Highland English or Highland and Island English is the variety of Scottish English spoken by many in the Scottish Highlands and the Hebrides. It is more strongly influenced by Gaelic than other forms of Scottish English.
The grammatical influence of Gaelic syntax is most apparent with verbal constructions, as Scottish Gaelic uses the verb to be with the active participle of the verb to indicate a continuous action as in English, but also uses this construction for iterative meanings; therefore "I go to Stornoway on Mondays" becomes "I am going to Stornoway on Mondays". Occasionally older speakers use -ing constructions where Standard English would use a simple verb form, example "I'm seeing you!" meaning "I can see you!". The past tense in Highland English may use the verb to be followed by "after" followed by the participle: "I am after buying a newspaper" to mean "I have [just] bought a newspaper", although this construction is more common in Irish English. Some speakers use the simple past in situations where standard English would require "have" plus verb constructions, for example "France? I was never there" rather than "I have never been there".
The diminutive -ag is sometimes added to words and names, and is a direct lift from Gaelic, e.g. Johnag, Jeanag. It is still used in Caithness as well. A great variety of distinctive female names are formed using the -ina suffix appended to male names, examples: Murdina ( < Murdo), Dolina, Calumina, Angusina, and Neilina.
Discourse markers taken directly from Gaelic are used habitually by some speakers in English, such as ending a narrative with "S(h)in a(g)ad-s' e" or "Sin agad e" (trans. "there you have it" = Std Eng. "So there you are/so that's it"), or ending a conversation with "Right, ma-thà" or "Okay ma-thà" /ma haː/ meaning "then".
Speakers of Highland English, particularly those from areas which remain strongly Gaelic or have a more recent Gaelic speaking history, are often mistaken as being Irish by some non-Highland Scots; presumably as a result of the shared Gaelic influence upon the English of both areas. Highland English and Hiberno-English share a similar accent which is quite different from that of the English spoken in Lowland areas of Scotland.
A list of words that appear in Highland English, although these are sometimes shared with Scottish English in general, as well as Lowland Scots, and to other areas where Highlanders have emigrated in large numbers.
Black Scottish people (also referred to as the Afro-Scots or Black Scots) represent approximately 0.7 percent of the total population of Scotland.Britain in the Middle Ages
During most of the Middle Ages (c. 410–1485 AD), the island of Great Britain was divided into several kingdoms. The following articles address this period of history in each of the major kingdoms:
England in the Middle Ages
Anglo-Saxon England (600–1066)
England in the High Middle Ages
England in the Late Middle Ages
Scotland in the Middle Ages
Scotland in the Early Middle Ages (400–900)
Scotland in the High Middle Ages (900–1286)
Scotland in the Late Middle Ages (1286–1513)
Wales in the Middle Ages
Wales in the Early Middle Ages (c. 383–c. 825)
Wales in the High Middle Ages (c. 825–1282)
Wales in the Late Middle Ages (1282–1542)Buddhism in Scotland
Buddhism in Scotland is a relatively recent phenomenon. In Scotland Buddhists represent 0.2% of the population or 12,795 people.Central Belt
The Central Belt of Scotland is the area of highest population density within Scotland. It has a population of about 3.5 million covering an area of approximately 10,000 km2, including Greater Glasgow, Ayrshire, Falkirk, Edinburgh, Lothian and Fife.
Despite the name, it is not geographically central but is nevertheless situated at the 'waist' of Scotland on a conventional map and the term 'central' is used in many local government, police and NGO designations.
It was formerly known as the Midlands or Scottish Midlands, but this term has fallen out of fashion.
The Central Belt lies between the Highlands to the north and the Southern Uplands to the south.Charities in Scotland
Scotland hosts many charities, covering topics as diverse as animal welfare, disabled people, children, religious charities, health, and social welfare. Scottish charities fall under the auspices of the Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator, who regulates the sector in Scotland.Cromarty dialect
The Cromarty dialect of North Northern Scots was spoken in Cromarty, Scotland. The dialect originated from people who moved north from the Firth of Forth in the 15th and 16th centuries. The last native speaker of the dialect, Bobby Hogg, died in 2012 at age 92.The dialect had a heavy influence from both Highland English and Scottish Gaelic.General Assembly of the Church of Scotland
The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Church's governing body. It generally meets each year and is chaired by a Moderator elected at the start of the Assembly.Glasgow patter
The speech of Glaswegians, popularly known as the Glasgow patter or Glaswegian, varies from Scottish English at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with the local dialect of West Central Scots at the other. Therefore the speech of many Glaswegians can draw on a "continuum between fully localised and fully standardised". Additionally the Glasgow dialect has Highland English and Hiberno-English influences, owing to the speech of Highlanders and Irish people, who migrated in large numbers to the Glasgow area in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Glasgow vernacular also exerts considerable influence on the vernacular of the surrounding towns such as Clydebank, Paisley, Renfrew and Rutherglen, and increasingly gaining influence around the Firth of Clyde in Cambeltown, Dumbarton, Gourock, Greenock and Rothesay. An east Lanarkshire variety is spoken in Airdrie, Coatbridge, Cumbernauld, Denny, Motherwell, Strathaven and Wishaw. An Ayrshire variety is spoken in Carstairs, Irvine, Kilmarnock, Leadhills and Prestwick.As with other dialects, the Patter is subject to dialect levelling where particularly Scots vocabulary is replaced by Standard English words and, in particular, words largely from colloquial English. However, Glaswegians do continue to create new euphemisms as well as nicknames for well-known local figures and buildings.Invergordon
Invergordon (; Scottish Gaelic: Inbhir Ghòrdain or An Rubha) is a town and port in Easter Ross, in Ross and Cromarty, Highland, Scotland.Languages of Scotland
