Hohenholm) is a small borough (alevik) in Hiiumaa Parish, Hiiu County, Estonia, on the northwestern coast of Hiiumaa island.Langekare
Langekare is a small, uninhabited Baltic Sea island belonging to the country of Estonia. Its coordinates are 58°48′21″N 23°09′03″E Langekare is a 1.2 hectare island lying off the eastern coast off the larger Estonian island of Hiiumaa and is administered by Pühalepa Parish, Hiiu County. Along with a number of other small islands and islets, it makes up the Hiiumaa Islets Landscape Reserve (Estonian: Hiiumaa laidude kaitseala). It is the only island of the reserve being a limestone-based island, the rest of the islands being moraine-based.Langekare is also part of the World Commission on Protected Areas.Lassi, Hiiu County
Lassi is a village in Hiiumaa Parish, Hiiu County, Estonia, located on the southern part of Hiiumaa island. It has a population of 44 (as of 1 January 2000).Lelu, Estonia
Lelu is a village in Hiiumaa Parish, Hiiu County, on the island of Hiiumaa, Estonia.Niidiküla
Niidiküla is a village in Hiiumaa Parish, Hiiu County in northwestern Estonia.
According to the 2000 census, the population of Niidiküla was 18.Nõmme, Hiiumaa Parish
Nõmme is a village in Hiiumaa Parish, Hiiu County in northwestern Estonia.Reigi
Reigi (German: Roicks) is a village in Hiiumaa Parish, Hiiu County in northwestern Estonia.Reikama
Reikama is a village in Hiiumaa Parish, Hiiu County in northwestern Estonia.Saarnaki laid
Saarnaki laid is an uninhabited, moraine-based island in the Baltic Sea belonging to the country of Estonia. Its coordinates are 58°48′38″N 22°59′37″E.
Saarnaki laid is a relatively young island; it rose from the Baltic Sea approximately 2,000 years ago. The total area of the island is 140 hectares (350 acres). The island is 5 kilometres (3 mi) long and 1 kilometre (1⁄2 mi) wide. It is 7 to 9 metres (23 to 30 ft) above sea level. It lies just off the southeastern coast of the island of Hiiumaa, and is administrated by Hiiu County.
Saarnaki laid had previously been inhabited at least since the early 15th Century and was abandoned by the last residents in 1973. It is the largest of the islands that make up the Hiiumaa Islets Landscape Reserve (Estonian: Hiiumaa laidude maastikukaitseala) and several former residential and farm buildings on the island have been restored for the benefit of tourists.Selja, Hiiumaa Parish
Selja is a village in Hiiumaa Parish, Hiiu County in northwestern Estonia.
The first Estonian professional composer Rudolf Tobias (1873–1918) was born and spent his early childhood in Selja. His father Johannes Tobias worked there as the parish clerk. Since 1973, a memorial museum operates in Tobias' birth house.Suuremõisa, Hiiu County
Suuremõisa (German: Großenhof) is a village in Hiiumaa Parish, Hiiu County in northwestern Estonia.
The village has 299 inhabitants and therefore is the largest village of the municipality.
Soviet Estonian politician Meta Vannas (1924–2002), was born in Suuremõisa.Öakse
Öakse (alternately: Öakse laid, or Pärglaid) is an island in the Baltic Sea belonging to the country of Estonia.
Öakse comprises 7.6 hectares in area and is located in the Soonlepa Gulf, approximately one km from the Salinõmme Peninsula on the larger island of Hiiumaa to the west and approximately 300 km from the smaller islet of Auklaiust which lies to the west and is administered by Hiiu County. The island is part of the Hiiumaa laidude kaitseala (Hiiumma Islets Landscape Reserve). The island of Öakse is elongated in a northwest-southeast direction, and crescent-shaped. The shoreline is sinuous and the south-east tip of the island is rocky and concludes with a set of large boulders. It is approximately 8.2 meters above sea level.
The island is overgrown with various types of reeds, fescue and junipers. On the western and eastern edges of the island stand upland forests of elm and juniper.
|Climate data for Hiiumaa (Ristna, located in western part of the island)|
|Record high °C (°F)||8.4
|Average high °C (°F)||0.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−0.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−3
|Record low °C (°F)||−28.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||55
|Average relative humidity (%)||85||85||84||81||79||81||81||81||81||82||84||84||82|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||28.2||59.3||119.4||190.9||293.1||297.6||303.2||251.0||166.2||96.1||36.3||19.0||1,864.4|
|Source: Estonian Weather Service (sun, 1971–2000)|
|Gulf of Finland|
|West Estonian archipelago|
and the Väinameri Sea
|Gulf of Riga|
|Lakes and rivers|
Inhabited islands in the Baltic Sea