The languages of Scotland are the languages spoken or once spoken in Scotland. Each of the numerous languages spoken in Scotland during its recorded linguistic history falls into either the Germanic or Celtic language families. The classification of the Pictish language was once controversial, but it is now generally considered a Celtic language. Today, the main language spoken in Scotland is English, while Scots and Scottish Gaelic are minority languages. The dialect of English spoken in Scotland is referred to as Scottish English.Lowland Clearances
The Lowland Clearances were one of the results of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland in the seventeenth century. Thousands of cottars and tenant farmers from the southern counties (Lowlands) of Scotland migrated from farms and small holdings they had occupied to the new industrial centres of Glasgow, Edinburgh and northern England or abroad, or remaining upon land though adapting to the Scottish Agricultural Revolution.Member of the Scottish Parliament
Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP; Scottish Gaelic: Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba, BPA; Scots: Memmer o the Scots Pairliament, MSP) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament.National symbols of Scotland
The national symbols of Scotland are flags, icons or cultural expressions that are emblematic, representative or otherwise characteristic of Scotland or Scottish culture. As a rule, these national symbols are cultural icons that have emerged from Scottish folklore and tradition, meaning few have any official status. However, most if not all maintain recognition at a national or international level, and some, such as the Royal Arms of Scotland, have been codified in heraldry, and are established, official and recognised symbols of Scotland.Scottish English
Scottish English includes the varieties of English spoken in Scotland. The main, formal variety is called Scottish Standard English or Standard Scottish English (SSE). Scottish Standard English may be defined as "the characteristic speech of the professional class [in Scotland] and the accepted norm in schools". IETF language tag for "Scottish Standard English" is en-Scotland.In addition to distinct pronunciation, grammar and expressions, Scottish English has distinctive vocabulary, particularly pertaining to Scottish institutions such as the Church of Scotland, local government and the education and legal systems.Scottish Standard English is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with focused broad Scots at the other.
Scottish English may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots.
Many Scots speakers separate Scots and Scottish English as different registers depending on social circumstances. Some speakers code switch clearly from one to the other while others style shift in a less predictable and more fluctuating manner. Generally there is a shift to Scottish English in formal situations or with individuals of a higher social status.Scottish Highlands
The Highlands (Scots: the Hielans, ; Scottish Gaelic: A’ Ghàidhealtachd [ə ˈɣɛːəl̪ˠt̪ʰəxk], 'the place of the Gaels') is a historic region of Scotland. Culturally, the Highlands and the Lowlands diverged from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands. The term is also used for the area north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, although the exact boundaries are not clearly defined, particularly to the east. The Great Glen divides the Grampian Mountains to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands. The Scottish Gaelic name of A' Ghàidhealtachd literally means "the place of the Gaels" and traditionally, from a Gaelic-speaking point of view, includes both the Western Isles and the Highlands.
The area is very sparsely populated, with many mountain ranges dominating the region, and includes the highest mountain in the British Isles, Ben Nevis. Before the 19th century the Highlands was home to a much larger population, but from circa 1841 and for the next 160 years, the natural increase in population was exceeded by emigration (mostly to Canada, the United States and Australia) and migration to the industrial cities of Scotland and England. The area is now one of the most sparsely populated in Europe. At 9.1 per km2 (23.6 per square mile) in 2012, the population density in the Highlands and Islands is less than one seventh of Scotland's as a whole, comparable with that of Bolivia, Chad and Russia.The Highland Council is the administrative body for much of the Highlands, with its administrative centre at Inverness. However, the Highlands also includes parts of the council areas of Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll and Bute, Moray, North Ayrshire, Perth and Kinross, Stirling and West Dunbartonshire.
The Scottish highlands is the only area in the British Isles to have the taiga biome as it features concentrated populations of Scots pine forest: see Caledonian Forest.Sean
Sean is a male given name of Irish origin. Its correct Irish spelling is Seán ([ʃɔːnˠ]) or Séan ([ʃeːnˠ]), while an older form is Seaghán or Seaġán. It is the Irish spelling of the Biblical name John. The Norman French Jehan (see Jean) is another version. Seán is the source for Anglo Gaelic versions such as Shaun, Shawn and Shon. Séan reflects the Ulster pronunciation and is anglicized Shane, Shaine or Shayne.
For notable people named Sean, refer to List of people named Sean.Sikhism in Scotland
Sikhism in Scotland includes all aspects of Sikh life and Sikhism in Scotland. Sikhs have been present in Scotland for over a century, with the first documented Sikh, Maharaja Daleep Singh, arriving in Perthshire in 1855. The next wave of migration was in early-to-mid 1920s when prominent Sikhs of the Bhat/Bhatra community established themselves in Glasgow and Edinburgh. However, the bulk of Sikhs in Scotland come from families who immigrated during the late 20th century. In Scotland Sikhs represent 0.2% of the population (9,055).Solicitor General for Scotland
Her Majesty's Solicitor General for Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Àrd-neach-lagha a' Chrùin an Alba) is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Lord Advocate, whose duty is to advise the Scottish Government on Scots Law. They are also responsible for the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service which together constitute the Criminal Prosecution Service in Scotland.
Until 1999, when the Scottish Parliament and Scottish Executive were created, the Lord Advocate and the Solicitor General for Scotland advised Her Majesty's Government. Since their transfer to the Scottish Government, the British Government has been advised on Scots Law by the Advocate General for Scotland.Udal law
Udal law is a Norse-derived legal system, found in Shetland and Orkney in Scotland, and in Manx law in the Isle of Man. It is closely related to Odelsrett.
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